UNIX SRG

  • Version/Release: V1R3
  • Published: 2013-03-26
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This UNIX SRG contains general requirements for operating systems as well as specific requirements for UNIX operating systems. This SRG may be used as a guide for enhancing the security configuration of any UNIX-like system.
b
The system must require authentication upon booting into single-user and maintenance modes.
AC-3 - Medium - CCI-000213 - V-756 - SV-756r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000213
Version
GEN000020
Vuln IDs
  • V-756
Rule IDs
  • SV-756r2_rule
If the system does not require valid root authentication before it boots into single-user or maintenance mode, anyone who invokes single-user or maintenance mode is granted privileged access to all files on the system.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-27961r1_chk

Check if the system requires a password when booted into single user mode. If it does not, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24306r1_fix

Configure the system to require a password upon booting into single user mode.

b
Direct logins must not be permitted to shared, default, application, or utility accounts.
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000770 - V-760 - SV-760r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000770
Version
GEN000280
Vuln IDs
  • V-760
Rule IDs
  • SV-760r2_rule
Shared accounts (accounts where two or more people log in with the same user identification) do not provide identification and authentication. There is no way to provide for non-repudiation or individual accountability.System AdministratorECSC-1, IAIA-1
Checks: C-27975r1_chk

Use the last command to check for multiple accesses to an account from different workstations/IP addresses. If users log directly onto accounts, rather than using the su command from their own named account to access them, this is a finding (such as logging directly on to Oracle). Also, ask the SA or the IAO if shared accounts are logged into directly or if users log on to an individual account and switch user to the shared account.

Fix: F-24339r1_fix

Use the switch user (su) command from a named account login to access shared accounts. Maintain audit trails that identify the actual user of the account name. Document requirements and procedures for users/administrators to log into their own accounts first and then switch user (su) to the shared account.

b
All accounts on the system must have unique user or account names.
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000764 - V-761 - SV-761r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000764
Version
GEN000300
Vuln IDs
  • V-761
Rule IDs
  • SV-761r2_rule
A unique user name is the first part of the identification and authentication process. If user names are not unique, there can be no accountability on the system for auditing purposes. Multiple accounts sharing the same name could result in the Denial-of-Service to one or both of the accounts or unauthorized access to files or privileges. System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-27976r1_chk

Obtain a list of system accounts and check the list for any duplicate user names. If duplicates user names are found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24342r1_fix

Change user account names, or delete accounts, so each account has a unique name.

b
All accounts must be assigned unique User Identification Numbers (UIDs).
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000764 - V-762 - SV-762r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000764
Version
GEN000320
Vuln IDs
  • V-762
Rule IDs
  • SV-762r2_rule
Accounts sharing a UID have full access to each others' files. This has the same effect as sharing a login. There is no way to assure identification, authentication, and accountability because the system sees them as the same user. If the duplicate UID is 0, this gives potential intruders another privileged account to attack.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-27981r1_chk

List any duplicate UIDs in /etc/passwd: # cut -d':' -f3 /etc/passwd | uniq -d This will show one copy of each duplicate UID.

Fix: F-24344r1_fix

Edit user accounts to provide unique UIDs for each account.

b
The Department of Defense (DoD) login banner must be displayed immediately prior to, or as part of, console login prompts.
AC-8 - Medium - CCI-000048 - V-763 - SV-763r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000048
Version
GEN000400
Vuln IDs
  • V-763
Rule IDs
  • SV-763r2_rule
Failure to display the login banner prior to a logon attempt will negate legal proceedings resulting from unauthorized access to system resources.System AdministratorECWM-1
Checks: C-28845r1_chk

Access the system console and make a logon attempt. Check for either of the following login banners based on the character limitations imposed by the system. An exact match is required. If one of these banners is not displayed, this is a finding. "You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. " OR "I've read & consent to terms in IS user agreem't."

Fix: F-25866r1_fix

Configure the system to display one of the DoD login banners (based on the character limitations imposed by the system) prior to any local login attempt. DoD Login Banners: You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. OR I've read & consent to terms in IS user agreem't.

b
The system must disable accounts after three consecutive unsuccessful login attempts.
AC-7 - Medium - CCI-000044 - V-766 - SV-766r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000044
Version
GEN000460
Vuln IDs
  • V-766
Rule IDs
  • SV-766r2_rule
Disabling accounts after a limited number of unsuccessful login attempts improves protection against password guessing attacks.System AdministratorECLO-1, ECLO-2
Checks: C-27998r1_chk

Attempt to log on with a valid user id and incorrect password three times. If the system does not lock the account, requiring an SA to unlock it, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24355r1_fix

Configure the system to lock accounts after three unsuccessful login attempts.

b
The delay between login prompts following a failed login attempt must be at least 4 seconds.
AC-7 - Medium - CCI-000043 - V-768 - SV-768r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000043
Version
GEN000480
Vuln IDs
  • V-768
Rule IDs
  • SV-768r2_rule
Enforcing a delay between successive failed login attempts increases protection against automated password guessing attacks.System AdministratorECLO-1, ECLO-2
Checks: C-28005r1_chk

Attempt to log on to the system with an invalid user account name and an incorrect password. If the system does not pause for at least 4 seconds before displaying another logon prompt, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24359r1_fix

Configure the system to delay at least 4 seconds between login prompts following a failed login attempt.

b
The root user must not own the logon session for an application requiring a continuous display.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-769 - SV-769r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000520
Vuln IDs
  • V-769
Rule IDs
  • SV-769r2_rule
If an application is providing a continuous display and is running with root privileges, unauthorized users could interrupt the process and gain root access to the system.System AdministratorPESL-1
Checks: C-229r2_chk

If there is an application running on the system continuously in use (such as a network monitoring application), ask the SA what the name of the application is. Execute the following to determine which user owns the process(es) associated with the application. If the owner is root, this is a finding. # ps -ef | more

Fix: F-923r2_fix

Configure the system so the owner of a session requiring a continuous screen display, such as a network management display, is not root. Ensure the display is also located in a secure, controlled access area. Document and justify this requirement. Ensure the terminal and keyboard for the display (or workstation) are secure from all but authorized personnel by maintaining them in a secure area, in a locked cabinet where a swipe card, or other positive forms of identification, must be used to gain entry.

c
The system must not have accounts configured with blank or null passwords.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000366 - V-770 - SV-770r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000560
Vuln IDs
  • V-770
Rule IDs
  • SV-770r2_rule
If an account is configured for password authentication but does not have an assigned password, it may be possible to log into the account without authentication. If the root user is configured without a password, the entire system may be compromised. For user accounts not using password authentication, the account must be configured with a password lock value instead of a blank or null value. System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-28019r1_chk

Check the system's accounts for blank passwords. If any are found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24370r2_fix

Remove, lock, or configure a password for any account with a blank password.

b
The root account must be the only account having an UID of 0.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-773 - SV-773r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000880
Vuln IDs
  • V-773
Rule IDs
  • SV-773r2_rule
If an account has an UID of 0, it has root authority. Multiple accounts with an UID of 0 afford more opportunity for potential intruders to guess a password for a privileged account.System AdministratorECLP-1, IAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-28053r1_chk

Check the system for duplicate UID 0 assignments by listing all accounts assigned UID 0. Procedure: # grep ":0:" /etc/passwd | awk -F":" '{print$1":"$3":"}' | grep ":0:" If any accounts other than root are assigned UID 0, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24403r1_fix

Remove or change the UID of accounts other than root that have UID 0.

a
The root user's home directory must not be the root directory (/).
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-774 - SV-774r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000900
Vuln IDs
  • V-774
Rule IDs
  • SV-774r2_rule
Changing the root home directory to something other than / and assigning it a 0700 protection makes it more difficult for intruders to manipulate the system by reading the files that root places in its default directory. It also gives root the same discretionary access control for root's home directory as for the other plain user home directories.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-28062r1_chk

Determine if root is assigned a home directory other than / by listing its home directory. Procedure: # grep "^root" /etc/passwd | awk -F":" '{print $6}' If the root user home directory is /, this is a finding.

Fix: F-928r2_fix

The root home directory should be something other than / (such as /rootdir). Procedure: # mkdir /rootdir # chown root /rootdir # chgrp root /rootdir # chmod 700 /rootdir # cp -r /.??* /rootdir Edit the passwd file and change the root home directory to /rootdir. The cp -r /.??* command copies all files and subdirectories of file names beginning with "." into the new root directory, which preserves the previous root environment. The cp command must be executed from the / directory.

b
The root account's home directory (other than /) must have mode 0700.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-775 - SV-775r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000920
Vuln IDs
  • V-775
Rule IDs
  • SV-775r2_rule
Permissions greater than 0700 could allow unauthorized users access to the root home directory.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-28063r1_chk

Check the mode of the root home directory. Procedure: # grep "^root" /etc/passwd | awk -F":" '{print $6}' # ls -ld <root home directory> If the mode of the directory is not equal to 0700, this is a finding. If the home directory is /, this is not applicable.

Fix: F-929r2_fix

The root home directory will have permissions of 0700. Do not change the protections of the / directory. Use the following command to change protections for the root home directory. # chmod 0700 /rootdir.

b
The root account's executable search path must be the vendor default and must contain only absolute paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-776 - SV-776r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000940
Vuln IDs
  • V-776
Rule IDs
  • SV-776r2_rule
The executable search path (typically the PATH environment variable) contains a list of directories for the shell to search to find executables. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, executables in these directories may be executed instead of system commands. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon or two consecutive colons, this is interpreted as the current working directory. Entries starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2, ECSC-1
Checks: C-236r2_chk

To view the root user's PATH, log in as the root user, and execute the following. # env | grep PATH This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon or two consecutive colons, this is a finding. If an entry starts with a character other than a slash (/), this is a finding. If directories beyond those in the vendor's default root path are present, this is a finding.

Fix: F-930r2_fix

Edit the root user's local initialization files. Change any found PATH variable settings to the vendor's default path for the root user. Remove any empty path entries or references to relative paths.

b
The root account must not have world-writable directories in its executable search path.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-777 - SV-777r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000960
Vuln IDs
  • V-777
Rule IDs
  • SV-777r2_rule
If the root search path contains a world-writable directory, malicious software could be placed in the path by intruders and/or malicious users and inadvertently run by root with all of root's privileges. System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-28064r1_chk

Check for world-writable permissions on all directories in the root user's executable search path. Procedure: # ls -ld `echo $PATH | sed "s/:/ /g"` If any of the directories in the PATH variable are world-writable, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24415r1_fix

For each world-writable path in root's executable search path, perform one of the following. 1. Remove the world-writable permission on the directory. Procedure: # chmod o-w <path> 2. Remove the world-writable directory from the executable search path. Procedure: Identify and edit the initialization file referencing the world-writable directory and remove it from the PATH variable.

b
The system must prevent the root account from directly logging in except from the system console.
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000770 - V-778 - SV-778r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000770
Version
GEN000980
Vuln IDs
  • V-778
Rule IDs
  • SV-778r2_rule
Limiting the root account direct logins to only system consoles protects the root account from direct unauthorized access from a non-console device.System AdministratorECPA-1, ECSD-2
Checks: C-28065r1_chk

Verify the system only allows root account logins from the system console.

Fix: F-24416r1_fix

Configure the system to only allow root logins from the system console.

b
Group Identifiers (GIDs) reserved for system accounts must not be assigned to non-system groups.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-780 - SV-780r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000360
Vuln IDs
  • V-780
Rule IDs
  • SV-780r2_rule
Reserved GIDs are typically used by system software packages. If non-system groups have GIDs in this range, they may conflict with system software, possibly leading to the group having permissions to modify system files.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-280r2_chk

# more /etc/passwd Confirm all accounts with a GID of 99 and below (499 and below for Linux) are used by a system account. If a GID reserved for system accounts, 0 - 99 (0 - 499 for Linux), is used by a non-system account, this is a finding.

Fix: F-934r2_fix

Change the primary group GID numbers for non-system accounts with reserved primary group GIDs (those less or equal to 99 in general, or 499 for Linux).

a
All GIDs referenced in the /etc/passwd file must be defined in the /etc/group file.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-781 - SV-781r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000380
Vuln IDs
  • V-781
Rule IDs
  • SV-781r2_rule
If a user is assigned the GID of a group not existing on the system, and a group with that GID is subsequently created, the user may have unintended rights to that group.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-281r2_chk

List the primary group GIDs for all user accounts on the system. If these GIDs do not correspond to any groups defined on the system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-935r3_fix

Add a group to the system for each GID referenced without a corresponding group.

b
The system must have a host-based intrusion detection tool installed.
SI-4 - Medium - CCI-001259 - V-782 - SV-782r2_rule
RMF Control
SI-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001259
Version
GEN006480
Vuln IDs
  • V-782
Rule IDs
  • SV-782r2_rule
Without a host-based intrusion detection tool, there is no system-level defense when an intruder gains access to a system or network. Additionally, a host-based intrusion detection tool can provide methods to immediately lock out detected intrusion attempts.System AdministratorECID-1
Checks: C-285r2_chk

A few applications providing host-based network intrusion protection are: - Dragon Squire by Enterasys Networks, - ITA by Symantec, - Hostsentry by Psionic Software, - Logcheck by Psionic Software, - RealSecure agent by ISS, and - Swatch by Stanford University. Ask the SA or IAO if a host-based intrusion detection application is loaded on the system. Determine if the application is loaded on the system. Procedure: # find / -name &lt;daemon name&gt; -print Determine if the application is active on the system. Procedure: # ps -ef | grep &lt;daemon name&gt; If no host-based intrusion detection system is installed on the system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-936r3_fix

Install a host-based intrusion detection tool.

b
System files and directories must not have uneven access permissions.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-784 - SV-784r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001140
Vuln IDs
  • V-784
Rule IDs
  • SV-784r2_rule
Discretionary access control is undermined if users, other than a file owner, have greater access permissions to system files and directories than the owner.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-289r2_chk

Check system directories for uneven file permissions. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc /bin /usr/bin /usr/lbin /usr/ucb /sbin /usr/sbin Uneven file permissions exist if the file owner has less permissions than the group or other user classes. If any of the files in the above listed directories contain uneven file permissions, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24427r1_fix

Change the mode of files with uneven permissions so owners do not have less permission than group or world users.

b
All files and directories must have a valid owner.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-785 - SV-785r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001160
Vuln IDs
  • V-785
Rule IDs
  • SV-785r2_rule
Unowned files and directories may be unintentionally inherited if a user is assigned the same UID as the UID of the unowned files.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-290r2_chk

Check the system for files with no assigned owner. Procedure: # find / -nouser -print If any files have no assigned owner, this is a finding.

Fix: F-939r2_fix

All directories and files (executable and data) will have an identifiable owner and group name. Either trace files to an authorized user, change the file's owner to root, or delete them. Determine the legitimate owner of the files and use the chown command to set the owner and group to the correct value. If the legitimate owner cannot be determined, change the owner to root (but make sure none of the changed files remain executable because they could be Trojan horses or other malicious code). Examine the files to determine their origin and the reason for their lack of an owner/group.

b
All network services daemon files must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-786 - SV-786r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001180
Vuln IDs
  • V-786
Rule IDs
  • SV-786r2_rule
Restricting permission on daemons will protect them from unauthorized modification and possible system compromise.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-291r2_chk

Check the mode of network services daemon files. If any have modes more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-940r2_fix

Change the mode of the network services daemon. # chmod 0755 <path>

b
All skeleton files (typically those in /etc/skel) must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-788 - SV-788r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001800
Vuln IDs
  • V-788
Rule IDs
  • SV-788r2_rule
If the skeleton files are not protected, unauthorized personnel could change user startup parameters and possibly jeopardize user files. System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-293r2_chk

Check skeleton files permissions. # ls -alL /etc/skel If a skeleton file has a mode more permissive than 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-942r2_fix

Change the mode of skeleton files with incorrect mode. # chmod 0644 <skeleton file>

b
NIS/NIS+/yp files must be owned by root, sys, or bin.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-789 - SV-789r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001320
Vuln IDs
  • V-789
Rule IDs
  • SV-789r2_rule
NIS/NIS+/yp files are part of the system's identification and authentication processes and are, therefore, critical to system security. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-294r2_chk

Check the ownership of NIS/NIS+/yp files. Consult vendor documentation to determine the location of these files on the system. Procedure (example): # ls -lL /path/to/file If such a file is not owned by root, sys, bin, or system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-943r2_fix

Change the ownership of NIS/NIS+/yp files to root, sys, bin, or system. Consult vendor documentation to determine the location of the files. Procedure (example): # chown root <filename>

b
NIS/NIS+/yp files must be group-owned by root, sys, bin, other, or system.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-790 - SV-790r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001340
Vuln IDs
  • V-790
Rule IDs
  • SV-790r2_rule
NIS/NIS+/yp files are part of the system's identification and authentication processes and are, therefore, critical to system security. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8012r2_chk

Check the group ownership of the NIS/NIS+/yp files. Procedure: # ls -lL &lt;NIS file&gt; If any such file is not group-owned by root, sys, bin, other, or system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-944r2_fix

Change the group owner of the NIS files to root, sys, bin, other, or system. Procedure: # chgrp root <filename>

b
The NIS/NIS+/yp command files must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-791 - SV-791r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001360
Vuln IDs
  • V-791
Rule IDs
  • SV-791r2_rule
NIS/NIS+/yp files are part of the system's identification and authentication processes and are, therefore, critical to system security. Unauthorized modification of these files could compromise these processes and the system.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8013r2_chk

Check the mode of the NIS/NIS+/yp files. Consult vendor documentation to determine the location of these files. Procedure (example): # ls -lL /path/to/file If any such file has a mode more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-945r2_fix

Change the mode of NIS/NIS+/yp files to 0755 or less permissive. Procedure (example): # chmod 0755 <filename>

a
Manual page files must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-792 - SV-792r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001280
Vuln IDs
  • V-792
Rule IDs
  • SV-792r2_rule
If manual pages are compromised, misleading information could be inserted, causing actions that may compromise the system.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-295r2_chk

Check the mode of the manual page files. Procedure: # ls -lLR /usr/share/man /usr/share/info /usr/share/infopage If any of the manual page files have a mode more permissive than 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-946r2_fix

Change the mode of manual page files to 0644 or less permissive. Procedure (example): # chmod 0644 <path>/<manpage>

b
Library files must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-793 - SV-793r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
GEN001300
Vuln IDs
  • V-793
Rule IDs
  • SV-793r2_rule
Unauthorized access could destroy the integrity of the library files.System AdministratorDCSL-1
Checks: C-296r2_chk

Check the mode of library files. Procedure: # ls -lLR /usr/lib /lib If any of the library files have a mode more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-947r2_fix

Change the mode of library files to 0755 or less permissive. Procedure (example): # chmod 0755 /path/to/library-file NOTE: Library files should have an extension of .a or .so, possibly followed by a version number.

b
All system command files must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-794 - SV-794r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
GEN001200
Vuln IDs
  • V-794
Rule IDs
  • SV-794r2_rule
Restricting permissions will protect system command files from unauthorized modification. System command files include files present in directories used by the operating system for storing default system executables and files present in directories included in the system's default executable search paths.Elevate to Severity Code I if any file listed is world-writable.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-298r2_chk

Check the permissions for files in /etc, /bin, /usr/bin, /usr/lbin, /usr/ucb, /sbin, and /usr/sbin. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc /bin /usr/bin /usr/lbin /usr/ucb /sbin /usr/sbin If any file listed has a mode more permissive than 0755, this is a finding. NOTE: Elevate to Severity Code I if any file listed is world-writable.

Fix: F-948r2_fix

Change the mode for system command files to 0755 or less permissive. Procedure: # chmod 0755 <filename>

b
All system files, programs, and directories must be owned by a system account.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-795 - SV-795r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
GEN001220
Vuln IDs
  • V-795
Rule IDs
  • SV-795r2_rule
Restricting permissions will protect the files from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8014r2_chk

Check the ownership of system files, programs, and directories. Procedure: # ls -lLa /etc /bin /usr/bin /usr/lbin /usr/ucb /sbin /usr/sbin If any of the system files, programs, or directories are not owned by a system account, this is a finding.

Fix: F-949r2_fix

Change the owner of system files, programs, and directories to a system account. Procedure: # chown root /some/system/file (A different system user may be used in place of root.)

b
System files, programs, and directories must be group-owned by a system group.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-796 - SV-796r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
GEN001240
Vuln IDs
  • V-796
Rule IDs
  • SV-796r2_rule
Restricting permissions will protect the files from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8015r2_chk

Check the group ownership of system files, programs, and directories. Procedure: # ls -lLa /etc /bin /usr/bin /usr/lbin /usr/ucb /sbin /usr/sbin If any system file, program, or directory is not group-owned by a system group, this is a finding.

Fix: F-950r2_fix

Change the group owner of system files to a system group. Procedure: # chgrp root /path/to/system/file (System groups other than root may be used.)

b
The /etc/shadow (or equivalent) file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-797 - SV-797r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001400
Vuln IDs
  • V-797
Rule IDs
  • SV-797r2_rule
The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-301r2_chk

Check the ownership of the /etc/shadow file. # ls -lL /etc/shadow If the /etc/shadow file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-951r2_fix

Change the ownership of the /etc/shadow (or equivalent) file. # chown root <file>

b
The /etc/passwd file must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-798 - SV-798r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001380
Vuln IDs
  • V-798
Rule IDs
  • SV-798r2_rule
If the password file is writable by a group owner or the world, the risk of password file compromise is increased. The password file contains the list of accounts on the system and associated information.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8016r2_chk

Check the mode of the /etc/passwd file. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/passwd If /etc/passwd has a mode more permissive than 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-952r2_fix

Change the mode of the passwd file to 0644. Procedure: # chmod 0644 /etc/passwd Document all changes.

b
The /etc/shadow (or equivalent) file must have mode 0400.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-800 - SV-800r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001420
Vuln IDs
  • V-800
Rule IDs
  • SV-800r2_rule
The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The file also contains password hashes which must not be accessible to users other than root.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-303r2_chk

Check the mode of the /etc/shadow file. # ls -lL /etc/shadow If the /etc/shadow file has a mode more permissive than 0400, this is a finding.

Fix: F-954r2_fix

Change the mode of the /etc/shadow (or equivalent) file. # chmod <mode> <file>

b
The owner, group owner, mode, ACL, and location of files with the setuid bit set must be documented using site-defined procedures.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000368 - V-801 - SV-801r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000368
Version
GEN002380
Vuln IDs
  • V-801
Rule IDs
  • SV-801r2_rule
All files with the setuid bit set will allow anyone running these files to be temporarily assigned the UID of the file. While many system files depend on these attributes for proper operation, security problems can result if setuid is assigned to programs that allow reading and writing of files, or shell escapes. Only default vendor-supplied executables should have the setuid bit set.trueSystem AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerECPA-1
Checks: C-527r2_chk

Files with the setuid bit set will allow anyone running these files to be temporarily assigned the user or group ID of the file. If an executable with setuid allows shell escapes, the user can operate on the system with the effective permission rights of the user or group owner. List all setuid files on the system. Procedure: # find / -perm -4000 -exec ls -l {} \; | more NOTE: Executing these commands may result in large listings of files; the output may be redirected to a file for easier analysis. Ask the SA or IAO if files with the setuid bit set have been documented. If any undocumented file has its setuid bit set, this is a finding.

Fix: F-955r2_fix

Document the files with the setuid bit set or unset the setuid bit on the executable.

b
The owner, group-owner, mode, ACL, and location of files with the setgid bit set must be documented using site-defined procedures.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000368 - V-802 - SV-802r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000368
Version
GEN002440
Vuln IDs
  • V-802
Rule IDs
  • SV-802r2_rule
All files with the setgid bit set will allow anyone running these files to be temporarily assigned the GID of the file. While many system files depend on these attributes for proper operation, security problems can result if setgid is assigned to programs that allow reading and writing of files, or shell escapes.trueSystem AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerECPA-1
Checks: C-8026r2_chk

Locate all setgid files on the system. Procedure: # find / -perm -2000 If the ownership, permissions, location, and ACLs of all files with the setgid bit set are not documented, this is a finding.

Fix: F-956r2_fix

All files with the setgid bit set will be documented in the system baseline and authorized by the Information Systems Security Officer. Locate all setgid files with the following command. find / -perm -2000 -exec ls -lLd {} \; Ensure setgid files are part of the operating system software, documented application software, documented utility software, or documented locally developed software. Ensure none are text files or shell programs.

b
The system must be checked weekly for unauthorized setuid files, as well as, unauthorized modification to authorized setuid files.
CM-3 - Medium - CCI-000318 - V-803 - SV-803r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000318
Version
GEN002400
Vuln IDs
  • V-803
Rule IDs
  • SV-803r2_rule
Files with the setuid bit set will allow anyone running these files to be temporarily assigned the UID of the file. While many system files depend on these attributes for proper operation, security problems can result if setuid is assigned to programs that allow reading and writing of files, or shell escapes.System AdministratorDCSL-1
Checks: C-528r2_chk

Determine if a weekly automated or manual process is used to generate a list of setuid files on the system and compare it with the prior list. If no such process is in place, this is a finding.

Fix: F-957r2_fix

Establish a weekly automated or manual process to generate a list of setuid files on the system and compare it with the prior list. To create a list of setuid files use the following command. # find / -perm -4000 > setuid-file-list

b
The system must be checked weekly for unauthorized setgid files, as well as, unauthorized modification to authorized setgid files.
CM-3 - Medium - CCI-000318 - V-804 - SV-804r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000318
Version
GEN002460
Vuln IDs
  • V-804
Rule IDs
  • SV-804r2_rule
Files with the setgid bit set will allow anyone running these files to be temporarily assigned the group id of the file. While many system files depend on these attributes for proper operation, security problems can result if setgid is assigned to programs that allow reading and writing of files, or shell escapes.System AdministratorDCSL-1
Checks: C-8027r2_chk

Determine if a weekly automated or manual process is used to generate a list of setgid files on the system and compare it with the prior list. If no such process is in place, this is a finding.

Fix: F-958r2_fix

Establish a weekly automated or manual process to generate a list of setgid files on the system and compare it with the prior list. To create a list of setgid files use the following command. # find / -perm -2000 > setgid-file-list

b
Removable media, remote file systems, and any file system that does not contain approved setuid files must be mounted with the "nosuid" option.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-805 - SV-805r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002420
Vuln IDs
  • V-805
Rule IDs
  • SV-805r2_rule
The "nosuid" mount option causes the system to not execute setuid files with owner privileges. This option must be used for mounting any file system that does not contain approved setuid files. Executing setuid files from untrusted file systems, or file systems that do not contain approved setuid files, increases the opportunity for unprivileged users to attain unauthorized administrative access.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-529r2_chk

Check /etc/fstab and verify the "nosuid" mount option is used on file systems mounted from removable media, network shares, or any other file system that does not contain approved setuid or setgid files.

Fix: F-959r2_fix

Edit /etc/fstab and add the "nosuid" mount option to all file systems mounted from removable media or network shares, and any file system that does not contain approved setuid or setgid files.

a
The sticky bit must be set on all public directories.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-806 - SV-806r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002500
Vuln IDs
  • V-806
Rule IDs
  • SV-806r2_rule
Failing to set the sticky bit on the public directories allows unauthorized users to delete files in the directory structure. The only authorized public directories are those temporary directories supplied with the system or those designed to be temporary file repositories. The setting is normally reserved for directories used by the system and by users for temporary file storage (e.g., /tmp) and for directories requiring global read/write access.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-30901r1_chk

Verify all world-writable directories have the sticky bit set. Procedure: # find / -type d -perm -002 ! -perm -1000 &gt; wwlist If the sticky bit is not set on a world-writable directory, this is a finding.

Fix: F-960r2_fix

Set the sticky bit on all public directories. Procedure: # chmod 1777 /tmp (Replace /tmp with the public directory missing the sticky bit, if necessary.)

b
All public directories must be owned by root or an application account.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-807 - SV-807r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002520
Vuln IDs
  • V-807
Rule IDs
  • SV-807r2_rule
If a public directory has the sticky bit set and is not owned by a privileged UID, unauthorized users may be able to modify files created by others. The only authorized public directories are those temporary directories supplied with the system or those designed to be temporary file repositories. The setting is normally reserved for directories used by the system and by users for temporary file storage (e.g., /tmp) and for directories requiring global read/write access.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8028r2_chk

Check the ownership of all public directories. Procedure: # find / -type d -perm -1002 -exec ls -ld {} \; If any public directory is not owned by root or an application user, this is a finding.

Fix: F-961r2_fix

Change the owner of public directories to root or an application account. Procedure: # chown root /tmp (Replace root with an application user and/or /tmp with another public directory as necessary.)

b
The system and user default umask must be 077.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-808 - SV-808r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002560
Vuln IDs
  • V-808
Rule IDs
  • SV-808r2_rule
The umask controls the default access mode assigned to newly created files. An umask of 077 limits new files to mode 700 or less permissive. Although umask can be represented as a 4-digit number, the first digit representing special access modes is typically ignored or required to be 0. This requirement applies to the globally configured system defaults and the user defaults for each account on the system.trueIf the default umask is 000 or does not restrict the world-writable permission, this becomes a CAT I finding.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-550r2_chk

Check global initialization files for the configured umask value. Procedure: # grep umask /etc/* Check local initialization files for the configured umask value. Procedure: # grep umask /userhomedirectory/.* If the system and user default umask is not 077, this is a finding. NOTE: If the default umask is 000 or allows for the creation of world-writable files, this becomes a Severity Code I (CAT I) finding.

Fix: F-962r2_fix

Edit local and global initialization files that contain "umask" and change them to use 077 instead of the current value.

b
Auditing must be implemented.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000169 - V-811 - SV-811r2_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000169
Version
GEN002660
Vuln IDs
  • V-811
Rule IDs
  • SV-811r2_rule
Without auditing, individual system accesses cannot be tracked and malicious activity cannot be detected and traced back to an individual account.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
Checks: C-553r2_chk

Determine if auditing is enabled. If auditing is not enabled, this is a finding.

Fix: F-965r2_fix

Configure the system to implement auditing.

b
System audit logs must be owned by root.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000162 - V-812 - SV-812r2_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000162
Version
GEN002680
Vuln IDs
  • V-812
Rule IDs
  • SV-812r2_rule
Failure to give ownership of system audit log files to root provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information.System AdministratorECTP-1
Checks: C-554r2_chk

Check the ownership of the audit log file(s). # ls -l &lt;audit log file&gt; If any audit log file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-966r2_fix

Change the ownership of the audit log file(s). Procedure: # chown root <audit log file>

b
System audit logs must have mode 0640 or less permissive.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000163 - V-813 - SV-813r2_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000163
Version
GEN002700
Vuln IDs
  • V-813
Rule IDs
  • SV-813r2_rule
If a user can write to the audit logs, audit trails can be modified or destroyed and system intrusion may not be detected. System audit logs are those files generated from the audit system and do not include activity, error, or other log files created by application software.System AdministratorECTP-1
Checks: C-555r2_chk

Check the mode of the audit log file(s). # ls -l &lt;audit log file&gt; If any audit log file has a mode more permissive than 0640, this is a finding.

Fix: F-967r2_fix

Change the mode of the audit log directories/files. # chmod 0750 <audit directory> # chmod 0640 <audit file>

b
The audit system must be configured to audit failed attempts to access files and programs.
AU-2 - Medium - CCI-000126 - V-814 - SV-814r2_rule
RMF Control
AU-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000126
Version
GEN002720
Vuln IDs
  • V-814
Rule IDs
  • SV-814r2_rule
If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
Checks: C-556r2_chk

Check the audit configuration to determine if failed attempts to access files and programs are audited. If they are not, this is a finding.

Fix: F-968r2_fix

Configure the system to audit failed attempts to access files and programs.

b
The audit system must be configured to audit file deletions.
AU-2 - Medium - CCI-000126 - V-815 - SV-815r2_rule
RMF Control
AU-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000126
Version
GEN002740
Vuln IDs
  • V-815
Rule IDs
  • SV-815r2_rule
If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
Checks: C-557r2_chk

Check the system audit configuration. If the system is not configured to audit file and program deletion, this is a finding.

Fix: F-969r2_fix

Configure the system to audit file and program deletion.

b
The audit system must be configured to audit all administrative, privileged, and security actions.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-000347 - V-816 - SV-816r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000347
Version
GEN002760
Vuln IDs
  • V-816
Rule IDs
  • SV-816r2_rule
If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
Checks: C-558r2_chk

Check the system configuration to determine if all administrative, privileged, and security actions are audited. If any of these categories of events is not audited, this is a finding.

Fix: F-970r2_fix

Configure the system to audit all administrative, privileged, and security actions.

b
The audit system must be configured to audit login, logout, and session initiation.
AU-2 - Medium - CCI-000126 - V-818 - SV-818r2_rule
RMF Control
AU-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000126
Version
GEN002800
Vuln IDs
  • V-818
Rule IDs
  • SV-818r2_rule
If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
Checks: C-561r2_chk

Verify the system is configured to audit login, logout, and session initiation. If the system does not audit any of these events, this is a finding.

Fix: F-973r2_fix

Configure the system to audit login, logout, and session initiation.

b
The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications.
AU-2 - Medium - CCI-000126 - V-819 - SV-819r2_rule
RMF Control
AU-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000126
Version
GEN002820
Vuln IDs
  • V-819
Rule IDs
  • SV-819r2_rule
If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
Checks: C-28433r1_chk

Verify the system is configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system does not audit any of these events, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24550r1_fix

Configure the system to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications.

b
The inetd.conf file, xinetd.conf file, and the xinetd.d directory must be owned by root or bin.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-821 - SV-821r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003720
Vuln IDs
  • V-821
Rule IDs
  • SV-821r2_rule
Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-567r2_chk

Check the ownership of inetd.conf file. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/inetd.conf This is a finding if any of the above files or directories are not owned by root or bin.

Fix: F-975r2_fix

Change the ownership of the inetd.conf file to root or bin. Procedure: # chown root /etc/inetd.conf

b
The inetd.conf and xinetd.conf files must have mode 0440 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-822 - SV-822r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003740
Vuln IDs
  • V-822
Rule IDs
  • SV-822r2_rule
The Internet service daemon configuration files must be protected as malicious modification could cause Denial of Service or increase the attack surface of the system.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8029r2_chk

Check the mode of inetd.conf file. # ls -lL /etc/inetd.conf If the mode of the file(s) is more permissive than 0440, this is a finding.

Fix: F-976r2_fix

Change the mode of the inetd.conf file. # chmod 0440 /etc/inetd.conf

b
The services file must be owned by root or bin.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-823 - SV-823r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003760
Vuln IDs
  • V-823
Rule IDs
  • SV-823r2_rule
Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-28612r1_chk

Check the ownership of the services file. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/services If the services file is not owned by root or bin, this is a finding.

Fix: F-977r2_fix

Change the ownership of the services file to root or bin. Procedure: # chown root /etc/services

b
The services file must have mode 0444 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-824 - SV-824r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003780
Vuln IDs
  • V-824
Rule IDs
  • SV-824r2_rule
The services file is critical to the proper operation of network services and must be protected from unauthorized modification. Unauthorized modification could result in the failure of network services.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8030r2_chk

Check the mode of the services file. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/services If the services file has a mode more permissive than 0444, this is a finding.

Fix: F-978r2_fix

Change the mode of the services file to 0444 or less permissive. Procedure: # chmod 0444 /etc/services

a
Global initialization files must contain the mesg -n or mesg n commands.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-825 - SV-825r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001780
Vuln IDs
  • V-825
Rule IDs
  • SV-825r2_rule
If the mesg -n or mesg n command is not placed into the system profile, messaging can be used to cause a Denial-of-Service attack.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-603r3_chk

Check global initialization files for the presence of mesg -n or mesg n. Procedure: # grep "mesg" /etc/.login /etc/profile /etc/bashrc /etc/environment /etc/security/environ If no global initialization files contain mesg -n or mesg n, this is a finding.

Fix: F-979r2_fix

Edit /etc/profile or another global initialization script and add the mesg -n command.

b
The hosts.lpd file (or equivalent) must not contain a "+" character.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-827 - SV-827r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN003900
Vuln IDs
  • V-827
Rule IDs
  • SV-827r2_rule
Having the "+" character in the hosts.lpd (or equivalent) file allows all hosts to use local system print resources.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-611r2_chk

Look for the presence of a print service configuration file. Procedure: # find /etc -name hosts.lpd -print # find /etc -name Systems -print # find /etc -name printers.conf If none of the files are found, this check is not applicable. Otherwise, examine the configuration file. Procedure: # more &lt;print service file&gt; Check for entries that contain a "+" or "_" character. If any are found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-981r2_fix

Remove the "+" entries from the hosts.lpd (or equivalent) file.

b
The hosts.lpd (or equivalent) file must be owned by root, bin, sys, or lp.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-828 - SV-828r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003920
Vuln IDs
  • V-828
Rule IDs
  • SV-828r2_rule
Failure to give ownership of the hosts.lpd file to root, bin, sys, or lp provides the designated owner, and possible unauthorized users, with the potential to modify the hosts.lpd file. Unauthorized modifications could disrupt access to local printers from authorized remote hosts or permit unauthorized remote access to local printers.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-612r2_chk

Locate any print service configuration file on the system. Consult vendor documentation to verify the names and locations of print service configuration files on the system. Procedure: # find /etc -name hosts.lpd -print # find /etc -name Systems -print If no print service configuration file is found, this is not applicable. Check the ownership of the print service configuration file(s). Procedure: # ls -lL &lt;print service file&gt; If the owner of the file is not root, sys, bin, or lp, this is a finding.

Fix: F-982r2_fix

Change the owner of the /etc/hosts.lpd file (or equivalent, such as /etc/lp/Systems) to root, lp, or another privileged UID. Consult vendor documentation to determine the name and location of print service configuration files. Procedure: # chown root /etc/hosts.lpd

b
The hosts.lpd (or equivalent) must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-829 - SV-829r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003940
Vuln IDs
  • V-829
Rule IDs
  • SV-829r2_rule
Excessive permissions on the hosts.lpd (or equivalent) file may permit unauthorized modification. Unauthorized modifications could disrupt access to local printers from authorized remote hosts or permit unauthorized remote access to local printers.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8031r2_chk

Locate any print service configuration file on the system. Consult vendor documentation for the name and location of print service configuration files. Procedure: # find /etc -name hosts.lpd -print # find /etc -name Systems -print If no print service configuration file is found, this is not applicable. Check the mode of the print service configuration file. Procedure: # ls -lL &lt;print service file&gt; If the mode of the print service configuration file is more permissive than 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-983r2_fix

Change the mode of the /etc/hosts.lpd file (or equivalent, such as /etc/lp/Systems) to 0644 or less permissive. Consult vendor documentation for the name and location of print service configuration files. Procedure: # chmod 0644 /etc/hosts.lpd

b
The alias file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-831 - SV-831r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN004360
Vuln IDs
  • V-831
Rule IDs
  • SV-831r2_rule
If the alias file is not owned by root, an unauthorized user may modify the file to add aliases to run malicious code or redirect email.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-614r2_chk

Find the aliases file on the system. Procedure: # find / -name aliases -depth -print Check the ownership of the alias file. Procedure: # ls -lL &lt;alias location&gt; If the file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-985r2_fix

Change the owner of the /etc/mail/aliases file (or equivalent, such as /usr/lib/aliases) to root. Procedure: # chown root /etc/mail/aliases

b
The alias file must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-832 - SV-832r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN004380
Vuln IDs
  • V-832
Rule IDs
  • SV-832r2_rule
Excessive permissions on the aliases file may permit unauthorized modification. If the alias file is modified by an unauthorized user, they may modify the file to run malicious code or redirect email.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8032r2_chk

Find the aliases file on the system. Procedure: # find / -name aliases -depth -print Check the mode of the alias file. Procedure: # ls -lL &lt;alias location&gt; If the alias file has a mode more permissive than 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-986r2_fix

Change the mode of the /etc/mail/aliases file (or equivalent, such as /usr/lib/aliases) to 0644. Procedure: # chmod 0644 /etc/aliases

c
Files executed through a mail aliases file must be owned by root and must reside within a directory owned and writable only by root.
AC-6 - High - CCI-000225 - V-833 - SV-833r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN004400
Vuln IDs
  • V-833
Rule IDs
  • SV-833r2_rule
If a file executed through a mail aliases file is not owned and writable only by root, it may be subject to unauthorized modification. Unauthorized modification of files executed through aliases may allow unauthorized users to attain root privileges.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-615r2_chk

Find the aliases file on the system. Procedure: # find / -name aliases -depth -print # more &lt; aliases file location &gt; Examine the aliases file for any directories or paths that may be utilized. Procedure: # ls -lL &lt; path &gt; Check if the file or parent directory is owned by root. If not, this is a finding.

Fix: F-987r2_fix

Edit the /etc/mail/aliases file (alternatively, /usr/lib/sendmail.cf). Locate the entries executing a program. They will appear similar to the following line. Aliasname: : /usr/local/bin/ls (or some other program name) Ensure root owns the programs and the directory(ies) they reside in by using the chown command to change owner to root. Procedure: # chown root filename

b
Files executed through a mail aliases file must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-834 - SV-834r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN004420
Vuln IDs
  • V-834
Rule IDs
  • SV-834r2_rule
If a file executed through a mail alias file has permissions greater than 0755, it can be modified by an unauthorized user and may contain malicious code or instructions possibly compromising the system.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8033r2_chk

Find the aliases file on the system. Procedure: # find / -name aliases -depth -print Examine the aliases file for any directories or paths that may be utilized. Procedure: # more &lt;aliases file location&gt; Check the permissions for any paths referenced. Procedure: # ls -lL &lt;path&gt; If any file referenced from the aliases file has a mode more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-988r2_fix

Use the chmod command to change the access permissions for files executed from the alias file. For example: # chmod 0755 < filename >

a
Sendmail logging must not be set to less than nine in the sendmail.cf file.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-835 - SV-835r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN004440
Vuln IDs
  • V-835
Rule IDs
  • SV-835r2_rule
If Sendmail is not configured to log at level 9, system logs may not contain the information necessary for tracking unauthorized use of the Sendmail service.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
Checks: C-616r2_chk

Check if Sendmail logging is set to level 9. Procedure: # grep "O L" /etc/mail/sendmail.cf OR # grep LogLevel /etc/mail/sendmail.cf If logging is set to less than 9, this is a finding.

Fix: F-989r2_fix

Edit the sendmail.conf file, locate the "O L" or LogLevel entry and change it to 9.

b
The system syslog service must log informational and more severe SMTP service messages.
AU-2 - Medium - CCI-000126 - V-836 - SV-836r2_rule
RMF Control
AU-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000126
Version
GEN004460
Vuln IDs
  • V-836
Rule IDs
  • SV-836r2_rule
If informational and more severe SMTP service messages are not logged, malicious activity on the system may go unnoticed.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3, ECSC-1
Checks: C-617r2_chk

Check the syslog configuration file for mail.crit logging configuration. Procedure: # more /etc/syslog.conf Verify a line similar to one of the following lines is present in syslog.conf is configured so that critical mail log data is logged. (Critical log data may also be captured by a remote log host in accordance with GEN005460.) mail.crit /var/adm/messages *.crit /var/log/messages If syslog is not configured to log critical Sendmail messages, this is a finding.

Fix: F-990r2_fix

Edit the syslog.conf file and add a configuration line specifying an appropriate destination for mail.crit syslogs.

b
The SMTP service log file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-837 - SV-837r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN004480
Vuln IDs
  • V-837
Rule IDs
  • SV-837r2_rule
If the SMTP service log file is not owned by root, then unauthorized personnel may modify or delete the file to hide a system compromise.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8034r2_chk

Locate any mail log files by checking the syslog configuration file. Procedure: # more /etc/syslog.conf Identify any log files configured for the mail service at any severity level, or those configured for all services. Check the ownership of these log files. Procedure: # ls -lL &lt;file location&gt; If any mail log file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-991r2_fix

Change the ownership of the Sendmail log file. # chown root <sendmail log file>

b
The SMTP service log file must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-838 - SV-838r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN004500
Vuln IDs
  • V-838
Rule IDs
  • SV-838r2_rule
If the SMTP service log file is more permissive than 0644, unauthorized users may be allowed to change the log file.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8035r2_chk

Check the mode of the SMTP service log file. Procedure: # more /etc/syslog.conf Check the configuration to determine which log files contain logs for mail.crit, mail.debug, or *.crit. Procedure: # ls -lL &lt;file location&gt; If the log file permissions are greater than 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-992r2_fix

Change the mode of the SMTP service log file. Procedure: # chmod 0644 <sendmail log file>

b
The ftpusers file must exist.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-840 - SV-840r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN004880
Vuln IDs
  • V-840
Rule IDs
  • SV-840r2_rule
The ftpusers file contains a list of accounts not allowed to use FTP to transfer files. If this file does not exist, then unauthorized accounts can utilize FTP.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-707r2_chk

Check the system for an ftpusers file. If no ftpusers file appropriate for the system's FTP service exists, this is a finding.

Fix: F-994r2_fix

Create an ftpusers file appropriate for the system's FTP service.

b
The ftpusers file must contain account names not allowed to use FTP.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-841 - SV-841r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN004900
Vuln IDs
  • V-841
Rule IDs
  • SV-841r2_rule
The ftpusers file contains a list of accounts that are not allowed to use FTP to transfer files. If the file does not contain the names of all accounts not authorized to use FTP, then unauthorized use of FTP may take place.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-8063r2_chk

Check the contents of the ftpusers file. If the system has accounts not allowed to use FTP that are not listed in the ftpusers file, this is a finding.

Fix: F-995r2_fix

Add accounts not allowed to use FTP to the ftpusers file.

b
The ftpusers file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-842 - SV-842r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN004920
Vuln IDs
  • V-842
Rule IDs
  • SV-842r2_rule
If the file ftpusers is not owned by root, an unauthorized user may modify the file to allow unauthorized accounts to use FTP.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-708r2_chk

Check the ownership of the ftpusers file. If the ftpusers file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-996r2_fix

Change the owner of the ftpusers file to root.

b
The ftpusers file must have mode 0640 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-843 - SV-843r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN004940
Vuln IDs
  • V-843
Rule IDs
  • SV-843r2_rule
Excessive permissions on the ftpusers file could permit unauthorized modification. Unauthorized modification could result in Denial-of-Service to authorized FTP users or permit unauthorized users to access the FTP service.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8064r2_chk

Check the permissions of the ftpusers file. If the ftpusers file has a mode more permissive than 0640, this is a finding.

Fix: F-997r2_fix

Change the mode of the ftpusers file to 0640.

b
The FTP daemon must be configured for logging or verbose mode.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000130 - V-845 - SV-42193r1_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000130
Version
GEN004980
Vuln IDs
  • V-845
Rule IDs
  • SV-42193r1_rule
Verbose FTP logging allows the examination of events involving FTP account activity, including login/logout events and file transfers. Without this configuration, logs necessary for troubleshooting or analyzing security incidents will be incomplete.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
Checks: C-40599r1_chk

Determine if the FTP daemon is configured for verbose logging. If it is not, this is a finding.

Fix: F-35834r1_fix

Configure the FTP daemon to use verbose logging.

b
Anonymous FTP must not be active on the system unless authorized.
AC-22 - Medium - CCI-001475 - V-846 - SV-846r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-22
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001475
Version
GEN004820
Vuln IDs
  • V-846
Rule IDs
  • SV-846r2_rule
Due to the numerous vulnerabilities inherent in anonymous FTP, it is recommended that it not be used. If anonymous FTP must be used on a system, the requirement must be authorized and approved in the system accreditation package.trueSystem AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerECSC-1
Checks: C-711r2_chk

Attempt to log into this host with a user name of anonymous and a password of guest (also try the password of guest@mail.com). If the logon is successful, this is a finding. Procedure: # ftp localhost Name: anonymous 530 Guest login not allowed on this machine.

Fix: F-1000r2_fix

Configure the FTP service to not permit anonymous logins.

c
The TFTP daemon must operate in "secure mode" which provides access only to a single directory on the host file system.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000366 - V-847 - SV-847r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN005080
Vuln IDs
  • V-847
Rule IDs
  • SV-847r2_rule
Secure mode limits TFTP requests to a specific directory. If TFTP is not running in secure mode, it may be able to write to any file or directory and may seriously impair system integrity, confidentiality, and availability.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-713r2_chk

Determine if tftpd is running in secure mode. If tftpd is running and not using secure mode, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1001r2_fix

Configure tftpd to run in secure mode.

c
The TFTP daemon must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
AC-6 - High - CCI-000225 - V-848 - SV-848r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005100
Vuln IDs
  • V-848
Rule IDs
  • SV-848r2_rule
If TFTP runs with the setuid or setgid bit set, it may be able to write to any file or directory and may seriously impair system integrity, confidentiality, and availability.System AdministratorECPA-1
Checks: C-714r2_chk

Check the mode of the TFTP daemon. Procedure: # find / -name "*tftpd" -print # ls -lL &lt;file location&gt; If the mode of the file is more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1002r2_fix

Change the mode of the TFTP daemon. Procedure: # chmod 0755 <tftp server>

b
The TFTP daemon must be configured to vendor specifications, including a dedicated TFTP user account, a non-login shell, such as /bin/false, and a home directory owned by the TFTP user.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-849 - SV-849r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005120
Vuln IDs
  • V-849
Rule IDs
  • SV-849r2_rule
If TFTP has a valid shell, it increases the likelihood of someone logging to the TFTP account and compromising the system.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-715r2_chk

Check the /etc/passwd file to determine if TFTP is configured properly. Procedure: # grep tftp /etc/passwd If a TFTP user account does not exist and TFTP is active, this is a finding. Check the user shell for the TFTP user. If it is not /bin/false or equivalent, this is a finding. Check the home directory assigned to the TFTP user. If no home directory is set, or the directory specified is not dedicated to the use of the TFTP service, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1003r2_fix

Create a TFTP user account if none exists. Assign a non-login shell to the TFTP user account, such as /bin/false. Assign a home directory to the TFTP user account.

b
Any X Windows host must write .Xauthority files.
CM-2 - Medium - CCI-000297 - V-850 - SV-850r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000297
Version
GEN005160
Vuln IDs
  • V-850
Rule IDs
  • SV-850r2_rule
.Xauthority files ensure the user is authorized to access the specific X Windows host. If .Xauthority files are not used, it may be possible to obtain unauthorized access to the X Windows host.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-718r2_chk

Check for .Xauthority files being utilized by looking for such files in the home directory of a user that uses X. Procedure: # cd ~someuser # ls -la .Xauthority If the .Xauthority file does not exist, ask the SA if the user is using X Windows. If the user is utilizing X Windows and the .Xauthority file does not exist, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1004r2_fix

Ensure the X Windows host is configured to write .Xauthority files into user home directories. Edit the Xaccess file. Ensure the line that writes the .Xauthority file is uncommented.

b
The Network Information System (NIS) protocol must not be used.
AC-17 - Medium - CCI-001435 - V-867 - SV-867r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-17
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001435
Version
GEN006400
Vuln IDs
  • V-867
Rule IDs
  • SV-867r2_rule
Due to numerous security vulnerabilities existing within NIS, it must not be used. Possible alternative directory services are NIS+ and LDAP.System AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerECSC-1
Checks: C-851r2_chk

Perform the following to determine if NIS is active on the system. # ps -ef | egrep '(ypbind|ypserv)' If NIS is found active on the system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1021r2_fix

Disable the use of NIS. Possible replacements are NIS+ and LDAP.

a
All interactive users must be assigned a home directory in the /etc/passwd file.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-899 - SV-899r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001440
Vuln IDs
  • V-899
Rule IDs
  • SV-899r2_rule
If users do not have a valid home directory, there is no place for the storage and control of files they own.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-307r2_chk

Check all user accounts home directory assignments. If any user account does not have a home directory, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1053r3_fix

Assign a home directory to any user without one.

a
All interactive user home directories defined in the /etc/passwd file must exist.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-900 - SV-900r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001460
Vuln IDs
  • V-900
Rule IDs
  • SV-900r2_rule
If a user has a home directory defined that does not exist, the user may be given the / directory, by default, as the current working directory upon logon. This could create a denial of service because the user would not be able to perform useful tasks in this location.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-308r2_chk

Check all user accounts home directory assignments. If any user account does not have a home directory, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1054r2_fix

If a user has no home directory, determine why. If possible, delete accounts with no home directory. If the account is valid, then create the home directory using the appropriate system administration utility or manually create, i.e., mkdir <directory name>; copy the skeleton files into the directory; chown <user name> <directory name> for the new directory and the skeleton files. Document all changes.

b
All users' home directories must have mode 0750 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-901 - SV-901r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001480
Vuln IDs
  • V-901
Rule IDs
  • SV-901r2_rule
Excessive permissions on home directories allow unauthorized access to user's files.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8017r3_chk

Check the home directory mode of each user in /etc/passwd. Procedure: # cut -d : -f 6 /etc/passwd | xargs -n1 ls -ld | more If a user's home directory's mode is more permissive than 0750, this is a finding. NOTE: Application directories are allowed and may need 0755 permissions (or greater) for correct operation.

Fix: F-1055r2_fix

Change the mode of users' home directories to 0750 or less permissive. Procedure (example): # chmod 0750 <home directory>

b
All interactive users' home directories must be owned by their respective users.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-902 - SV-902r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001500
Vuln IDs
  • V-902
Rule IDs
  • SV-902r2_rule
If users do not own their home directories, unauthorized users could access user files.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8018r2_chk

Check the ownership of each user's home directory listed in the /etc/passwd file. Procedure: # ls -lLd &lt;user home directory&gt; If any user's home directory is not owned by the assigned user, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1056r2_fix

Change the owner of a user's home directory to its assigned user. Procedure: # chown <user> <home directory>

b
All interactive users' home directories must be group-owned by the home directory owner's primary group.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-903 - SV-903r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001520
Vuln IDs
  • V-903
Rule IDs
  • SV-903r2_rule
If the GID of the home directory is not the same as the GID of the user, this would allow unauthorized access to files.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8019r3_chk

Check the group ownership for each user in the /etc/passwd file. Procedure: # ls -lLd &lt;user home directory&gt; If any user's home directory is not group-owned by the assigned user's primary group, this is a finding. Home directories for application accounts requiring different group ownership must be documented using site-defined procedures.

Fix: F-1057r3_fix

Change the group owner for user's home directories to the primary group of the assigned user. Procedure: # chgrp groupname directoryname (Replace examples with appropriate group and home directory.) Document all changes.

b
All local initialization files must be owned by the user or root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-904 - SV-904r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001860
Vuln IDs
  • V-904
Rule IDs
  • SV-904r2_rule
Local initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-395r3_chk

Check the ownership of local initialization files. Procedure (using a shell that supports ~USER as USER's home directory): # cut -d : -f 1 /etc/passwd | xargs -n1 -IUSER sh -c "ls -l ~USER/.[a-z]*" # cut -d : -f 1 /etc/passwd | xargs -n1 -IUSER find ~USER/.dt ! -fstype nfs ! -user USER -exec ls -ld {} \; If local initialization files are not owned by the home directory's user, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1058r3_fix

Change the ownership of the startup and login files in the user's directory to the user or root, as appropriate. Examine each user's home directory and verify all file names beginning with "." are owned by the owner of the directory or root. If they are not, use the chown command to change the owner to the user and research the reasons why the owners were not assigned as required. Procedure: # chown username .filename Document all changes.

b
All local initialization files must have mode 0740 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-905 - SV-905r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001880
Vuln IDs
  • V-905
Rule IDs
  • SV-905r2_rule
Local initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8020r2_chk

Check the modes of local initialization files. Procedure: # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.login # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.cshrc # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.logout # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.profile # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.bash_profile # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.bashrc # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.bash_logout # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.env # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.dtprofile (permissions should be 0755) # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.dispatch # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.emacs # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.exrc # find /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.dt ! -fstype nfs \( -perm -0002 -o -perm -0020 \) -exec ls -ld {} \; (permissions not to be more permissive than 0755) If local initialization files are more permissive than 0740, the .dt directory or the .dtprofile file is more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1059r3_fix

Ensure user startup files have permissions of 0740 or more restrictive. Examine each user's home directory and verify all file names beginning with "." have access permissions of 0740 or more restrictive. If they do not, use the chmod command to correct the vulnerability. Procedure: # chmod 0740 .filename NOTE: The period is part of the file name and is required.

b
All run control scripts must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-906 - SV-906r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001580
Vuln IDs
  • V-906
Rule IDs
  • SV-906r2_rule
If the startup files are writable by other users, the startup files could be modified to insert malicious commands.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8021r2_chk

Check the mode for all run control scripts. If any run control script has a mode more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1060r2_fix

Ensure all system startup files have mode 0755 or less permissive. Examine the rc files, and all files in the rc1.d (rc2.d, and so on) directories, and in the /etc/init.d directory to ensure they are not world-writable. If they are world-writable, use the chmod command to correct the vulnerability and to research why. Procedure: # chmod 755 startupfile

b
Run control scripts' executable search paths must contain only absolute paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-907 - SV-907r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001600
Vuln IDs
  • V-907
Rule IDs
  • SV-907r2_rule
The executable search path (typically the PATH environment variable) contains a list of directories for the shell to search to find executables. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, executables in these directories may be executed instead of system commands. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon, or two consecutive colons, this is interpreted as the current working directory. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-39526r1_chk

Verify run control scripts' library search paths. Procedure: # grep -r PATH /etc/rc* This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon, or two consecutive colons, this is a finding. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), this is a relative path, and this is a finding.

Fix: F-1061r2_fix

Edit the run control script and remove the relative path entry from the executable search path variable.

c
Run control scripts must not execute world-writable programs or scripts.
AC-6 - High - CCI-000225 - V-910 - SV-910r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001640
Vuln IDs
  • V-910
Rule IDs
  • SV-910r2_rule
World-writable files could be modified accidentally or maliciously to compromise system integrity.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-402r8_chk

Check the permissions on the files or scripts executed from system startup scripts to see if they are world-writable. Create a list of all potential run command level scripts. ls -l /etc/init.d/* | tr '\011' ' ' | tr -s ' ' | cut -f 9,9 -d " " Create a list of world writeable files. # find / -perm -002 -type f &gt;&gt; worldWriteableFileList Determine if any of the world writeable files in worldWriteableFileList are called from the run command level scripts. Note: Depending upon the number of scripts vs world writeable files, it may be easier to inspect the scripts manually. # more `ls -l /etc/init.d/* | tr '\011' ' ' | tr -s ' ' | cut -f 9,9 -d "` If any system startup script executes any file or script that is world-writable, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1064r2_fix

Remove the world-writable permission from programs or scripts executed by run control scripts. Procedure: # chmod o-w <program or script executed from run control script>

b
There must be no .netrc files on the system.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000196 - V-913 - SV-913r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000196
Version
GEN002000
Vuln IDs
  • V-913
Rule IDs
  • SV-913r2_rule
Unencrypted passwords for remote FTP servers may be stored in .netrc files. Policy requires passwords be encrypted in storage and not used in access scripts.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2, IAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-404r2_chk

Check the system for the existence of any .netrc files. Procedure: # find / -name .netrc If any .netrc file exists, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1067r3_fix

Remove the .netrc file(s). Procedure: # rm .netrc

a
All files and directories contained in interactive user's home directories must be owned by the home directory's owner.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-914 - SV-914r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001540
Vuln IDs
  • V-914
Rule IDs
  • SV-914r2_rule
If users do not own the files in their directories, unauthorized users may be able to access them. Additionally, if files are not owned by the user, this could be an indication of system compromise.trueSystem AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-405r3_chk

For each user in the /etc/passwd file, check for the presence of files and directories within the user's home directory not owned by the home directory owner. Procedure: # find /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt; ! -fstype nfs ! -user &lt;username&gt; ! \( -name .login -o -name .cshrc -o -name .logout -o -name .profile -o -name .bash_profile -o -name .bashrc -o -name .env -o -name .dtprofile -o -name .dispatch -o -name .emacs -o -name .exrc \) -exec ls -ld {} \; If user's home directories contain files or directories not owned by the home directory owner, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1068r2_fix

Change the ownership of files and directories in user's home directories to the owner of the home directory. Procedure: # chown accountowner filename OR # find /<usershomedirectory> ! -fstype nfs ! -user <username> ! /( -name .login -o -name .cshrc -o -name .logout -o -name .profile -o -name .bash_profile -o -name .bashrc -o -name .env -o -name .dtprofile -o -name .dispatch -o -name .emacs -o -name .exrc \) -exec chown <username> {} \;

a
All files and directories contained in user's home directories must have mode 0750 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-915 - SV-915r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001560
Vuln IDs
  • V-915
Rule IDs
  • SV-915r2_rule
Excessive permissions allow unauthorized access to user's files. trueSystem AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerECLP-1
Checks: C-431r3_chk

For each user in the /etc/passwd file, check for files and directories with a mode more permissive than 0750. Procedure: # find /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt; ! -fstype nfs ! \( -name .login -o -name .cshrc -o -name .logout -o -name .profile -o -name .bash_profile -o -name .bashrc -o -name .env -o -name .dtprofile -o -name .dispatch -o -name .emacs -o -name .exrc \) \( -perm -0001 -o -perm -0002 -o -perm -0004 -o -perm -0020 -o -perm -2000 -o -perm -4000 \) -exec ls -ld {} \; If user's home directories contain files or directories more permissive than 0750, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1069r2_fix

Change the mode of files and directories within user's home directories to 0750. Procedure: # chmod 0750 filename Document all changes.

b
The /etc/shells (or equivalent) file must exist.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-916 - SV-916r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002120
Vuln IDs
  • V-916
Rule IDs
  • SV-916r2_rule
The shells file (or equivalent) lists approved default shells. It helps provide layered defense to the security approach by ensuring users cannot change their default shell to an unauthorized shell that may not be secure.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-432r2_chk

Verify /etc/shells exists. # ls -l /etc/shells If the file does not exist, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1070r2_fix

Create a /etc/shells file containing a list of valid system shells. Consult vendor documentation for an appropriate list of system shells. Procedure: # echo "/bin/bash" >> /etc/shells # echo "/bin/csh" >> /etc/shells (Repeat as necessary for other shells.)

b
All shells referenced in /etc/passwd must be listed in the /etc/shells file, except any shells specified for the purpose of preventing logins.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-917 - SV-917r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002140
Vuln IDs
  • V-917
Rule IDs
  • SV-917r2_rule
The shells file lists approved default shells. It helps provide layered defense to the security approach by ensuring users cannot change their default shell to an unauthorized shell that may not be secure.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-433r2_chk

Confirm the login shells referenced in the /etc/passwd file are listed in the /etc/shells file. Procedure: # more /etc/passwd # more /etc/shells The /usr/bin/false, /bin/false, /dev/null, /sbin/nologin, (and equivalents), and sdshell will be considered valid shells for use in the /etc/passwd file, but will not be listed in the /etc/shells file. If a shell referenced in /etc/passwd is not listed in the shells file, excluding the above mentioned shells, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1071r2_fix

Use the chsh utility or edit the /etc/passwd file and correct the error by changing the default shell of the account in error to an acceptable shell name contained in the /etc/shells file.

b
Accounts must be locked upon 35 days of inactivity.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-000017 - V-918 - SV-918r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000017
Version
GEN000760
Vuln IDs
  • V-918
Rule IDs
  • SV-918r2_rule
On some systems, accounts with disabled passwords still allow access using rcp, remsh, or rlogin through equivalent remote hosts. All that is required is the remote host name and the user name match an entry in a hosts.equiv file and have a .rhosts file in the user directory. Using a shell called /bin/false or /dev/null (or an equivalent) will add a layered defense. Non-interactive accounts on the system, such as application accounts, may be documented exceptions. trueSystem AdministratorIAAC-1
Checks: C-462r2_chk

Indications of inactive accounts are those without entries in the last log. Check the date in the last log to verify it is within the last 35 days. If an inactive account is not disabled via an entry in the password field in the /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow (or equivalent), check the /etc/passwd file to check if the account has a valid shell. If an inactive account is found that is not disabled, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1072r2_fix

All inactive accounts will have /bin/false, /usr/bin/false, or /dev/null as the default shell in the /etc/passwd file and have the password disabled. Disable the inactive accounts. Examine the inactive accounts using the last command. Note the date of last login for each account. If any (other than system and application accounts) exceed 35 days, then disable them by placing a shell of /bin/false or /dev/null in the shell field of the passwd file entry for that account. An alternative, and preferable method, is to disable the account using SAM, SMIT, or ADMINTOOL.

b
All shell files must be owned by root or bin.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-921 - SV-921r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002200
Vuln IDs
  • V-921
Rule IDs
  • SV-921r2_rule
If shell files are owned by users other than root or bin, they could be modified by intruders or malicious users to perform unauthorized actions.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8024r2_chk

Check the ownership of the system shells. # cat /etc/shells | xargs -n1 ls -lL If any shell is not owned by root or bin, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1075r2_fix

Change the ownership of the shell with incorrect ownership. # chown root <shell>

c
All shell files must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
AC-6 - High - CCI-000225 - V-922 - SV-922r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002220
Vuln IDs
  • V-922
Rule IDs
  • SV-922r2_rule
Shells with world/group-write permissions give the ability to maliciously modify the shell to obtain unauthorized access.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8025r2_chk

If /etc/shells exists, check the group ownership of each shell referenced. # cat /etc/shells | xargs -n1 ls -lL Otherwise, check any shells found on the system. # find / -name "*sh" | xargs -n1 ls -lL If a shell has a mode more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1076r3_fix

Change the mode of the shell. # chmod 0755 <shell>

a
The system must be checked for extraneous device files at least weekly.
CM-3 - Low - CCI-000318 - V-923 - SV-923r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-3
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000318
Version
GEN002260
Vuln IDs
  • V-923
Rule IDs
  • SV-923r2_rule
If an unauthorized device is allowed to exist on the system, there is the possibility the system may perform unauthorized operations.Information Assurance OfficerSystem AdministratorDCSW-1, ECSC-1
Checks: C-464r2_chk

Check the system for an automated job, or check with the SA, to determine if the system is checked for extraneous device files on a weekly basis. If no automated or manual process is in place, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1077r2_fix

Establish a weekly automated or manual process to create a list of device files on the system and determine if any files have been added, moved, or deleted since the last list was generated. Generate a list of device files. # find / -type b -o -type c > device-file-list

b
Device files and directories must only be writable by users with a system account or as configured by the vendor.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-924 - SV-924r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002280
Vuln IDs
  • V-924
Rule IDs
  • SV-924r2_rule
System device files in writable directories could be modified, removed, or used by an unprivileged user to control system hardware.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2, ECLP-1
Checks: C-465r2_chk

Find all device files existing anywhere on the system. Procedure: # find / -type b -print &gt; devicelist # find / -type c -print &gt;&gt; devicelist Check the permissions on the directories above subdirectories containing device files. If any of the device files or their parent directories is world-writable, excepting device files specifically intended to be world-writable, such as /dev/null, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1078r3_fix

Remove the world-writable permission from the device file(s). Procedure: # chmod o-w <device file> Document all changes.

b
Device files used for backup must only be readable and/or writable by root or the backup user.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-925 - SV-925r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002300
Vuln IDs
  • V-925
Rule IDs
  • SV-925r2_rule
System backups could be accidentally or maliciously overwritten and destroy the ability to recover the system if a compromise should occur. Unauthorized users could also copy system files.trueInformation Assurance OfficerSystem AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-466r2_chk

Check the system for world-writable device files. Procedure: # find / -perm -2 -a \( -type b -o -type c \) -exec ls -ld {} \; If any device file(s) used for backup are writable by users other than root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1079r2_fix

Use the chmod command to remove the world-writable bit from the backup device files. Procedure: # chmod o-w backdevicefilename Document all changes.

b
Any NIS+ server must be operating at security level 2.
AC-17 - Medium - CCI-001435 - V-926 - SV-926r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-17
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001435
Version
GEN006460
Vuln IDs
  • V-926
Rule IDs
  • SV-926r2_rule
If the NIS+ server is not operating in, at least, security level 2, there is no encryption and the system could be penetrated by intruders and/or malicious users.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-852r2_chk

If the system is not using NIS+, this is not applicable. Check the system to determine if NIS+ security level 2 is implemented. Procedure: # niscat cred.org_dir If the second column does not contain DES, the system is not using NIS+ security level 2, and this is a finding.

Fix: F-25778r1_fix

Configure the NIS+ server to use security level 2.

b
The NFS export configuration file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-928 - SV-928r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005740
Vuln IDs
  • V-928
Rule IDs
  • SV-928r2_rule
Failure to give ownership of the NFS export configuration file to root provides the designated owner and possible unauthorized users with the potential to change system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-855r2_chk

Check the ownership of the NFS export configuration file. If the file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1082r2_fix

Change the ownership of the NFS export configuration file to root. # chown root <NFS export file>

a
The NFS export configuration file must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-929 - SV-929r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005760
Vuln IDs
  • V-929
Rule IDs
  • SV-929r2_rule
Excessive permissions on the NFS export configuration file could allow unauthorized modification of the file, which could result in Denial-of-Service to authorized NFS exports and the creation of additional unauthorized exports.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2, ECLP-1
Checks: C-856r2_chk

Check the ownership of the NFS export configuration file. If the file has a mode more permissive than 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1083r2_fix

Change the mode of the NFS export configuration file to 0644. # chmod 0644 <NFS export file>

b
All NFS-exported system files and system directories must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-931 - SV-931r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005800
Vuln IDs
  • V-931
Rule IDs
  • SV-931r2_rule
Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or directories to root provides the designated owner and possible unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-862r2_chk

Check for NFS exported file systems. Procedure: # exportfs -v This will display all of the exported file systems. For each file system displayed, check the ownership. Procedure: # ls -lLa &lt;exported file system path&gt; If the files and directories are not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1085r2_fix

Change the ownership of exported file systems not owned by root. Procedure: # chown root <path>

b
The NFS anonymous UID and GID must be configured to values that have no permissions.
AC-14 - Medium - CCI-000062 - V-932 - SV-932r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-14
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000062
Version
GEN005820
Vuln IDs
  • V-932
Rule IDs
  • SV-932r2_rule
When an NFS server is configured to deny remote root access, a selected UID and GID are used to handle requests from the remote root user. The UID and GID should be chosen from the system to provide the appropriate level of non-privileged access.System AdministratorECSC-1, IAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-863r2_chk

Check if the anon option is set correctly for exported file systems. List exported file systems. # exportfs -v Each of the exported file systems should include an entry for the 'anon=' option set to -1 or an equivalent (60001, 60002, 65534, or 65535). If an appropriate 'anon=' setting is not present for an exported file system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1086r2_fix

Edit /etc/exports and set the anon=-1 option for exports without it. Re-export the file systems.

b
The NFS server must be configured to restrict file system access to local hosts.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-933 - SV-933r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN005840
Vuln IDs
  • V-933
Rule IDs
  • SV-933r2_rule
The NFS access option limits user access to the specified level. This assists in protecting exported file systems. If access is not restricted, unauthorized hosts may be able to access the system's NFS exports.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-864r2_chk

Check the permissions on exported NFS file systems. Procedure: # exportfs -v If the exported file systems do not contain the rw or ro options specifying a list of hosts or networks, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1087r2_fix

Edit /etc/exports and add ro and/or rw options (as appropriate) specifying a list of hosts or networks which are permitted access. Re-export the file systems.

b
The NFS server must not allow remote root access.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-935 - SV-935r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005880
Vuln IDs
  • V-935
Rule IDs
  • SV-935r2_rule
If the NFS server allows root access to local file systems from remote hosts, this access could be used to compromise the system.Information Assurance ManagerInformation Assurance OfficerSystem AdministratorEBRP-1
Checks: C-867r2_chk

Determine if the NFS server is exporting with the root access option. Procedure: # exportfs -v | grep "root=" If an export with the root option is found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1089r2_fix

Edit /etc/exports and remove the root= option for all exports. Re-export the file systems.

b
The nosuid option must be enabled on all NFS client mounts.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-936 - SV-936r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005900
Vuln IDs
  • V-936
Rule IDs
  • SV-936r2_rule
Enabling the nosuid mount option prevents the system from granting owner or group owner privileges to programs with the suid or sgid bit set. If the system does not restrict this access, users with unprivileged access to the local system may be able to acquire privileged access by executing suid or sgid files located on the mounted NFS file system.Information Assurance ManagerInformation Assurance OfficerSystem AdministratorECPA-1
Checks: C-868r2_chk

Check the system for NFS mounts not using the nosuid option. Procedure: # mount -v | grep " type nfs " | grep -v nosuid If the mounted file systems do not have the nosuid option, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1090r2_fix

Edit /etc/fstab and add the "nosuid" option for all NFS file systems. Remount the NFS file systems to make the change take effect.

b
The system's access control program must log each system access attempt.
AU-2 - Medium - CCI-000126 - V-941 - SV-941r2_rule
RMF Control
AU-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000126
Version
GEN006600
Vuln IDs
  • V-941
Rule IDs
  • SV-941r2_rule
If access attempts are not logged, then multiple attempts to log on to the system by an unauthorized user may go undetected.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
Checks: C-888r2_chk

Normally, TCPD logs to the mail facility in /etc/syslog.conf. Determine if syslog is configured to log events by TCPD. Procedure: # more /etc/syslog.conf Look for entries similar to the following: mail.debug /var/adm/maillog mail.none /var/adm/maillog mail.* /var/log/mail auth.info /var/log/messages The above entries would indicate mail alerts are being logged. If no entries for mail exist, then TCPD is not logging and this is a finding.

Fix: F-1095r2_fix

Configure the access restriction program to log every access attempt. Ensure the implementation instructions for TCP_WRAPPERS are followed, so system access attempts are logged into the system log files. If an alternate application is used, it must support this function.

b
Access to the cron utility must be controlled using the cron.allow and/or cron.deny file(s).
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-974 - SV-974r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002960
Vuln IDs
  • V-974
Rule IDs
  • SV-974r2_rule
The cron facility allows users to execute recurring jobs on a regular and unattended basis. The cron.allow file designates accounts that are allowed to enter and execute jobs using the cron facility. If neither cron.allow nor cron.deny exists, then any account may use the cron facility. This may open the facility up for abuse by system intruders and malicious users.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-786r2_chk

Check for the existence of the cron.allow and cron.deny files. If neither file exists, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1128r2_fix

Create a cron.allow and/or cron.deny file(s) with appropriate content in the appropriate directory for the system.

b
The cron.allow file must have mode 0600 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-975 - SV-975r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002980
Vuln IDs
  • V-975
Rule IDs
  • SV-975r2_rule
A cron.allow file that is readable and/or writable by other than root could allow potential intruders and malicious users to use the file contents to help discern information, such as who is allowed to execute cron programs, which could be harmful to overall system and network security.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-787r2_chk

Check the mode of the cron.allow file. If the file has a mode more permissive than 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1129r2_fix

Change the mode of the cron.allow file to 0600.

b
Cron must not execute group-writable or world-writable programs.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-976 - SV-976r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003000
Vuln IDs
  • V-976
Rule IDs
  • SV-976r2_rule
If cron executes group-writable or world-writable programs, there is a possibility that unauthorized users could manipulate the programs with malicious intent. This could compromise system and network security.System AdministratorDCSL-1
Checks: C-788r2_chk

List all cron jobs on the system. If any cron job executes a program with group-writable or world-writable permissions, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1130r2_fix

Remove the world-writable and group-writable permissions from the cron program file(s) identified. # chmod go-w <cron program file>

b
Cron must not execute programs in, or subordinate to, world-writable directories.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-977 - SV-977r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003020
Vuln IDs
  • V-977
Rule IDs
  • SV-977r2_rule
If cron programs are located in or subordinate to world-writable directories, they become vulnerable to removal and replacement by malicious users or system intruders.System AdministratorDCSL-1
Checks: C-789r2_chk

List all cron jobs on the system. If any cron job executes a program located in a world-writable directory, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1131r2_fix

Remove the world-writable permission from the cron program directories identified. Procedure: # chmod o-w <cron program directory>

b
Crontab files must have mode 0600 or less permissive, and files in cron script directories must have mode 0700 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-978 - SV-978r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003080
Vuln IDs
  • V-978
Rule IDs
  • SV-978r2_rule
To protect the integrity of scheduled system jobs and prevent malicious modification to these jobs, crontab files must be secured.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-790r2_chk

Check the modes of the crontab and cron job script files. If the mode is more permissive than 0600 for crontab files or 0700 for cron job script files, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1132r2_fix

Change the modes of crontab files to 0600 and cron job script files to 0700.

b
Cron and crontab directories must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-979 - SV-979r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003100
Vuln IDs
  • V-979
Rule IDs
  • SV-979r2_rule
To protect the integrity of scheduled system jobs and to prevent malicious modification to these jobs, crontab files must be secured.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8072r2_chk

Check the mode of crontab directories. If any have a mode more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1133r2_fix

Change the mode of crontab directories to 0755.

b
Cron and crontab directories must be owned by root or bin.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-980 - SV-980r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003120
Vuln IDs
  • V-980
Rule IDs
  • SV-980r2_rule
Incorrect ownership of the cron or crontab directories could permit unauthorized users the ability to alter cron jobs and run automated jobs as privileged users. Failure to give ownership of cron or crontab directories to root or to bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8073r2_chk

Check the owner of the cron and crontab directories. If any cron or crontab directory is not owned by root or bin, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1134r2_fix

Change the owner of the cron and crontab directories to root or bin.

b
Cron and crontab directories must be group-owned by root, sys, bin or cron.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-981 - SV-981r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003140
Vuln IDs
  • V-981
Rule IDs
  • SV-981r2_rule
To protect the integrity of scheduled system jobs and to prevent malicious modification to these jobs, crontab files must be secured. Failure to give group-ownership of cron or crontab directories to a system group provides the designated group and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8074r2_chk

Check the group owner of cron and crontab directories. If a cron or crontab directory is not group-owned by root, sys, bin, or cron, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1135r2_fix

Change the group owner of the cron and crontab directories to root, sys, bin, or cron.

b
The cron log file must have mode 0600 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-983 - SV-983r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003180
Vuln IDs
  • V-983
Rule IDs
  • SV-983r2_rule
Cron logs contain reports of scheduled system activities and must be protected from unauthorized access or manipulation.System AdministratorECLP-1, ECTP-1
Checks: C-792r2_chk

Check the mode of the system cron log. If the mode is more permissive than 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1137r2_fix

Change the mode of the system cron log to 0600.

b
Access to the "at" utility must be controlled via the at.allow and/or at.deny file(s).
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-984 - SV-984r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003280
Vuln IDs
  • V-984
Rule IDs
  • SV-984r2_rule
The "at" facility selectively allows users to execute jobs at deferred times. It is usually used for one-time jobs. The at.allow file selectively allows access to the "at" facility. If there is no at.allow file, there is no ready documentation of who is allowed to submit "at" jobs.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-797r2_chk

Check for the existence of at.allow and at.deny files. If neither file exists, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11346r2_fix

Create at.allow and/or at.deny files containing appropriate lists of users to be allowed or denied access to the "at" daemon.

b
The at.deny file must not be empty if it exists.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-985 - SV-985r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003300
Vuln IDs
  • V-985
Rule IDs
  • SV-985r2_rule
On some systems, if there is no at.allow file and there is an empty at.deny file, then the system assumes that everyone has permission to use the "at" facility. This could create an insecure setting in the case of malicious users or system intruders.trueInformation Assurance OfficerSystem AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-798r2_chk

Check the at.deny file. If the at.deny file exists and is empty, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1139r2_fix

Add appropriate users to the at.deny file, or remove the empty at.deny file if an at.allow file exists.

b
Default system accounts (with the exception of root) must not be listed in the at.allow file or must be included in the at.deny file if the at.allow file does not exist.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-986 - SV-986r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003320
Vuln IDs
  • V-986
Rule IDs
  • SV-986r2_rule
Default accounts, such as bin, sys, adm, uucp, daemon, and others, should never have access to the "at" facility. This would create a possible vulnerability open to intruders or malicious users.System AdministratorECPA-1
Checks: C-28539r1_chk

Check the contents of the at.allow file. If default accounts (such as bin, sys, adm, and others) are listed in the at.allow file, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1140r2_fix

Remove the default accounts (such as bin, sys, adm, and others) from the at.allow file.

b
The at.allow file must have mode 0600 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-987 - SV-987r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003340
Vuln IDs
  • V-987
Rule IDs
  • SV-987r2_rule
Permissions more permissive than 0600 (read, write, and execute for the owner) may allow unauthorized or malicious access to the at.allow and/or at.deny files.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-800r2_chk

Check the mode of the at.allow file. If the at.allow file has a mode more permissive than 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1141r2_fix

Change the mode of the at.allow file to 0600.

b
The at daemon must not execute group-writable or world-writable programs.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-988 - SV-988r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003360
Vuln IDs
  • V-988
Rule IDs
  • SV-988r2_rule
If the at facility executes world-writable or group-writable programs, it is possible for the programs to be accidentally or maliciously changed or replaced without the owner's intent or knowledge. This would cause a system security breach.System AdministratorDCSL-1
Checks: C-801r2_chk

List the "at" jobs on the system. Procedure: # ls -la /var/spool/cron/atjobs /var/spool/atjobs For each "at" job file, determine which programs are executed. Procedure: # more &lt;at job file&gt; Check each program executed by "at" for group- or world-writable permissions. Procedure: # ls -la &lt;at program file&gt; If "at" executes group- or world-writable programs, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1142r2_fix

Remove group-write and world-write permissions from files executed by "at" jobs. Procedure: # chmod go-w <file>

b
The "at" daemon must not execute programs in, or subordinate to, world-writable directories.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-989 - SV-989r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003380
Vuln IDs
  • V-989
Rule IDs
  • SV-989r2_rule
If "at" programs are located in, or subordinate, to world-writable directories, they become vulnerable to removal and replacement by malicious users or system intruders.System AdministratorDCSL-1
Checks: C-802r2_chk

List any "at" jobs on the system. Procedure: # ls /var/spool/cron/atjobs /var/spool/atjobs For each "at" job, determine which programs are executed. Procedure: # more &lt;at job file&gt; Check the directory containing each program executed by "at" for world-writable permissions. Procedure: # ls -la &lt;at program file directory&gt; If "at" executes programs in world-writable directories, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1143r2_fix

Remove the world-writable permission from directories containing programs executed by "at". Procedure: # chmod o-w <at program directory>

c
SNMP communities, users, and passphrases must be changed from the default.
IA-5 - High - CCI-000178 - V-993 - SV-993r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000178
Version
GEN005300
Vuln IDs
  • V-993
Rule IDs
  • SV-993r2_rule
Whether active or not, default SNMP passwords, users, and passphrases must be changed to maintain security. If the service is running with the default authenticators, then anyone can gather data about the system and the network and use the information to potentially compromise the integrity of the system or network(s).System AdministratorIAAC-1
Checks: C-816r2_chk

Check the SNMP configuration for default passwords. Locate and examine the SNMP configuration. Procedure: # find / -name snmpd.conf -print # more snmpd.conf Identify any community names or user password configuration. If any community name or password is set to a default value, such as public, private, snmp-trap, password, or any value which does not meet DISA password requirements, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1147r2_fix

Change the default passwords. To change them, locate the snmpd.conf file and edit it. Locate the line system-group-read-community which has a default password of public and make the password something more random (less guessable). Make the same changes for the lines that read system-group-write-community, read-community, write-community, trap, and trap-community. Read the information in the file carefully. The trap is defining who to send traps to, for instance, by default. It is not a password, but the name of a host.

b
The snmpd.conf file must have mode 0600 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-994 - SV-994r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005320
Vuln IDs
  • V-994
Rule IDs
  • SV-994r2_rule
The snmpd.conf file contains authenticators and must be protected from unauthorized access and modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-817r2_chk

Check the mode of the SNMP daemon configuration file. Locate the SNMP daemon configuration file. Consult vendor documentation to verify the name and location of the file. Procedure: # find / -name snmpd.conf Check the mode of the SNMP daemon configuration file. Procedure: # ls -lL &lt;snmpd.conf&gt; If the snmpd.conf file has a mode more permissive than 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1148r2_fix

Change the mode of the SNMP daemon configuration file to 0600. Procedure: # chmod 0600 <snmpd.conf>

b
Management Information Base (MIB) files must have mode 0640 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-995 - SV-995r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005340
Vuln IDs
  • V-995
Rule IDs
  • SV-995r2_rule
The ability to read the MIB file could impart special knowledge to an intruder or malicious user about the ability to extract compromising information about the system or network.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-818r2_chk

Check the modes for all Management Information Base (MIB) files on the system. Procedure: # find / -name *.mib -print # ls -lL &lt;mib file&gt; If any file is returned that does not have mode 0640 or less permissive, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1149r2_fix

Change the mode of MIB files to 0640. Procedure: # chmod 0640 <mib file>

b
Public directories must be the only world-writable directories and world-writable files must be located only in public directories.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-1010 - SV-1010r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002480
Vuln IDs
  • V-1010
Rule IDs
  • SV-1010r2_rule
World-writable files and directories make it easy for a malicious user to place potentially compromising files on the system. The only authorized public directories are those temporary directories supplied with the system or those designed to be temporary file repositories. The setting is normally reserved for directories used by the system and by users for temporary file storage (e.g., /tmp) and for directories requiring global read/write access.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-467r2_chk

Check the system for world-writable files and directories. Procedure: # find / -perm -2 -a \( -type d -o -type f \) -exec ls -ld {} \; If any world-writable files or directories are located, except those required for system operation, such as /tmp and /dev/null, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1164r2_fix

Remove or change the mode for any world-writable file or directory on the system that is not required to be world-writable. Procedure: # chmod o-w <file/directory> Document all changes.

a
Inetd or xinetd logging/tracing must be enabled.
AU-3 - Low - CCI-000134 - V-1011 - SV-1011r2_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000134
Version
GEN003800
Vuln IDs
  • V-1011
Rule IDs
  • SV-1011r2_rule
Inetd or xinetd logging and tracing allows the system administrators to observe the IP addresses that are connecting to their machines and to observe what network services are being sought. This provides valuable information when trying to find the source of malicious users and potential malicious users.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3, ECSC-1
Checks: C-39582r1_chk

Determine if logging is enabled for the system's inetd or xinetd service. If logging is not enabled, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1165r2_fix

Enable logging or tracing for inetd or xinetd.

c
The system must be configured to only boot from the system boot device.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000366 - V-1013 - SV-1013r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN008600
Vuln IDs
  • V-1013
Rule IDs
  • SV-1013r2_rule
The ability to boot from removable media is the same as being able to boot into single user or maintenance mode without a password. This ability could allow a malicious user to boot the system and perform changes possibly compromising or damaging the system. It could also allow the system to be used for malicious purposes by a malicious anonymous user.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-1879r3_chk

Determine if the system is configured to boot from devices other than the system startup media. If so, this is a finding. In most cases, this will require access to the BIOS or system controller. The exact procedure will be hardware-dependent, and the SA should be consulted to identify the specific configuration. In the event the BIOS or system controller is not accessible without adversely impacting (e.g., restarting) the system, the SA may be interviewed to determine compliance with the requirement.

Fix: F-1167r2_fix

Configure the system to only boot from system startup media.

b
The system must not run an Internet Network News (INN) server.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-1023 - SV-1023r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
GEN006240
Vuln IDs
  • V-1023
Rule IDs
  • SV-1023r2_rule
Internet Network News (INN) servers access Usenet newsfeeds and store newsgroup articles. INN servers use the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) to transfer information from the Usenet to the server and from the server to authorized remote hosts. If this function is necessary to support a valid mission requirement, its use must be authorized and approved in the system accreditation package.System AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerECSC-1
Checks: C-2043r2_chk

# ps -ef | egrep "innd|nntpd" If an INN server is running, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1177r2_fix

Disable the INN server.

b
The Samba Web Administration Tool (SWAT) must be restricted to the local host or require SSL.
AC-17 - Medium - CCI-001436 - V-1026 - SV-1026r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-17
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001436
Version
GEN006080
Vuln IDs
  • V-1026
Rule IDs
  • SV-1026r2_rule
SWAT is a tool used to configure Samba. As it modifies Samba configuration, which can impact system security, it must be protected from unauthorized access. SWAT authentication may involve the root password, which must be protected by encryption when traversing the network. Restricting access to the local host allows for the use of SSH TCP forwarding, if configured, or administration by a web browser on the local system.System AdministratorEBRP-1, ECCT-1, ECCT-2
Checks: C-2047r3_chk

Check the system for an enabled SWAT service. # grep -i swat /etc/inetd.conf If SWAT is found enabled, it must be utilized with SSL to ensure a secure connection between the client and the server. Ask the SA to identify the method used to provide SSL protection for the SWAT service. Verify (or ask the SA to demonstrate) this configuration is effective by accessing SWAT using an HTTPS connection from a web browser. If SWAT is found enabled and has no SSL protection, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1180r3_fix

Disable SWAT (e.g., remove the "swat" line from inetd.conf or equivalent, and restart the service) or configure SSL protection for the SWAT service.

b
The /etc/smb.conf file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-1027 - SV-1027r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN006100
Vuln IDs
  • V-1027
Rule IDs
  • SV-1027r2_rule
The /etc/smb.conf file allows access to other machines on the network and grants permissions to certain users. If it is owned by another user, the file may be maliciously modified and the Samba configuration could be compromised.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-28771r2_chk

Check the ownership of the smb.conf file. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/opt/samba/smb.conf # ls -l &lt;smb.conf file&gt; If an smb.conf file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1181r2_fix

Change the ownership of the smb.conf file. Procedure: # chown root smb.conf

b
The /etc/smb.conf file must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-1028 - SV-1028r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN006140
Vuln IDs
  • V-1028
Rule IDs
  • SV-1028r2_rule
If the smb.conf file has excessive permissions, the file may be maliciously modified and the Samba configuration could be compromised.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-2048r2_chk

Check the mode of the smb.conf file. Procedure: # find / -name smb.conf # ls -lL &lt;smb.conf file&gt; If the smb.conf has a mode more permissive than 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1182r2_fix

Change the mode of the smb.conf file to 0644 or less permissive. Procedure: # chmod 0644 smb.conf

b
The /etc/smbpasswd file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-1029 - SV-1029r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN006160
Vuln IDs
  • V-1029
Rule IDs
  • SV-1029r2_rule
If the smbpasswd file is not owned by root, the smbpasswd file may be maliciously accessed or modified, potentially resulting in the compromise of Samba accounts.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-28774r1_chk

Check the ownership of the smbpasswd file. # find / -name smbpasswd # ls -l &lt;smbpasswd file&gt; If an smbpasswd file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1183r2_fix

Use the chown command to configure the smbpasswd file. # chown root /etc/smbpasswd

b
The smb.conf file must use the hosts option to restrict access to Samba.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-1030 - SV-1030r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN006220
Vuln IDs
  • V-1030
Rule IDs
  • SV-1030r2_rule
Samba increases the attack surface of the system and must be restricted to communicate only with systems requiring access.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-2052r2_chk

Examine the smb.conf file. # more smb.conf If the hosts option is not present to restrict access to a list of authorized hosts and networks, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1184r2_fix

Edit the smb.conf file and set the hosts option to permit only authorized hosts to access Samba.

c
Root passwords must never be passed over a network in clear text form.
IA-5 - High - CCI-000197 - V-1046 - SV-1046r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000197
Version
GEN001100
Vuln IDs
  • V-1046
Rule IDs
  • SV-1046r2_rule
If a user accesses the root account (or any account) using an unencrypted connection, the password is passed over the network in clear text form and is subject to interception and misuse. This is true even if recommended procedures are followed by logging on to a named account and using the su command to access root.System AdministratorECNK-1, ECNK-2, IAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-891r2_chk

Determine if root has logged in over an unencrypted network connection. First, determine if root has logged in over a network. Procedure: # last | grep "^root " | egrep -v "reboot|console" | more Next, determine if the SSH daemon is running. Procedure: # ps -ef |grep sshd If root has logged in over the network and SSHD is not running, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1200r2_fix

Enable SSH on the system and use it for all remote connections used to attain root access.

b
The system must not permit root logins using remote access programs, such as SSH.
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000770 - V-1047 - SV-1047r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000770
Version
GEN001120
Vuln IDs
  • V-1047
Rule IDs
  • SV-1047r2_rule
Even though communications are encrypted, an additional layer of security may be gained by extending the policy of not logging directly on as root. In addition, logging in with a user-specific account preserves the audit trail.System AdministratorECPA-1
Checks: C-892r2_chk

Determine if the SSH daemon is configured to permit root logins. Procedure: # find / -name sshd_config -print # grep -v "^#" &lt;sshd_config path&gt; | grep -i permitrootlogin If the PermitRootLogin entry is not found or is not set to no, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24426r1_fix

Edit the configuration file and set the PermitRootLogin option to no.

b
Audio devices must have mode 0660 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-1048 - SV-1048r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002320
Vuln IDs
  • V-1048
Rule IDs
  • SV-1048r2_rule
Audio and video devices that are globally accessible have proven to be another security hazard. There is software that can activate system microphones and video devices connected to user workstations and/or X terminals. Once the microphone has been activated, it is possible to eavesdrop on otherwise private conversations without the victim being aware of it. This action effectively changes the user's microphone to a bugging device.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-893r2_chk

Check the mode of audio devices. If the mode of audio devices are more permissive than 0660, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24491r1_fix

Change the mode of audio devices. # chmod o-w <audio device>

b
Audio devices must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-1049 - SV-1049r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002340
Vuln IDs
  • V-1049
Rule IDs
  • SV-1049r2_rule
Audio and video devices that are globally accessible have proven to be another security hazard. There is software that can activate system microphones and video devices connected to user workstations and/or X terminals. Once the microphone has been activated, it is possible to eavesdrop on otherwise private conversations without the victim being aware of it. This action effectively changes the user's microphone to a bugging device.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-28270r1_chk

Check the owner of audio devices. If the owner of an audio device is not root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1203r2_fix

Change the owner of the audio device. # chown root <audio device>

b
The /etc/smb.conf file must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-1056 - SV-1056r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN006120
Vuln IDs
  • V-1056
Rule IDs
  • SV-1056r2_rule
If the group owner of the smb.conf file is not root or a system group, the file may be maliciously modified and the Samba configuration could be compromised.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-28772r1_chk

Check the group ownership of the smb.conf file. Procedure: # find / -name /etc/samba/smb.conf # ls -l &lt;smb.conf file&gt; If an smb.conf file is not group-owned by root, bin, or sys, this is a finding

Fix: F-1210r2_fix

Change the group owner of the smb.conf file. Procedure: # chgrp root smb.conf

b
The /etc/smbpasswd file must be group-owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-1058 - SV-1058r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN006180
Vuln IDs
  • V-1058
Rule IDs
  • SV-1058r2_rule
If the smbpasswd file is not group-owned by root, the smbpasswd file may be maliciously accessed or modified, potentially resulting in the compromise of Samba accounts.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-2051r2_chk

Check smbpasswd ownership. # find / -name smbpasswd # ls -lL &lt;smbpasswd file&gt; If smbpasswd is not group-owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1212r2_fix

Use the chgrp command to ensure the group owner of the smbpasswd file is root. # chgrp root /etc/smbpasswd.

b
The /etc/smbpasswd file must have mode 0600 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-1059 - SV-1059r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN006200
Vuln IDs
  • V-1059
Rule IDs
  • SV-1059r2_rule
If the smbpasswd file has a mode more permissive than 0600, the smbpasswd file may be maliciously accessed or modified, potentially resulting in the compromise of Samba accounts.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-2053r2_chk

Check smbpasswd mode. Procedure: # find / -name smbpasswd # ls -lL &lt;smbpasswd file&gt; If smbpasswd has a mode more permissive than 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1213r2_fix

Change the mode of the smbpasswd file to 0600. Procedure: # chmod 0600 smbpasswd

b
Audio devices must be group-owned by root, sys, bin, or system.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-1061 - SV-1061r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002360
Vuln IDs
  • V-1061
Rule IDs
  • SV-1061r2_rule
Without privileged group owners, audio devices will be vulnerable to being used as eaves-dropping devices by malicious users or intruders to possibly listen to conversations containing sensitive information.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-28282r1_chk

Check the group owner of audio devices. Procedure: # ls -lL &lt;audio device file&gt; If the group owner of an audio device is not root, sys, bin, or system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1215r2_fix

Change the group owner of the audio device. Procedure: # chgrp system <audio device>

a
The root shell must be located in the / file system.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-1062 - SV-1062r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001080
Vuln IDs
  • V-1062
Rule IDs
  • SV-1062r2_rule
To ensure the root shell is available in repair and administrative modes, the root shell must be located in the / file system.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-822r2_chk

Determine if /usr has a dedicated file system. Procedure: # grep /usr /etc/fstab If /usr is on a dedicated file system, check the location of root's default shell. Procedure: # grep "^root:" /etc/passwd | grep ":/usr" If the root shell is found to be on a /usr dedicated file system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-1216r2_fix

Change the root account's shell to one present on the / file system. Procedure: Edit /etc/passwd and change the shell for the root account to one present on the / file system (such as /bin/sh, assuming /bin is not on a separate file system). If the system does not store shell configuration in the /etc/passwd file, consult vendor documentation for the correct procedure for the system.

b
Graphical desktop environments provided by the system must automatically lock after 15 minutes of inactivity and the system must require users to re-authenticate to unlock the environment.
AC-11 - Medium - CCI-000057 - V-4083 - SV-4083r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-11
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000057
Version
GEN000500
Vuln IDs
  • V-4083
Rule IDs
  • SV-4083r2_rule
If graphical desktop sessions do not lock the session after 15 minutes of inactivity, requiring re-authentication to resume operations, the system or individual data could be compromised by an alert intruder who could exploit the oversight. This requirement applies to graphical desktop environments provided by the system to locally attached displays and input devices as well as to graphical desktop environments provided to remote systems, including thin clients.System AdministratorPESL-1
Checks: C-8205r2_chk

Log into a graphical desktop environment provided by the system. Allow the session to remain idle for 15 minutes. If the desktop session is not automatically locked after 15 minutes, or does not require re-authentication to resume operations, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4016r2_fix

Consult vendor documentation to determine the settings required for the system to lock graphical desktop environments. Configure the system to lock graphical desktop environments after 15 minutes of inactivity and require re-authentication to resume operations.

b
The system must prohibit the reuse of passwords within five iterations.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000200 - V-4084 - SV-4084r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000200
Version
GEN000800
Vuln IDs
  • V-4084
Rule IDs
  • SV-4084r2_rule
If a user, or root, used the same password continuously or was allowed to change it back shortly after being forced to change it to something else, it would provide a potential intruder with the opportunity to keep guessing at one user's password until it was guessed correctly.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-1670r2_chk

Verify the system is configured to prohibit the reuse of passwords within five iterations.

Fix: F-4017r2_fix

Configure the system to prohibit the reuse of passwords within five iterations.

b
User start-up files must not execute world-writable programs.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4087 - SV-4087r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001940
Vuln IDs
  • V-4087
Rule IDs
  • SV-4087r2_rule
If start-up files execute world-writable programs, especially in unprotected directories, they could be maliciously modified to become Trojans destroying user files or otherwise compromising the system at the user, or higher, level. If the system is compromised at the user level, it is much easier to eventually compromise the system at the root and network level.System AdministratorDCSW-1
Checks: C-8206r2_chk

Check local initialization files for any executed world-writable programs or scripts. Procedure: # more /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.* # ls -al &lt;program or script&gt; If any local initialization file executes a world-writable program or script, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4020r2_fix

Remove the world-writable permission of files referenced by local initialization scripts, or remove the references to these files in the local initialization scripts.

a
User start-up files must not contain the mesg -y or mesg y command.
AC-4 - Low - CCI-000032 - V-4088 - SV-4088r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-4
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000032
Version
GEN001960
Vuln IDs
  • V-4088
Rule IDs
  • SV-4088r2_rule
The mesg -y or mesg y command turns on terminal messaging. On systems that do not default to mesg -n, the system profile (or equivalent) provides it. If the user changes this setting, write access may be provided to the terminal screen which could disrupt processing or cause enough confusion to result in damage to sensitive files. Educate users about the danger of having terminal messaging set on.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-8218r2_chk

# grep "mesg" /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.* If local initialization files contain the mesg -y or mesg y command, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4021r2_fix

Edit the local initialization file(s) and remove the mesg -y command.

b
All system start-up files must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4089 - SV-4089r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001660
Vuln IDs
  • V-4089
Rule IDs
  • SV-4089r2_rule
System start-up files not owned by root could lead to system compromise by allowing malicious users or applications to modify them for unauthorized purposes. This could lead to system and network compromise.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-1674r2_chk

Check the ownership of system run control scripts. If any are owned by a user other than root or bin, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4022r2_fix

Change the ownership of the run control script(s) with incorrect ownership. # chown root <run control script>

b
All system start-up files must be group-owned by root, sys, bin, other, or system.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4090 - SV-4090r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001680
Vuln IDs
  • V-4090
Rule IDs
  • SV-4090r2_rule
If system start-up files do not have a group owner of root or a system group, the files may be modified by malicious users or intruders.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-1675r2_chk

Check the group ownership of system run control scripts. If any are group-owned by a user other than root, sys, bin, other, or the system default, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24459r1_fix

Change the group ownership of the run control script(s) with incorrect group ownership. Procedure: # chgrp root <run control script>

b
System start-up files must only execute programs owned by a privileged UID or an application.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4091 - SV-4091r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001700
Vuln IDs
  • V-4091
Rule IDs
  • SV-4091r2_rule
System start-up files that execute programs owned by other than root (or another privileged user) or an application indicates the system may have been compromised.System AdministratorDCSL-1
Checks: C-28190r1_chk

Check the ownership of any files executed from system startup scripts. If any of these files are not owned by root, bin, sys, or other, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24458r1_fix

Change the ownership of the file executed from system startup scripts to root, bin, sys, or other. # chown root <executed file>

b
System BIOS or system controllers supporting password protection must have administrator accounts/passwords configured, and no others.
AC-3 - Medium - CCI-000213 - V-4246 - SV-4246r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000213
Version
GEN008620
Vuln IDs
  • V-4246
Rule IDs
  • SV-4246r2_rule
A system's BIOS or system controller handles the initial startup of a system and its configuration must be protected from unauthorized modification. When the BIOS or system controller supports the creation of user accounts or passwords, such protections must be used and accounts/passwords only assigned to system administrators. Failure to protect BIOS or system controller settings could result in Denial-of-Service or compromise of the system resulting from unauthorized configuration changes.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-2056r3_chk

On systems with a BIOS or system controller, verify a supervisor or administrator password is set. If a password is not set, this is a finding. If the BIOS or system controller supports user-level access in addition to supervisor/administrator access, determine if this access is enabled. If so, this is a finding. The exact procedure will be hardware-dependent, and the SA should be consulted to identify the specific configuration. In the event the BIOS or system controller is not accessible without adversely impacting (e.g., restarting) the system, the SA may be interviewed to determine compliance with the requirement.

Fix: F-4157r2_fix

Access the system's BIOS or system controller. Set a supervisor/administrator password if one has not been set. Disable a user-level password if one has been set.

c
The system must not use removable media as the boot loader.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000366 - V-4247 - SV-4247r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN008640
Vuln IDs
  • V-4247
Rule IDs
  • SV-4247r2_rule
Malicious users with removable boot media can gain access to a system configured to use removable media as the boot loader.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-2057r2_chk

Ask the SA if the system uses removable media for the boot loader. If it does, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4158r2_fix

Configure the system to use a bootloader installed on fixed media.

c
The system boot loader must require authentication.
AC-3 - High - CCI-000213 - V-4249 - SV-4249r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-3
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000213
Version
GEN008700
Vuln IDs
  • V-4249
Rule IDs
  • SV-4249r2_rule
If the system's boot loader does not require authentication, users with console access to the system may be able to alter the system boot configuration or boot the system into single user or maintenance mode, which could result in Denial-of-Service or unauthorized privileged access to the system.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-2059r2_chk

For GRUB: Check the /etc/grub.conf or /boot/grub/menu.lst files. Procedure: # more /boot/grub/menu.lst Check for a password configuration line, such as the one below. password --md5 &lt;password-hash&gt; This line should be just below the line beginning with "timeout". Please note &lt;password-hash&gt; will be replaced by the actual MD5 encrypted password. If the password line is not in either of the files, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4160r2_fix

The GRUB console boot loader can be configured to use an MD5 encrypted password by adding password --md5 password-hash to the /boot/grub.conf file. Use /sbin/grub-md5-crypt to generate MD5 passwords from the command line.

b
The system's boot loader configuration file(s) must have mode 0600 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4250 - SV-4250r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN008720
Vuln IDs
  • V-4250
Rule IDs
  • SV-4250r2_rule
File permissions greater than 0600 on boot loader configuration files could allow an unauthorized user to view or modify sensitive information pertaining to system boot instructions.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-2060r2_chk

Check /etc/grub.conf permissions. # ls -lL /etc/grub.conf If /etc/grub.conf has a mode more permissive than 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-25796r1_fix

Change the mode of the grub.conf file to 0600. # chmod 0600 /etc/grub.conf

c
If the system boots from removable media, it must be stored in a safe or similarly secured container.
SC-32 - High - CCI-001208 - V-4255 - SV-4255r2_rule
RMF Control
SC-32
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001208
Version
GEN008680
Vuln IDs
  • V-4255
Rule IDs
  • SV-4255r2_rule
Storing the boot loader on removable media in an insecure location could allow a malicious user to modify the systems boot instructions or boot to an insecure operating system.System AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerPESS-1
Checks: C-2079r2_chk

Ask the SA if the system boots from removable media. If so, ask if the boot media is stored in a secure container when not in use. If it is not, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4166r2_fix

Store the system boot media in a secure container when not in use.

b
The system must not have unnecessary accounts.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-000012 - V-4269 - SV-4269r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000012
Version
GEN000290
Vuln IDs
  • V-4269
Rule IDs
  • SV-4269r2_rule
Accounts providing no operational purpose provide additional opportunities for system compromise. Unnecessary accounts include user accounts for individuals not requiring access to the system and application accounts for applications not installed on the system.System AdministratorIAAC-1
Checks: C-2090r2_chk

Check the system for unnecessary user accounts. Procedure: # more /etc/passwd Some examples of unnecessary accounts include games, news, gopher, ftp, and lp. If any unnecessary accounts are found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4180r2_fix

 Remove all unnecessary accounts, such as games, from the /etc/passwd file before connecting a system to the network. Other accounts, such as news and gopher, associated with a service not in use should also be removed.

b
The /etc/news/hosts.nntp (or equivalent) must have mode 0600 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4273 - SV-4273r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN006260
Vuln IDs
  • V-4273
Rule IDs
  • SV-4273r2_rule
Excessive permissions on the hosts.nntp file may allow unauthorized modification which could lead to Denial-of-Service to authorized users or provide access to unauthorized users.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-2092r2_chk

Check /etc/news/hosts.nntp permissions. # ls -lL /etc/news/hosts.nntp If /etc/news/hosts.nntp has a mode more permissive than 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4184r2_fix

Change the mode of the /etc/news/hosts.nntp file to 0600. # chmod 0600 /etc/news/hosts.nntp

b
The /etc/news/hosts.nntp.nolimit (or equivalent) must have mode 0600 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4274 - SV-4274r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN006280
Vuln IDs
  • V-4274
Rule IDs
  • SV-4274r2_rule
Excessive permissions on the hosts.nntp.nolimit file may allow unauthorized modification which could lead to Denial-of-Service to authorized users or provide access to unauthorized users.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-2093r2_chk

Check /etc/news/hosts.nntp.nolimit permissions. # ls -lL /etc/news/hosts.nntp.nolimit If /etc/news/hosts.nntp.nolimit has a mode more permissive than 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4185r2_fix

Change the mode of /etc/news/hosts.nntp.nolimit to 0600. # chmod 0600 /etc/news/hosts.nntp.nolimit

b
The /etc/news/nnrp.access (or equivalent) must have mode 0600 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4275 - SV-4275r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN006300
Vuln IDs
  • V-4275
Rule IDs
  • SV-4275r2_rule
Excessive permissions on the nnrp.access file may allow unauthorized modification which could lead to Denial-of-Service to authorized users or provide access to unauthorized users.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-2094r2_chk

Check /etc/news/nnrp.access permissions. # ls -lL /etc/news/nnrp.access If /etc/news/nnrp.access has a mode more permissive than 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4186r2_fix

Change the mode of the /etc/news/nnrp.access file to 0600. # chmod 0600 /etc/news/nnrp.access

b
The /etc/news/passwd.nntp file (or equivalent) must have mode 0600 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4276 - SV-4276r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN006320
Vuln IDs
  • V-4276
Rule IDs
  • SV-4276r2_rule
File permissions more permissive than 0600 for /etc/news/passwd.nntp may allow access to privileged information by system intruders or malicious users.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-2095r2_chk

Check /etc/news/passwd.nntp permissions. # ls -lL /etc/news/passwd.nntp If /etc/news/passwd.nntp has a mode more permissive than 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4187r2_fix

Change the mode of the /etc/news/passwd.nntp file. # chmod 0600 /etc/news/passwd.nntp

b
Files in /etc/news must be owned by root or news.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4277 - SV-4277r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN006340
Vuln IDs
  • V-4277
Rule IDs
  • SV-4277r2_rule
If critical system files are not owned by a privileged user, system integrity could be compromised.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-28776r1_chk

Check the ownership of the files in /etc/news. Procedure: # ls -al /etc/news If any files are not owned by root or news, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4188r2_fix

Change the ownership of the files in /etc/news to root or news. Procedure: # chown root /etc/news/*

b
The files in /etc/news must be group-owned by root or news.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4278 - SV-4278r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN006360
Vuln IDs
  • V-4278
Rule IDs
  • SV-4278r2_rule
If critical system files do not have a privileged group owner, system integrity could be compromised.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-2101r2_chk

Check /etc/news files group ownership. Procedure: # ls -al /etc/news If /etc/news files are not group-owned by root or news, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4189r2_fix

Change the group owner of the files in /etc/news to root or news. Procedure: # chgrp root /etc/news/*

c
The SSH daemon must be configured to only use the SSHv2 protocol.
AC-17 - High - CCI-001436 - V-4295 - SV-4295r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-17
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001436
Version
GEN005500
Vuln IDs
  • V-4295
Rule IDs
  • SV-4295r2_rule
SSHv1 is not a DoD-approved protocol and has many well-known vulnerability exploits. Exploits of the SSH daemon could provide immediate root access to the system.System AdministratorDCPP-1, ECSC-1
Checks: C-1875r2_chk

Examine the sshd configuration file. cat /opt/ssh/etc/sshd_config | tr '\011' ' ' | tr -s ' ' | sed -e 's/^[ \t]*//' | grep -v '^#' | grep -i "Protocol" If Protocol 2,1 or Protocol 1 are defined on a line without a leading comment, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4206r2_fix

Edit the configuration file and modify the Protocol line. Protocol 2 Restart sshd: /sbin/init.d/secsh stop /sbin/init.d/secsh start

b
Remote consoles must be disabled or protected from unauthorized access.
AC-17 - Medium - CCI-000070 - V-4298 - SV-4298r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-17
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000070
Version
GEN001000
Vuln IDs
  • V-4298
Rule IDs
  • SV-4298r2_rule
The remote console feature provides an additional means of access to the system which could allow unauthorized access if not disabled or properly secured. With virtualization technologies, remote console access is essential as there is no physical console for virtual machines. Remote console access must be protected in the same manner as any other remote privileged access method.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-8298r2_chk

Check the system for configured remote consoles. If any console port is connected to a terminal outside of a secured environment or to any aggregation device (KVM, serial concentrator), or virtualization system that does not protect the console at the level of a privileged resource in accordance with the appropriate STIGs for these devices, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4209r2_fix

Remove the configuration for remote consoles.

b
The system clock must be synchronized to an authoritative DoD time source.
AU-8 - Medium - CCI-001492 - V-4301 - SV-4301r2_rule
RMF Control
AU-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001492
Version
GEN000240
Vuln IDs
  • V-4301
Rule IDs
  • SV-4301r2_rule
To assure the accuracy of the system clock, it must be synchronized with an authoritative time source within DoD. Many system functions, including time-based login and activity restrictions, automated reports, system logs, and audit records depend on an accurate system clock. If there is no confidence in the correctness of the system clock, time-based functions may not operate as intended and records may be of diminished value. Authoritative time sources include authorized time servers within the enclave that synchronize with upstream authoritative sources. Specific requirements for the upstream synchronization of Network Time Protocol (NTP) servers are covered in the Network Other Devices STIG. For systems located on isolated or closed networks, it is not necessary to synchronize with a global authoritative time source. If a global authoritative time source is not available to systems on an isolated network, a local authoritative time source must be established on this network and used by the systems connected to this network. This is necessary to provide the ability to correlate events and allow for the correct operation of time-dependent protocols between systems on the isolated network. If the system is completely isolated (no connections to networks or other systems), time synchronization is not required as no correlation of events between systems will be necessary. If the system is completely isolated, this requirement is not applicable. System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-8293r2_chk

Check if NTP running: # ps -ef | egrep "xntpd|ntpd" Check if ntpdate scheduled to run: # grep ntpdate /var/spool/cron/crontabs/* If NTP is running or ntpdate is found: # more /etc/ntp/ntp.conf Confirm the servers and peers or multicast client (as applicable) are local or an authoritative U.S. DoD source. If a non-local/non-authoritative (U.S. DoD source) time-server is used, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4212r4_fix

Use a local authoritative time server synchronizing to an authorized DoD time source. Ensure all systems in the facility feed from one or more local time servers that feed from the authoritative time server.

b
The root file system must employ journaling or another mechanism ensuring file system consistency.
CP-10 - Medium - CCI-000553 - V-4304 - SV-4304r2_rule
RMF Control
CP-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000553
Version
GEN003640
Vuln IDs
  • V-4304
Rule IDs
  • SV-4304r2_rule
File system journaling, or logging, can allow reconstruction of file system data after a system crash, thus, preserving the integrity of data that may have otherwise been lost. Journaling file systems typically do not require consistent checks upon booting after a crash, which can improve system availability. Some file systems employ other mechanisms to ensure consistency which also satisfy this requirement.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
Checks: C-8291r2_chk

Logging should be enabled for those types of files systems that do not turn on logging by default. Procedure: # mount JFS, VXFS, HFS, XFS, reiserfs, EXT3, and EXT4 all turn logging on by default and will not be a finding. The ZFS file system uses other mechanisms to provide for file system consistency, and will not be a finding. For other file systems types, if the root file system does not have the logging option, this is a finding. If the nolog option is set on the root file system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4215r2_fix

Implement file system journaling for the root file system, or use a file system using other mechanisms to ensure consistency. If the root file system supports journaling, enable it. If the file system does not support journaling or another mechanism to ensure consistency, a migration to a different file system will be necessary.

b
The system must not run Samba unless needed.
AC-17 - Medium - CCI-001436 - V-4321 - SV-4321r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-17
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001436
Version
GEN006060
Vuln IDs
  • V-4321
Rule IDs
  • SV-4321r2_rule
Samba is a tool used for the sharing of files and printers between Windows and UNIX operating systems. It provides access to sensitive files and, therefore, poses a security risk if compromised.System AdministratorDCPD-1, ECSC-1
Checks: C-2132r2_chk

Check the system for a running Samba server. Procedure: # ps -ef |grep smbd If the Samba server is running, ask the SA if the Samba server is operationally required. If it is not, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4232r2_fix

If there is no functional need for Samba and the daemon is running, disable the daemon by killing the process ID as noted from the output of ps -ef |grep smbd. The utility should also be removed or not installed if there is no functional requirement.

b
Audit logs must be rotated daily.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-4357 - SV-4357r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002860
Vuln IDs
  • V-4357
Rule IDs
  • SV-4357r2_rule
Rotate audit logs daily to preserve audit file system space and to conform to the DoD/DISA requirement. If it is not rotated daily and moved to another location, then there is more of a chance for the compromise of audit data by malicious users.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-8278r2_chk

Check for any crontab entries that rotate audit logs. Procedure: # crontab -l If such a cron job is found, this is not a finding. Otherwise, query the SA. If there is a process automatically rotating audit logs, this is not a finding. If the SA manually rotates audit logs, this is still a finding, because if the SA is not there, it will not be accomplished. If the audit output is not archived daily, to tape or disk, this is a finding. This can be ascertained by looking at the audit log directory and, if more than one file is there, or if the file does not have today's date, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4268r2_fix

Configure a cron job or other automated process to rotate the audit logs on a daily basis.

b
The cron.deny file must have mode 0600 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4358 - SV-4358r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003200
Vuln IDs
  • V-4358
Rule IDs
  • SV-4358r2_rule
If file permissions for cron.deny are more permissive than 0600, sensitive information could be viewed or edited by unauthorized users.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8221r2_chk

Check the mode of the cron.deny file. If the cron.deny file is more permissive than 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11473r2_fix

Change the mode of the cron.deny file to 0600.

a
Cron programs must not set the umask to a value less restrictive than 077.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-4360 - SV-4360r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003220
Vuln IDs
  • V-4360
Rule IDs
  • SV-4360r2_rule
The umask controls the default access mode assigned to newly created files. A umask of 077 limits new files to a mode of 700 or less permissive. Although umask is often represented as a 4-digit octal number, the first digit representing special access modes is typically ignored or required to be 0.trueIf a cron program sets the umask to 000 or does not restrict the world-writable permission, this becomes a CAT I finding.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-8222r2_chk

Check programs run from cron for umask settings. If any specify a umask more permissive than 077, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4271r2_fix

Edit cron script files and modify the umask to 077.

b
The "at" directory must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4364 - SV-4364r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003400
Vuln IDs
  • V-4364
Rule IDs
  • SV-4364r2_rule
If the "at" directory has a mode more permissive than 0755, unauthorized users could be allowed to view or to edit files containing sensitive information within the "at" directory. Unauthorized modifications could result in Denial-of-Service to authorized "at" jobs.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8245r2_chk

Check the mode of the "at" directory. Procedure: # ls -ld /var/spool/cron/atjobs /var/spool/atjobs /var/spool/at If the directory mode is more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4275r2_fix

Change the mode of the "at" directory to 0755. Procedure: # chmod 0755 < at directory >

b
The "at" directory must be owned by root, bin, or sys.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4365 - SV-4365r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003420
Vuln IDs
  • V-4365
Rule IDs
  • SV-4365r2_rule
If the owner of the "at" directory is not root, bin, or sys, unauthorized users could be allowed to view or edit files containing sensitive information within the directory.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8246r2_chk

Check the ownership of the "at" directory. Procedure: # ls -ld /var/spool/cron/atjobs /var/spool/atjobs /var/spool/at If the directory is not owned by root, sys, bin, daemon, or cron, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4276r2_fix

Change the owner of the "at" directory to root, bin, sys, or system. Procedure: # chown root /var/spool/at (Replace root with another system group and/or /var/spool/at with a different "at" directory as necessary.)

b
"At" jobs must not set the umask to a value less restrictive than 077.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4366 - SV-4366r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003440
Vuln IDs
  • V-4366
Rule IDs
  • SV-4366r2_rule
The umask controls the default access mode assigned to newly created files. An umask of 077 limits new files to mode 700 or less permissive. Although umask is often represented as a 4-digit number, the first digit representing special access modes is typically ignored or required to be 0.trueSystem AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-8247r2_chk

Determine what "at" jobs exist on the system. Procedure: # ls /var/spool/cron/atjobs /var/spool/atjobs If there are no "at" jobs present, this is not applicable. Determine if any of the "at" jobs or any scripts referenced execute the umask command. Check for any umask setting more permissive than 077. # grep umask &lt;at job or referenced script&gt; If any "at" job or referenced script sets umask to a value more permissive than 077, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4277r2_fix

Edit "at" jobs or referenced scripts to remove umask commands setting umask to a value less restrictive than 077.

b
The at.allow file must be owned by root, bin, or sys.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4367 - SV-4367r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003460
Vuln IDs
  • V-4367
Rule IDs
  • SV-4367r2_rule
If the owner of the at.allow file is not set to root, bin, or sys, unauthorized users could be allowed to view or edit sensitive information contained within the file.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8248r2_chk

Check the owner of the at.allow file. If the owner is not root, bin, or sys, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4278r2_fix

Change the owner of the at.allow file to root, bin, or sys.

b
The at.deny file must be owned by root, bin, or sys.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4368 - SV-4368r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003480
Vuln IDs
  • V-4368
Rule IDs
  • SV-4368r2_rule
If the owner of the at.deny file is not set to root, bin, or sys, unauthorized users could be allowed to view or edit sensitive information contained within the file.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8249r2_chk

Check the ownership of the at.deny file. If the owner is not root, bin, or sys, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4279r2_fix

Change the owner of the at.deny file to root, bin, or sys.

b
The traceroute command owner must be root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4369 - SV-4369r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003960
Vuln IDs
  • V-4369
Rule IDs
  • SV-4369r2_rule
If the traceroute command owner has not been set to root, an unauthorized user could use this command to obtain knowledge of the network topology inside the firewall. This information may allow an attacker to determine trusted routers and other network information possibly leading to system and network compromise.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8250r2_chk

Determine traceroute command locations and ownership. Procedure: # find / -name traceroute -exec ls -lL {} \; If the traceroute command is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4280r2_fix

Change the owner of the traceroute command to root, bin, or sys. Example: # chown root <traceroute command>

b
The traceroute command must be group-owned by sys, bin, root, or system.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4370 - SV-4370r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003980
Vuln IDs
  • V-4370
Rule IDs
  • SV-4370r2_rule
If the group owner of the traceroute command has not been set to a system group, unauthorized users could have access to the command and use it to gain information regarding a network's topology inside of the firewall. This information may allow an attacker to determine trusted routers and other network information possibly leading to system and network compromise.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8251r2_chk

Determine traceroute command locations and group ownership. Procedure: # find / -name traceroute -exec ls -lL {} \; If the traceroute command is not group-owned by root, sys, bin, or system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4281r2_fix

Change the group owner of the traceroute command to root, bin, sys, or system. Procedure: # chgrp root <traceroute command>

b
The traceroute file must have mode 0700 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4371 - SV-4371r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN004000
Vuln IDs
  • V-4371
Rule IDs
  • SV-4371r2_rule
If the mode of the traceroute executable is more permissive than 0700, malicious code could be inserted by an attacker and triggered whenever the traceroute command is executed by authorized users. Additionally, if an unauthorized user is granted executable permissions to the traceroute command, it could be used to gain information about the network topology behind the firewall. This information may allow an attacker to determine trusted routers and other network information that may lead to system and network compromise.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8252r2_chk

Determine traceroute command locations and mode. # find / -name traceroute -exec ls -lL {} \; If the traceroute command has a mode more permissive than 0700, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4282r2_fix

Change the mode of the traceroute command. # chmod 0700 <traceroute command>

c
Administrative accounts must not run a web browser, except as needed for local service administration.
AC-6 - High - CCI-000225 - V-4382 - SV-4382r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN004220
Vuln IDs
  • V-4382
Rule IDs
  • SV-4382r2_rule
If a web browser flaw is exploited while running as a privileged user, the entire system could be compromised. Specific exceptions for local service administration should be documented in site-defined policy. These exceptions may include HTTP(S)-based tools used for the administration of the local system, services, or attached devices. Examples of possible exceptions are HP’s System Management Homepage (SMH), the CUPS administrative interface, and Sun's StorageTek Common Array Manager (CAM) when these services are running on the local system.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8266r2_chk

Look in the root account home directory for a .netscape or a .mozilla directory. If none exists, this is not a finding. If there is one, verify with the root users and the IAO what the intent of the browsing is. Some evidence may be obtained by using the browser to view cached pages under the .netscape directory.

Fix: F-4293r2_fix

Enforce policy requiring administrative accounts use web browsers only for local service administration.

a
The SMTP service's SMTP greeting must not provide version information.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-4384 - SV-4384r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN004560
Vuln IDs
  • V-4384
Rule IDs
  • SV-4384r2_rule
The version of the SMTP service can be used by attackers to plan an attack based on vulnerabilities present in the specific version.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-8267r2_chk

Check for the Sendmail version being displayed in the greeting. # telnet localhost 25 If a version number is displayed, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4295r2_fix

Ensure Sendmail or its equivalent has been configured to mask the version information. If necessary, change the O SmtpGreetingMessage line in the /etc/mail/sendmail.cf file as noted below. O SmtpGreetingMessage=$j Sendmail $v/$Z; $b Change it to: O SmtpGreetingMessage= Mail Server Ready ; $b

b
The system must not use .forward files.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-4385 - SV-4385r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN004580
Vuln IDs
  • V-4385
Rule IDs
  • SV-4385r2_rule
The .forward file allows users to automatically forward mail to another system. Use of .forward files could allow the unauthorized forwarding of mail and could potentially create mail loops which could degrade system performance.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-8268r2_chk

Search for any .forward files on the system. # find / -name .forward -print This is considered a finding if any .forward files are found on the system.

Fix: F-4296r2_fix

Remove .forward files from the system.

c
Anonymous FTP accounts must not have a functional shell.
AC-6 - High - CCI-000225 - V-4387 - SV-4387r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005000
Vuln IDs
  • V-4387
Rule IDs
  • SV-4387r2_rule
If an anonymous FTP account has been configured to use a functional shell, attackers could gain access to the shell if the account is compromised.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-8269r2_chk

Check the shell for the anonymous FTP account. Procedure: # grep "^ftp" /etc/passwd This is a finding if the seventh field is empty (the entry ends with a ':') or if the seventh field does not contain one of the following. /bin/false /dev/null /usr/bin/false /bin/true /sbin/nologin

Fix: F-4298r2_fix

Configure anonymous FTP accounts to use a non-functional shell. If necessary, edit the /etc/passwd file to remove any functioning shells associated with the FTP account and replace them with non-functioning shells, such as, /dev/null.

b
The anonymous FTP account must be configured to use chroot or a similarly isolated environment.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-4388 - SV-4388r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN005020
Vuln IDs
  • V-4388
Rule IDs
  • SV-4388r2_rule
If an anonymous FTP account does not use a chroot or similarly isolated environment, the system may be more vulnerable to exploits against the FTP service. Such exploits could allow an attacker to gain shell access to the system and view, edit, or remove sensitive files.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-8270r2_chk

Consult vendor documentation for the anonymous FTP service to determine the necessary configuration for operating the service in a chroot environment. If the system is not configured to operate the anonymous FTP service in a chroot environment, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4299r2_fix

Configure the anonymous FTP service to operate in a chroot environment. Consult vendor documentation for the necessary configuration procedures.

b
If the system is a Network Management System (NMS) server, it must only run the NMS and any software required by the NMS.
SC-32 - Medium - CCI-001208 - V-4392 - SV-4392r2_rule
RMF Control
SC-32
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001208
Version
GEN005380
Vuln IDs
  • V-4392
Rule IDs
  • SV-4392r2_rule
Installing extraneous software on a system designated as a dedicated Network Management System (NMS) server poses a security threat to the system and the network. Should an attacker gain access to the NMS through unauthorized software, the entire network may be susceptible to malicious activity.System AdministratorDCPA-1
Checks: C-8271r2_chk

Ask the SA if this is an NMS server. If it is an NMS server, then ask what other applications run on it. If there is anything other than network management software and DBMS software used only for the storage and inquiry of NMS data, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4303r2_fix

Ensure only authorized software is loaded on a designated NMS server. Authorized software is limited to the NMS software itself, a database management system for the NMS server if necessary, and network management software.

b
The /etc/syslog.conf file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4393 - SV-4393r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005400
Vuln IDs
  • V-4393
Rule IDs
  • SV-4393r2_rule
If the /etc/syslog.conf file is not owned by root, unauthorized users could be allowed to view, edit, or delete important system messages handled by the syslog facility.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8272r2_chk

Check /etc/syslog.conf ownership. # ls -lL /etc/syslog.conf If /etc/syslog.conf is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4304r2_fix

Use the chown command to set the owner to root. # chown root /etc/syslog.conf

b
The /etc/syslog.conf file must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4394 - SV-4394r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005420
Vuln IDs
  • V-4394
Rule IDs
  • SV-4394r2_rule
If the group owner of /etc/syslog.conf is not root, bin, or sys, unauthorized users could be permitted to view, edit, or delete important system messages handled by the syslog facility.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8273r2_chk

Check /etc/syslog.conf group ownership. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/syslog.conf If /etc/syslog.conf is not group-owned by root, sys, bin, or system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4305r2_fix

Change the group owner of the /etc/syslog.conf file to root, bin, sys, or system. Procedure: # chgrp root /etc/syslog.conf

b
The system must only use remote syslog servers (log hosts) justified and documented using site-defined procedures.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-4395 - SV-4395r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN005460
Vuln IDs
  • V-4395
Rule IDs
  • SV-4395r2_rule
If a remote log host is in use and it has not been justified and documented with the IAO, sensitive information could be obtained by unauthorized users without the SA's knowledge. A remote log host is any host to which the system is sending syslog messages over a network.trueSystem AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerECSC-1
Checks: C-8274r2_chk

Examine the syslog.conf file for any references to remote log hosts. # grep -v "^#" /etc/syslog.conf | grep '@' Destination locations beginning with an @ represent log hosts. If the log host name is a local alias, such as log host, consult the /etc/hosts or other name databases as necessary to obtain the canonical name or address for the log host. Determine if the host referenced is a log host documented using site-defined procedures. If an undocumented log host is referenced, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4306r3_fix

Remove, replace, or document the referenced undocumented log host.

b
The system must be configured with a default gateway for IPv4 if the system uses IPv4, unless the system is a router.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-4397 - SV-4397r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN005560
Vuln IDs
  • V-4397
Rule IDs
  • SV-4397r2_rule
If a system has no default gateway defined, the system is at increased risk of man-in-the-middle, monitoring, and Denial-of-Service attacks.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-8275r2_chk

Check the system for an IPv4 default route. Procedure: # netstat -r |grep default If a default route is not defined, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4308r2_fix

Set a default gateway for IPv4.

b
A system used for routing must not run other network services or applications.
SC-32 - Medium - CCI-001208 - V-4398 - SV-4398r2_rule
RMF Control
SC-32
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001208
Version
GEN005580
Vuln IDs
  • V-4398
Rule IDs
  • SV-4398r2_rule
Installing extraneous software on a system designated as a dedicated router poses a security threat to the system and the network. Should an attacker gain access to the router through the unauthorized software, the entire network is susceptible to malicious activity.System AdministratorDCSP-1
Checks: C-8276r2_chk

Ask the SA if the system is a designated router. If it is not, this is not applicable. Check the system for non-routing network services. Procedure: # netstat -a | grep -i listen # ps -ef If non-routing services, including Web servers, file servers, DNS servers, or applications servers, but excluding management services, such as SSH and SNMP, are running on the system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4309r2_fix

Ensure only authorized software is loaded on a designated router. Authorized software will be limited to the most current version of routing protocols and SSH for system administration purposes.

c
The system must not use UDP for NIS/NIS+.
AC-17 - High - CCI-001436 - V-4399 - SV-4399r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-17
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001436
Version
GEN006380
Vuln IDs
  • V-4399
Rule IDs
  • SV-4399r2_rule
Implementing NIS or NIS+ under UDP may make the system more susceptible to a Denial of Service attack and does not provide the same quality of service as TCP.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-8277r2_chk

If the system does not use NIS or NIS+, this is not applicable. Check if NIS or NIS+ is implemented using UDP. Procedure: # rpcinfo -p | grep yp | grep udp If NIS or NIS+ is implemented using UDP, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4310r2_fix

Configure the system to not use UDP for NIS and NIS+. Consult vendor documentation for the required procedure.

b
All .rhosts, .shosts, or host.equiv files must only contain trusted host-user pairs.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-4427 - SV-4427r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002020
Vuln IDs
  • V-4427
Rule IDs
  • SV-4427r2_rule
If these files are not properly configured, they could allow malicious access by unknown malicious users from untrusted hosts who could compromise the system.G614. The only allowable use of a’ +’ character in a hosts.equiv and .rhosts files is to allow NIS+ netgroups access to the system.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-8219r2_chk

Locate and examine all .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, and shosts.equiv files. Procedure: # find / -name .rhosts # more /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/.rhosts # find / -name .shosts # more /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/.shosts # find / -name hosts.equiv # more /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/hosts.equiv # find / -name shosts.equiv # more /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/shosts.equiv If any .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, or shosts.equiv file contains other than host-user pairs, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4326r2_fix

If possible, remove the .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, and shosts.equiv files. If the files are required, remove any content from the files except for necessary host-user pairs.

b
All .rhosts, .shosts, .netrc, or hosts.equiv files must be accessible by only root or the owner.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-4428 - SV-4428r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002060
Vuln IDs
  • V-4428
Rule IDs
  • SV-4428r2_rule
If these files are accessible by users other than root or the owner, they could be used by a malicious user to set up a system compromise.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-8220r2_chk

# find / -type f -name .rhosts # ls -alL /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/.rhosts # find / -type f -name .shosts # ls -alL /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/.shosts # find / -type f -name hosts.equiv # ls -lL /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/hosts.equiv # find / -type f -name shosts.equiv # ls -lL /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/shosts.equiv If the .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, or shosts.equiv files have permissions greater than 700, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4327r2_fix

Ensure the permission for these files is set at 700 or less and the owner is the owner of the home directory that it is in. These files, outside of home directories (other than hosts.equiv which is in /etc and owned by root), have no meaning.

c
The rsh daemon must not be running.
AC-17 - High - CCI-000068 - V-4687 - SV-4687r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-17
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000068
Version
GEN003820
Vuln IDs
  • V-4687
Rule IDs
  • SV-4687r2_rule
The rshd process provides a typically unencrypted, host-authenticated remote access service. SSH should be used in place of this service.System AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerEBRU-1
Checks: C-16169r2_chk

Verify the rshd service is not running.

Fix: F-4615r2_fix

Disable the rshd service.

c
The rexec daemon must not be running.
AC-17 - High - CCI-001435 - V-4688 - SV-4688r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-17
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001435
Version
GEN003840
Vuln IDs
  • V-4688
Rule IDs
  • SV-4688r2_rule
The rexecd process provides a typically unencrypted, host-authenticated remote access service. SSH should be used in place of this service.trueSystem AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerEBRP-1, ECSC-1
Checks: C-609r2_chk

Determine if the rexecd service is running. If the service is running, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4616r2_fix

Disable the rexecd service.

c
The SMTP service must be an up-to-date version.
SI-2 - High - CCI-001230 - V-4689 - SV-4689r2_rule
RMF Control
SI-2
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001230
Version
GEN004600
Vuln IDs
  • V-4689
Rule IDs
  • SV-4689r2_rule
The SMTP service version on the system must be current to avoid exposing vulnerabilities present in unpatched versions.System AdministratorVIVM-1
Checks: C-627r2_chk

Determine the version of the SMTP service software. Locate the Sendmail daemon. Procedure: # find / -name sendmail Obtain version information for the Sendmail daemon. Procedure: # what &lt;file location&gt; OR # strings &lt;file location&gt; | grep version Version 8.14.4 is the latest required version. If the Sendmail version is not at least 8.14.4 or the vendor's latest version, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4617r2_fix

Obtain and install a newer version of Sendmail from the operating system vendor or from http://www.sendmail.org or ftp://ftp.cs.berkeley.edu/ucb/sendmail.

c
The Sendmail server must have the debug feature disabled.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000366 - V-4690 - SV-4690r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN004620
Vuln IDs
  • V-4690
Rule IDs
  • SV-4690r2_rule
Debug mode is a feature present in older versions of Sendmail which, if not disabled, may allow an attacker to gain access to a system through the Sendmail service.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-652r3_chk

Check for an enabled debug command provided by the SMTP service. Procedure: # telnet localhost 25 debug If the command does not return a 500 error code of command unrecognized, this is a finding. If telnet is unavailable for testing, check the version of sendmail installed on the system. # echo \$Z | /usr/sbin/sendmail -bt -d0 If the sendmail reported version is less than 8.6, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4618r2_fix

Obtain and install a more recent version of Sendmail, which does not implement the DEBUG feature.

c
The SMTP service must not have a uudecode alias active.
SI-2 - High - CCI-001230 - V-4691 - SV-4691r2_rule
RMF Control
SI-2
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001230
Version
GEN004640
Vuln IDs
  • V-4691
Rule IDs
  • SV-4691r2_rule
A common configuration for older Mail Transfer Agents (MTAs) includes an alias for the decode user. All mail sent to this user is sent to the uudecode program, which automatically converts and stores files. By sending mail to decode or uudecode aliases present on some systems, a remote attacker may be able to create or overwrite files on the remote host. This could possibly be used to gain remote access.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-653r2_chk

Check the SMTP service for an active decode command. Procedure: # telnet localhost 25 decode If the command does not return a 500 error code of command unrecognized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4619r2_fix

Disable mail aliases for decode and uudecode. If the /etc/aliases or /usr/lib/aliases (mail alias) file contains entries for these programs, remove them or disable them by placing # at the beginning of the line, and then executing the "newaliases" command. For more information on mail aliases, refer to the man page for aliases. Disabled aliases would be similar to the examples below: # decode: |/usr/bin/uudecode # uudecode: |/usr/bin/uuencode -d

a
The SMTP service must not have the EXPN feature active.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-4692 - SV-4692r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN004660
Vuln IDs
  • V-4692
Rule IDs
  • SV-4692r2_rule
The SMTP EXPN function allows an attacker to determine if an account exists on a system, providing significant assistance to a brute-force attack on user accounts. EXPN may also provide additional information concerning users on the system, such as the full names of account owners.False positives may occur with the SMTP EXPN check. According to RFC821, it is acceptable for a server to respond with a 250 (success) or 550 (failure) when the server supports the EXPN command. For example, some servers return "550 EXPN command not available", meaning the command is not supported and the machine is not vulnerable. However, a result of "550 That is a mailing list, not a user" would be a failure code, but not an indication of an error, and the machine would be vulnerable. If false positive is suspected, check the log file for the response from the server.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-28638r1_chk

Determine if EXPN is disabled. Procedure: # telnet localhost 25 expn root If the command does not return a 500 error code of command unrecognized, this is a finding. OR Locate the sendmail.cf configuration file. Procedure: # find / -name sendmail.cf -print # grep -v "^#" &lt;sendmail.cf location&gt; | egrep -i "(goaway|noexpn)" Verify the EXPN command is disabled with an entry in the sendmail.cf file that reads as one of the following: Opnoexpn O PrivacyOptions=noexpn Opgoaway O PrivacyOptions=goaway (Other privacy options, such as novrfy or noetrn, may be included in the same line, separated by commas. The goaway option encompasses a number of privacy options, including noexpn.) If the EXPN command is not disabled, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4620r2_fix

Edit the sendmail.cf file and add Opnoexpn option. Restart the Sendmail service.

a
The SMTP service must not have the VRFY feature active.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-4693 - SV-4693r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN004680
Vuln IDs
  • V-4693
Rule IDs
  • SV-4693r2_rule
The VRFY (Verify) command allows an attacker to determine if an account exists on a system, providing significant assistance to a brute-force attack on user accounts. VRFY may provide additional information about users on the system, such as the full names of account owners.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-705r2_chk

Determine if VRFY is disabled. Procedure: # telnet localhost 25 vrfy root If the command does not return a 500 error code of command unrecognized, this is a finding. OR Locate the sendmail.cf configuration file. Procedure: # find / -name sendmail.cf -print # grep -v "^#" &lt;sendmail.cf location&gt; |grep -i "(goaway|vrfy)" Verify the VRFY command is disabled with an entry in the sendmail.cf file that reads as one of the following: Opnovrfy O PrivacyOptions=novrfy Opgoaway O PrivacyOptions=goaway (Other privacy options, such as noexpn or noetrn, may be included in the same line, separated by commas. The goaway option encompasses a number of privacy options, including novrfy.) If the VRFY command is not disabled, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4621r2_fix

If Sendmail is running, add the line Opnovrfy to the Sendmail configuration file, usually located in /etc/sendmail.cf. For other mail servers, contact the vendor for information on how to disable the verify command. Newer versions of Sendmail are available at http://www.sendmail.org or from ftp://ftp.cs.berkeley.edu/ucb/sendmail.

a
The Sendmail service must not have the wizard backdoor active.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-4694 - SV-4694r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN004700
Vuln IDs
  • V-4694
Rule IDs
  • SV-4694r2_rule
Very old installations of the Sendmail mailing system contained a feature whereby a remote user connecting to the SMTP port can enter the WIZ command and be given an interactive shell with root privileges.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-706r2_chk

Locate the sendmail.cf configuration file and check for wiz configuration. Procedure: # find / -name sendmail.cf -print # grep -v "^#" &lt;sendmail.cf location&gt; |grep -i wiz If an entry is found for wiz, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4622r2_fix

If the WIZ command is enabled on Sendmail, it should be disabled by adding this line to the sendmail.cf configuration file (it must be typed in uppercase). OW* For the change to take effect, kill the Sendmail process, refreeze the sendmail.cf file, and restart the Sendmail process.

c
Any active TFTP daemon must be authorized and approved in the system accreditation package.
AC-6 - High - CCI-000225 - V-4695 - SV-4695r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005140
Vuln IDs
  • V-4695
Rule IDs
  • SV-4695r2_rule
TFTP is a file transfer protocol often used by embedded systems to obtain configuration data or software. The service is unencrypted and does not require authentication of requests. Data available using this service may be subject to unauthorized access or interception.System AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerDCSW-1
Checks: C-716r2_chk

Determine if the TFTP daemon is active. If it is, this is a finding unless documented using site-defined procedures.

Fix: F-4623r2_fix

Disable the TFTP daemon.

b
The system must not have the UUCP service active.
AC-17 - Medium - CCI-001436 - V-4696 - SV-4696r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-17
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001436
Version
GEN005280
Vuln IDs
  • V-4696
Rule IDs
  • SV-4696r2_rule
The UUCP utility is designed to assist in transferring files, executing remote commands, and sending email between UNIX systems over phone lines and direct connections between systems. The UUCP utility is a primitive and arcane system with many security issues. There are alternate data transfer utilities/products that can be configured to more securely transfer data by providing for authentication, as well as, encryption.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-722r2_chk

Determine if the UUCP service is active. If the service is active, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4624r2_fix

Disable the UUCP service.

c
X displays must not be exported to the world.
AC-6 - High - CCI-000225 - V-4697 - SV-4697r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN005200
Vuln IDs
  • V-4697
Rule IDs
  • SV-4697r2_rule
Open X displays allow an attacker to capture keystrokes and to execute commands remotely. Many users have their X Server set to xhost +, permitting access to the X Server by anyone, from anywhere.System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-719r2_chk

If X Windows is not used on the system, this is not applicable. Check the output of the xhost command from an X terminal. Procedure: $ xhost If the output reports access control is enabled (and possibly lists the hosts that can receive X Window logins), this is not a finding. If the xhost command returns a line indicating access control is disabled, this is a finding. NOTE: It may be necessary to define the display if the command reports it cannot open the display. Procedure: $ DISPLAY=MachineName:0.0; export DISPLAY MachineName may be replaced with an Internet Protocol Address. Repeat the check procedure after setting the display.

Fix: F-4625r2_fix

If using an xhost-type authentication the xhost - command can be used to remove current trusted hosts and then selectively allow only trusted hosts to connect with xhost + commands. A cryptographically secure authentication, such as provided by the xauth program, is always preferred. Refer to your X11 server's documentation for further security information.

a
The system must not have the finger service active.
AC-4 - Low - CCI-001551 - V-4701 - SV-4701r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-4
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-001551
Version
GEN003860
Vuln IDs
  • V-4701
Rule IDs
  • SV-4701r2_rule
The finger service provides information about the system's users to network clients. This information could expose information that could be used in subsequent attacks.System AdministratorDCPP-1, EBRU-1
Checks: C-2521r2_chk

Determine if the system has the finger service active. If the finger service is active, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4629r2_fix

Disable the finger service.

b
If the system is an anonymous FTP server, it must be isolated to the DMZ network.
IA-4 - Medium - CCI-000787 - V-4702 - SV-4702r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000787
Version
GEN004840
Vuln IDs
  • V-4702
Rule IDs
  • SV-4702r2_rule
Anonymous FTP is a public data service which is only permitted in a server capacity when located on the DMZ network.System AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerEBBD-1, EBBD-2, EBBD-3, ECSC-1
Checks: C-712r2_chk

Use the command ftp to connect the system's FTP service. Attempt to log into this host with a user name of anonymous and a password of guest (also try the password of guest@mail.com). If the logon is not successful, this check is not applicable. Ask the SA if the system is located on a DMZ network. If the system is not located on a DMZ network, this is a finding.

Fix: F-4630r2_fix

Move the system to a DMZ network.

c
The operating system must be a supported release.
SI-2 - High - CCI-001230 - V-11940 - SV-12441r2_rule
RMF Control
SI-2
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001230
Version
GEN000100
Vuln IDs
  • V-11940
Rule IDs
  • SV-12441r2_rule
An operating system release is considered supported if the vendor continues to provide security patches for the product. With an unsupported release, it will not be possible to resolve security issues discovered in the system software. If an extended support agreement provides security patches for the unsupported product is procured from the vendor, this finding may be downgraded to a CAT III.System AdministratorVIVM-1
Checks: C-7917r2_chk

Check the release information for the operating system. If the release is not supported, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11211r2_fix

Upgrade to a supported version of the operating system.

b
A file integrity baseline must be created and maintained.
CM-2 - Medium - CCI-000293 - V-11941 - SV-12442r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000293
Version
GEN000140
Vuln IDs
  • V-11941
Rule IDs
  • SV-12442r2_rule
A file integrity baseline is a collection of file metadata which is to evaluate the integrity of the system. A minimal baseline must contain metadata for all device files, setuid files, setgid files, system libraries, system binaries, and system configuration files. The minimal metadata must consist of the mode, owner, group owner, and modification times. For regular files, metadata must also include file size and a cryptographic hash of the file’s contents.System AdministratorDCSW-1
Checks: C-7918r2_chk

Determine if a file integrity baseline, which includes cryptographic hashes, has been created and maintained for the system. If no file integrity baseline exists for the system, this is a finding. If the file integrity baseline contains no cryptographic hashes, this is a finding. If the file integrity baseline is not maintained (has not been updated to be consistent with the latest approved system configuration changes), this is a finding.

Fix: F-11212r2_fix

Create a file integrity baseline, including cryptographic hashes, for the system.

b
A file integrity tool must be used at least weekly to check for unauthorized file changes, particularly the addition of unauthorized system libraries or binaries, or for unauthorized modification to authorized system libraries or binaries.
RA-5 - Medium - CCI-001069 - V-11945 - SV-28610r1_rule
RMF Control
RA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001069
Version
GEN000220
Vuln IDs
  • V-11945
Rule IDs
  • SV-28610r1_rule
Changes in system libraries and binaries can indicate compromise or significant system events, such as patching needing to be checked by automated processes and the results reviewed by the SA. NOTE: For MAC I systems, increase the frequency to daily.System AdministratorDCSL-1
Checks: C-28849r2_chk

Determine if there is a cron job, scheduled to run weekly or more frequently, to run the file integrity tool to check for unauthorized system libraries or binaries, or unauthorized modification to authorized system libraries or binaries. Procedure: # crontab -l If there is no cron job meeting these requirements, this is a finding. NOTE: For MAC I systems, increase the frequency to daily.

Fix: F-25883r2_fix

Create a cron job, scheduled to run weekly or more frequently, to run the file integrity tool to check for unauthorized system libraries or binaries, or unauthorized modification to authorized system libraries or binaries. NOTE: For MAC I systems, increase the frequency to daily.

b
UIDs reserved for system accounts must not be assigned to non-system accounts.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-11946 - SV-12447r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000340
Vuln IDs
  • V-11946
Rule IDs
  • SV-12447r2_rule
Reserved UIDs are typically used by system software packages. If non-system accounts have UIDs in this range, they may conflict with system software, possibly leading to the user having permissions to modify system files. System AdministratorECSC-1
Checks: C-29002r1_chk

Check the UID assignments of all accounts. # more /etc/passwd Confirm all accounts with a UID of 99 and below are used by a system account. If a UID reserved for system accounts (0 - 99) is used by a non-system account, this is a finding.

Fix: F-26001r1_fix

Change the UID numbers for non-system accounts with reserved UIDs (those less or equal to 99).

b
The system must require that passwords contain a minimum of 14 characters.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000205 - V-11947 - SV-12448r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000205
Version
GEN000580
Vuln IDs
  • V-11947
Rule IDs
  • SV-12448r2_rule
The use of longer passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques by increasing the password search space.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-28025r1_chk

Check the system minimum password length setting. If the setting is not 14 or greater, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24372r1_fix

Set the system minimum password length setting to 14 or greater.

b
The system must require that passwords contain at least one uppercase alphabetic character.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000192 - V-11948 - SV-12449r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000192
Version
GEN000600
Vuln IDs
  • V-11948
Rule IDs
  • SV-12449r2_rule
To enforce the use of complex passwords, minimum numbers of characters of different classes are mandated. The use of complex passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques. Complexity requirements increase the password search space by requiring users to construct passwords from a larger character set than they may otherwise use.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-7925r2_chk

Determine if at least 1 lowercase letter is required for passwords. If the settings do not enforce at least 1 lower case letter, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11219r2_fix

Configure the system to require at least 1 lowercase letter for passwords.

b
The system must require that passwords contain at least one numeric character.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000194 - V-11972 - SV-12473r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000194
Version
GEN000620
Vuln IDs
  • V-11972
Rule IDs
  • SV-12473r2_rule
To enforce the use of complex passwords, minimum numbers of characters of different classes are mandated. The use of complex passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques. Complexity requirements increase the password search space by requiring users to construct passwords from a larger character set than they may otherwise use.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-7937r2_chk

Verify the system requires passwords contain at least one numeric character.

Fix: F-24383r1_fix

Configure the system to require passwords contain at least one numeric character.

b
The system must require that passwords contain at least one special character.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-001619 - V-11973 - SV-12474r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001619
Version
GEN000640
Vuln IDs
  • V-11973
Rule IDs
  • SV-12474r2_rule
To enforce the use of complex passwords, minimum numbers of characters of different classes are mandated. The use of complex passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques. Complexity requirements increase the password search space by requiring users to construct passwords from a larger character set than they may otherwise use.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-28040r1_chk

Verify the system requires passwords contain at least one special character.

Fix: F-24388r1_fix

Configure the system to require passwords contain at least one special character.

b
The system must require passwords to contain no more than three consecutive repeating characters.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-11975 - SV-12476r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000680
Vuln IDs
  • V-11975
Rule IDs
  • SV-12476r2_rule
To enforce the use of complex passwords, the number of consecutive repeating characters is limited. Passwords with excessive repeated characters may be more vulnerable to password-guessing attacks.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-7940r2_chk

Verify the system requires passwords to contain no more than three consecutive repeating characters. If the system allows passwords to contain more than three consecutive repeating characters, this is a finding.

Fix: F-24392r1_fix

Configure the system to require passwords to contain no more than three consecutive repeating characters.

b
User passwords must be changed at least every 60 days.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000180 - V-11976 - SV-12477r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000180
Version
GEN000700
Vuln IDs
  • V-11976
Rule IDs
  • SV-12477r2_rule
Limiting the lifespan of authenticators limits the period of time an unauthorized user has access to the system while using compromised credentials and reduces the period of time available for password-guessing attacks to run against a single password.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-7941r2_chk

Verify the system requires passwords be changed at least every 60 days.

Fix: F-24396r1_fix

Configure the system to require passwords be changed at least every 60 days.

b
All non-interactive/automated processing account passwords must be changed at least once per year or be locked.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000199 - V-11977 - SV-12478r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000199
Version
GEN000740
Vuln IDs
  • V-11977
Rule IDs
  • SV-12478r2_rule
Limiting the lifespan of authenticators limits the period of time an unauthorized user has access to the system while using compromised credentials and reduces the period of time available for password-guessing attacks to run against a single password. Locking the password for non-interactive and automated processing accounts is preferred as it removes the possibility of accessing the account by a password. On some systems, locking the passwords of these accounts may prevent the account from functioning properly. Passwords for non-interactive/automated processing accounts must not be used for direct logon to the system.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
Checks: C-7942r2_chk

Ask the SA if there are any automated processing accounts on the system. If there are automated processing accounts on the system, ask the SA if the passwords for those automated accounts are changed at least once a year. If SA indicates passwords for automated processing accounts are not changed once per year, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11238r2_fix

Implement or establish procedures to change the passwords of automated processing accounts at least once per year.

b
The root account must not be used for direct logins.
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000770 - V-11979 - SV-12480r2_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000770
Version
GEN001020
Vuln IDs
  • V-11979
Rule IDs
  • SV-12480r2_rule
Direct login with the root account prevents individual user accountability. Acceptable non-routine uses of the root account for direct login are limited to emergency maintenance, the use of single-user mode for maintenance, and situations where individual administrator accounts are not available.System AdministratorECPA-1
Checks: C-7944r3_chk

Check if the root is used for direct logins. Procedure: # last root | grep -v reboot If the last command is not available, consult vendor documentation to determine an appropriate method for obtaining a list of root account logins. If any direct login records for root are listed, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11240r3_fix

Enforce policy requiring all root account access is attained by first logging into a user account and then becoming root (using su, for example).

b
The system must log successful and unsuccessful access to the root account.
AU-2 - Medium - CCI-000126 - V-11980 - SV-12481r2_rule
RMF Control
AU-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000126
Version
GEN001060
Vuln IDs
  • V-11980
Rule IDs
  • SV-12481r2_rule
If successful and unsuccessful logins and logouts are not monitored or recorded, access attempts cannot be tracked. Without this logging, it may be impossible to track unauthorized access to the system.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
Checks: C-7945r2_chk

Verify the system logs successful and unsuccessful access to the root account. If it does not, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11241r2_fix

Troubleshoot the system logging configuration to provide for logging of root account login attempts.

b
All global initialization files must have mode 0444 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-11981 - SV-12482r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001720
Vuln IDs
  • V-11981
Rule IDs
  • SV-12482r2_rule
Global initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-7946r2_chk

Check global initialization files' permissions: # ls -l /etc/.login # ls -l /etc/profile # ls -l /etc/bashrc # ls -l /etc/environment # ls -l /etc/security/environ If global initialization files are more permissive than 0444, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11242r2_fix

Change the mode of the global initialization file(s) to 0444. # chmod 0444 <global initialization file>

b
All global initialization files must be owned by bin.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-11982 - SV-12483r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001740
Vuln IDs
  • V-11982
Rule IDs
  • SV-12483r2_rule
Global initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-7947r2_chk

Check the ownership of global initialization files. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/.login /etc/profile /etc/bashrc /etc/environment /etc/security/environ If any global initialization file is not owned by bin, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11243r2_fix

Change the ownership of global initialization files with incorrect ownership. Procedure: # chown bin <global initialization files>

b
All global initialization files must be group-owned by root, sys, bin, other, system, or the system default.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-11983 - SV-12484r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001760
Vuln IDs
  • V-11983
Rule IDs
  • SV-12484r2_rule
Global initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-7948r2_chk

Check the group ownership of global initialization files. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/.login /etc/profile /etc/bashrc /etc/environment /etc/security/environ If any global initialization file is not group-owned by root, sys, bin, other, system, or the system default, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11244r4_fix

Change the group ownership of the global initialization file(s) with incorrect group ownership. Procedure: # chgrp root <global initialization file>

b
All skeleton files and directories (typically in /etc/skel) must be owned by bin.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-11984 - SV-12485r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001820
Vuln IDs
  • V-11984
Rule IDs
  • SV-12485r2_rule
If the skeleton files are not protected, unauthorized personnel could change user startup parameters and possibly jeopardize user files. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-7949r2_chk

Check skeleton files ownership. # ls -alL /etc/skel If a skeleton file is not owned by bin, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11245r2_fix

Change the ownership of skeleton files with incorrect mode. # chown bin <skeleton file>

b
All global initialization files' executable search paths must contain only absolute paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-11985 - SV-12486r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001840
Vuln IDs
  • V-11985
Rule IDs
  • SV-12486r2_rule
The executable search path (typically the PATH environment variable) contains a list of directories for the shell to search to find executables. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, executables in these directories may be executed instead of system commands. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon, or two consecutive colons, this is interpreted as the current working directory. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-7950r2_chk

Check the global initialization files' executable search paths. Procedure: # grep -i PATH /etc/profile /etc/bashrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/environment /etc/.login /etc/security/environ This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon, or two consecutive colons, this is a finding. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), this is a relative path, and this is a finding.

Fix: F-11246r3_fix

Edit the global initialization file(s) with PATH variables containing relative paths. Edit the file and remove the relative path from the PATH variable.

b
All local initialization files' executable search paths must contain only absolute paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-11986 - SV-12487r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001900
Vuln IDs
  • V-11986
Rule IDs
  • SV-12487r2_rule
The executable search path (typically the PATH environment variable) contains a list of directories for the shell to search to find executables. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, executables in these directories may be executed instead of system commands. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon or two consecutive colons, this is interpreted as the current working directory. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-7951r2_chk

Examine the PATH variable contained in any user's local initialization files to ensure the use of only absolute paths, using a command shell that supports the use of ~USER as USER's home directory. # cat /etc/passwd | cut -f 1,1 -d ":" | xargs -n1 -IUSER sh -c 'grep -i PATH ~USER/.*' The PATH variable is a colon-delimited directory list. An empty entry is defined by a leading/trailing colon or two consecutive colons. A relative path is defined as an entry beginning with a character other than a slash (/). If an empty or relative path is defined in the PATH variable, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11247r2_fix

Edit the local initialization file(s) and remove the relative path entry from the PATH variable.

b
The .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, shosts.equiv, /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, and/or /etc/group files must not contain a plus (+) without defining entries for NIS+ netgroups.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-11987 - SV-12488r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001980
Vuln IDs
  • V-11987
Rule IDs
  • SV-12488r2_rule
A plus (+) in system accounts' files causes the system to lookup the specified entry using NIS. If the system is not using NIS, no such entries should exist.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-7952r2_chk

Check system configuration files for plus (+) entries. Procedure: # find / -name .rhosts -exec grep + {} \; # find / -name .shosts -exec grep + {} \; # find / -name hosts.equiv -exec grep + {} \; # find / -name shosts.equiv -exec grep + {} \; # grep + /etc/passwd # grep + /etc/shadow # grep + /etc/group If the .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, shosts.equiv, /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, and/or /etc/group files contain a plus (+) and do not define entries for NIS+ netgroups, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11248r2_fix

Edit the .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, shosts.equiv, /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, and/or /etc/group files and remove entries containing a plus (+).

c
There must be no .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, or shosts.equiv files on the system.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000366 - V-11988 - SV-12489r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002040
Vuln IDs
  • V-11988
Rule IDs
  • SV-12489r2_rule
The .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, and shosts.equiv files are used to configure host-based authentication for individual users or the system. Host-based authentication is not sufficient for preventing unauthorized access to the system.System AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-7953r2_chk

Check for the existence of the files. # find / -name .rhosts # find / -name .shosts # find / -name hosts.equiv # find / -name shosts.equiv If .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, or shosts.equiv are found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11249r2_fix

Remove the .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, and/or shosts.equiv files.

b
The .rhosts file must not be supported in PAM.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-11989 - SV-12490r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002100
Vuln IDs
  • V-11989
Rule IDs
  • SV-12490r2_rule
The .rhosts files are used to specify a list of hosts that are permitted remote access to a particular account without authenticating. The use of such a mechanism defeats strong identification and authentication requirements.System AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-7954r2_chk

Check the PAM configuration for rhosts_auth. Procedure: # grep rhosts_auth /etc/pam.conf If a rhosts_auth entry is found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11250r2_fix

Edit /etc/pam.conf and remove the reference(s) to the rhosts_auth module.

b
All public directories must be group-owned by root or an application group.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-11990 - SV-12491r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002540
Vuln IDs
  • V-11990
Rule IDs
  • SV-12491r2_rule
If a public directory has the sticky bit set and is not group-owned by a system GID, unauthorized users may be able to modify files created by others. The only authorized public directories are those temporary directories supplied with the system or those designed to be temporary file repositories. The setting is normally reserved for directories used by the system and by users for temporary file storage (e.g., /tmp) and for directories requiring global read/write access.System AdministratorECLP-1
Checks: C-7955r2_chk

Check the group ownership of public directories. Procedure: # find / -type d -perm -1002 -exec ls -ld {} \; If any public directory is not group-owned by root, sys, bin, or an application group (such as mail), this is a finding.

Fix: F-11251r2_fix

Change the group ownership of the public directory. Procedure: # chgrp root /tmp (Replace root with a different system group and/or /tmp with a different public directory as necessary.)

b
Crontabs must be owned by root or the crontab creator.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-11994 - SV-12495r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003040
Vuln IDs
  • V-11994
Rule IDs
  • SV-12495r2_rule
To protect the integrity of scheduled system jobs and prevent malicious modification to these jobs, crontab files must be secured.System AdministratorDCSL-1
Checks: C-28468r1_chk

List all crontab files on the system. If any crontab is not owned by root or the creating user, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11255r2_fix

Change the crontab owner to root or the crontab creator. # chown root <crontab file>

b
Default system accounts (with the exception of root) must not be listed in the cron.allow file or must be included in the cron.deny file, if cron.allow does not exist.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-11995 - SV-12496r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003060
Vuln IDs
  • V-11995
Rule IDs
  • SV-12496r2_rule
To centralize the management of privileged account crontabs, of the default system accounts, only root may have a crontab.System AdministratorECPA-1
Checks: C-7960r2_chk

Check the cron.allow and cron.deny files for the system. If a default system account (such as bin, sys, adm, or others) is listed in the cron.allow file, or not listed in the cron.deny file if no cron.allow file exists, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11256r2_fix

Remove default system accounts (such as bin, sys, adm, or others) from the cron.allow file if it exists, or add those accounts to the cron.deny file.

a
Process core dumps must be disabled unless needed.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-11996 - SV-12497r2_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN003500
Vuln IDs
  • V-11996
Rule IDs
  • SV-12497r2_rule
Process core dumps contain the memory in use by the process when it crashed. Process core dump files can be of significant size and their use can result in file systems filling to capacity, which may result in denial-of-Service. Process core dumps can be useful for software debugging. System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
Checks: C-7961r2_chk

Determine if process core dumps are enabled on the system. If process core dumps are enabled, this is a finding.

Fix: F-11257r2_fix

Disable process core dumps on the system.

a
The kernel core dump data directory must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-11997 - SV-12498r2_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN003520
Vuln IDs
  • V-11997
Rule IDs
  • SV-12498r2_rule