Oracle Linux 5 Security Technical Implementation Guide

  • Version/Release: V2R1
  • Published: 2020-12-04
  • Expand All:
  • Severity:
  • Sort:
Compare

Select any two versions of this STIG to compare the individual requirements

View

Select any old version/release of this STIG to view the previous requirements

This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: disa.stig_spt@mail.mil.
b
The /etc/gshadow file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218163 - SV-218163r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX001431
Vuln IDs
  • V-218163
  • V-22341
Rule IDs
  • SV-218163r603259_rule
  • SV-62667
The /etc/gshadow file is critical to system security and must be owned by a privileged user. The /etc/gshadow file contains a list of system groups and hashes for group passwords.
Checks: C-19638r561449_chk

Check the /etc/gshadow file is owned by root. # ls -l /etc/gshadow If the file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19636r561450_fix

Change the owner of the /etc/gshadow file to root. # chown root /etc/gshadow

b
The /etc/gshadow file must be group-owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218164 - SV-218164r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX001432
Vuln IDs
  • V-218164
  • V-22342
Rule IDs
  • SV-218164r603259_rule
  • SV-62681
The /etc/gshadow file is critical to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The /etc/gshadow file contains a list of system groups and hashes for group passwords.
Checks: C-19639r561452_chk

Check the /etc/gshadow file is group-owned by root. # ls -l /etc/gshadow If the file is not group-owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19637r561453_fix

Change the group-owner of the /etc/gshadow file to root. # chgrp root /etc/gshadow

b
The /etc/gshadow file must have mode 0400.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218165 - SV-218165r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX001433
Vuln IDs
  • V-218165
  • V-22343
Rule IDs
  • SV-218165r603259_rule
  • SV-62697
The /etc/gshadow file is critical to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The /etc/gshadow file contains a list of system groups and hashes for group passwords.
Checks: C-19640r561455_chk

Check the mode of the /etc/gshadow file. # ls -l /etc/gshadow If the file mode is more permissive than 0400, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19638r561456_fix

Change the mode of the /etc/gshadow file to 0400 or less permissive. # chmod 0400 /etc/gshadow

b
The /etc/gshadow file must not have an extended ACL.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218166 - SV-218166r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX001434
Vuln IDs
  • V-218166
  • V-22344
Rule IDs
  • SV-218166r603259_rule
  • SV-62711
The /etc/gshadow file is critical to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The /etc/gshadow file contains a list of system groups and hashes for group passwords.
Checks: C-19641r561458_chk

Check /etc/gshadow has no extended ACL. # ls -l /etc/gshadow If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19639r561459_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all /etc/gshadow

b
The /etc/gshadow file must not contain any group password hashes.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218167 - SV-218167r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000000-LNX001476
Vuln IDs
  • V-218167
  • V-22349
Rule IDs
  • SV-218167r603259_rule
  • SV-62767
Group passwords are typically shared and should not be used.
Checks: C-19642r553838_chk

Check the /etc/gshadow file for password hashes. # cut -d : -f 2 /etc/gshadow | egrep -v '^(x|!!)$' If any password hashes are returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19640r553839_fix

Edit /etc/gshadow and change the password field to an exclamation point (!) to lock the group password.

c
The system must not have special privilege accounts, such as shutdown and halt.
AC-6 - High - CCI-000225 - V-218168 - SV-218168r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX00320
Vuln IDs
  • V-218168
  • V-4268
Rule IDs
  • SV-218168r603259_rule
  • SV-62797
If special privilege accounts are compromised, the accounts could provide privileges to execute malicious commands on a system.
Checks: C-19643r553841_chk

Perform the following to check for unnecessary privileged accounts: # grep "^shutdown" /etc/passwd # grep "^halt" /etc/passwd # grep "^reboot" /etc/passwd If any unnecessary privileged accounts exist this is a finding.

Fix: F-19641r553842_fix

Remove any special privilege accounts, such as shutdown and halt, from the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files using the "userdel" or "system-config-users" commands.

b
The X server must have the correct options enabled.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218169 - SV-218169r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000000-LNX00360
Vuln IDs
  • V-218169
  • V-1021
Rule IDs
  • SV-218169r603259_rule
  • SV-62805
Without the correct options enabled, the Xwindows system would be less secure and there would be no screen timeout.
Checks: C-19644r553844_chk

Verify the options of the running Xwindows server are correct. Procedure: Get the running xserver information # ps -ef |grep X If the response contains /usr/bin/Xorg:0 /usr/bin/Xorg:0 -br -audit 0 -auth /var/gdm/:0.Xauth -nolisten tcp vt7 this is indicative of Xorg starting through gdm. This is the default on this version of the operating system. Examine the Xorg line: If the "-auth" option is missing this would be a finding. If the "-audit" option is missing or not set to 4, this is a finding. If the "-s" option is missing or greater than 15, this is a finding. If the response to the grep contains X:0 /usr/bin/X:0 this indicates the X server was started with the xinit command with no associated .xserverrc in the home directory of the user. No options are selected by default. This is a finding. Otherwise if there are options on the X:0 line: If the "-auth" option is missing this is a finding If the "-audit" option is missing or not set to 4, this is a finding. If the "-s" option is missing or greater than 15, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19642r553845_fix

Enable the following options: -audit (at level 4), -auth and -s with 15 minutes as the timeout value. Procedure for gdm: Edit /etc/gdm/custom.conf and add the following: [server-Standard] name=Standard server command=/usr/bin/Xorg -br -audit 4 -s 15 chooser=false handled=true flexible=true priority=0 Procedure for xinit: Edit or create a .xserverrc file in the user's home directory containing the startup script for xinit. This script must have an exec line with at least these options: exec /usr/bin/X -audit 4 -s 15 -auth <Xauth file> & The <Xauth file> is created using the "xauth" command and is customarily located in the user's home directory with the name ".Xauthority".

b
An X server must have none of the following options enabled: -ac, -core (except for debugging purposes), or -nolock.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218170 - SV-218170r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000000-LNX00380
Vuln IDs
  • V-218170
  • V-1022
Rule IDs
  • SV-218170r603259_rule
  • SV-62815
These options will detract from the security of the Xwindows system.
Checks: C-19645r553847_chk

If the "xorg-x11-server-Xorg" package is not installed, this is not applicable. Verify the options of the running Xwindows server are correct. Procedure: Get the running xserver information # ps -ef |grep X If the response contains /usr/bin/Xorg:0 /usr/bin/Xorg:0 -br -audit 0 -auth /var/gdm/:0.Xauth -nolisten tcp vt7 this is indicative of Xorg starting through gdm. This is the default window manager on this version of the operating system. If the "-ac" option is found, this is a finding. If the "-core" option is found, this is a finding. If the "-nolock" option is found, this is a finding. If the response to the grep contains X:0 /usr/bin/X:0 Examine the X:0 line: If the "-ac" option is found, this is a finding. If the "-core" option is found, this is a finding. If the "-nolock" option is found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19643r553848_fix

Disable the unwanted options: Procedure: For gdm: Remove the -ac, -core and -nolock options by creating a "command" entry in the /etc/gdm/custom.conf file with the options removed. For Xwindows started by xinit: Create or modify the .xserverrc script in the user's home directory to remove the -ac, -core and -nolock options from the exec /usr/bin/X command.

b
The /etc/security/access.conf file must be owned by root.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218171 - SV-218171r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000000-LNX00400
Vuln IDs
  • V-218171
  • V-1025
Rule IDs
  • SV-218171r603259_rule
  • SV-62875
The /etc/security/access.conf file contains entries restricting access from the system console by authorized System Administrators. If the file is owned by a user other than root, it could compromise the system.
Checks: C-19646r553850_chk

Check access configuration ownership: # ls -lL /etc/security/access.conf If this file exists and is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19644r553851_fix

Follow the correct configuration parameters for access configuration file. Use the chown command to configure it properly. (for example: # chown root /etc/security/access.conf ).

b
The /etc/security/access.conf file must have a privileged group owner.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218172 - SV-218172r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX00420
Vuln IDs
  • V-218172
  • V-1054
Rule IDs
  • SV-218172r603259_rule
  • SV-62901
Depending on the access restrictions of the /etc/security/access.conf file, if the group owner were not a privileged group, it could endanger system security.
Checks: C-19647r553853_chk

Check access configuration group ownership: # ls -lL /etc/security/access.conf If this file exists and has a group-owner that is not a privileged user, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19645r553854_fix

Use the chgrp command to ensure the group owner is root, sys, or bin. (for example: # chgrp root /etc/security/access.conf ).

b
The /etc/security/access.conf file must have mode 0640 or less permissive.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218173 - SV-218173r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000000-LNX00440
Vuln IDs
  • V-218173
  • V-1055
Rule IDs
  • SV-218173r603259_rule
  • SV-62903
If the access permissions are more permissive than 0640, system security could be compromised.
Checks: C-19648r553856_chk

Check access configuration mode: # ls -lL /etc/security/access.conf If this file exists and has a mode more permissive than 0640, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19646r553857_fix

Use the chmod command to set the permissions to 0640. (for example: # chmod 0640 /etc/security/access.conf ).

b
The access.conf file must not have an extended ACL.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218174 - SV-218174r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX00450
Vuln IDs
  • V-218174
  • V-22595
Rule IDs
  • SV-218174r603259_rule
  • SV-62909
If the access permissions are more permissive than 0640, system security could be compromised.
Checks: C-19649r553859_chk

Check the permissions of the file. # ls -lL /etc/security/access.conf If the permissions of the file or directory contain a '+', an extended ACL is present. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19647r553860_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all /etc/security/access.conf

b
The /etc/sysctl.conf file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218175 - SV-218175r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX00480
Vuln IDs
  • V-218175
  • V-4334
Rule IDs
  • SV-218175r603259_rule
  • SV-62929
The sysctl.conf file specifies the values for kernel parameters to be set on boot. These settings can affect the system's security.
Checks: C-19650r561461_chk

Check /etc/sysctl.conf ownership. # ls -lL /etc/sysctl.conf If /etc/sysctl.conf is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19648r561462_fix

Use the chown command to change the owner of /etc/sysctl.conf to root: # chown root /etc/sysctl.conf

b
The /etc/sysctl.conf file must be group-owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218176 - SV-218176r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX00500
Vuln IDs
  • V-218176
  • V-4335
Rule IDs
  • SV-218176r603259_rule
  • SV-62951
The sysctl.conf file specifies the values for kernel parameters to be set on boot. These settings can affect the system's security.
Checks: C-19651r561464_chk

Check /etc/sysctl.conf group ownership: # ls -lL /etc/sysctl.conf If /etc/sysctl.conf is not group-owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19649r561465_fix

Use the chgrp command to change the group owner of /etc/sysctl.conf to root: # chgrp root /etc/sysctl.conf

b
The /etc/sysctl.conf file must have mode 0600 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218177 - SV-218177r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX00520
Vuln IDs
  • V-218177
  • V-4336
Rule IDs
  • SV-218177r603259_rule
  • SV-62963
The sysctl.conf file specifies the values for kernel parameters to be set on boot. These settings can affect the system's security.
Checks: C-19652r561467_chk

Check /etc/sysctl.conf permissions: # ls -lL /etc/sysctl.conf If /etc/sysctl.conf has a mode more permissive than 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19650r561468_fix

Use the chmod command to change the mode of the /etc/sysctl.conf file. # chmod 0600 /etc/sysctl.conf

b
The /etc/sysctl.conf file must not have an extended ACL.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218178 - SV-218178r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX00530
Vuln IDs
  • V-218178
  • V-22596
Rule IDs
  • SV-218178r603259_rule
  • SV-62983
The sysctl.conf file specifies the values for kernel parameters to be set on boot. These settings can affect the system's security.
Checks: C-19653r561470_chk

Check the permissions of the file. # ls -lL /etc/sysctl.conf If the permissions of the file or directory contain a '+', an extended ACL is present. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19651r561471_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all /etc/sysctl.conf

c
The Linux NFS Server must not have the insecure file locking option.
AC-6 - High - CCI-000225 - V-218179 - SV-218179r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX00560
Vuln IDs
  • V-218179
  • V-4339
Rule IDs
  • SV-218179r603259_rule
  • SV-62985
Insecure file locking could allow for sensitive data to be viewed or edited by an unauthorized user.
Checks: C-19654r553874_chk

Determine if an NFS server is running on the system by: # ps -ef |grep nfsd If an NFS server is running, confirm it is not configured with the insecure_locks option by: # exportfs -v The example below would be a finding: /misc/export speedy.example.com(rw,insecure_locks)

Fix: F-19652r553875_fix

Remove the "insecure_locks" option from all NFS exports on the system. Procedure: Edit /etc/exports and remove all instances of the insecure_locks option. Re-export the file systems to make the setting take effect. # exportfs -a

c
The x86 CTRL-ALT-DELETE key sequence must be disabled.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000366 - V-218180 - SV-218180r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000000-LNX00580
Vuln IDs
  • V-218180
  • V-4342
Rule IDs
  • SV-218180r603259_rule
  • SV-62991
Undesirable reboots can occur if the CTRL-ALT-DELETE key sequence is not disabled. Such reboots may cause a loss of data or loss of access to critical information.
Checks: C-19655r553877_chk

Verify that reboot using the CTRL-ALT-DELETE key sequence has been disabled by performing: # grep ctrlaltdel /etc/inittab If the line returned does not specify "/usr/bin/logger", or is not commented out, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19653r553878_fix

Ensure the CTRL-ALT-DELETE key sequence has been disabled and attempts to use the sequence are logged. In the /etc/inittab file replace: ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now with ca:nil:ctrlaltdel:/usr/bin/logger -p security.info "Ctrl-Alt-Del was pressed" Once this change has been made, execute the following command to force the "init" daemon to re-read /etc/inittab: # telinit q

b
The Linux PAM system must not grant sole access to admin privileges to the first user who logs into the console.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218181 - SV-218181r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000000-LNX00600
Vuln IDs
  • V-218181
  • V-4346
Rule IDs
  • SV-218181r603259_rule
  • SV-63003
If an unauthorized user has been granted privileged access while logged in at the console, the security posture of a system could be greatly compromised. Additionally, such a situation could deny legitimate root access from another terminal.
Checks: C-19656r553880_chk

Ensure the pam_console.so module is not configured in any files in /etc/pam.d by: # cd /etc/pam.d # grep pam_console.so * Or # ls -la /etc/security/console.perms If either the pam_console.so entry or the file /etc/security/console.perms is found then this is a finding.

Fix: F-19654r553881_fix

Configure PAM to not grant sole access of administrative privileges to the first user logged in at the console. Identify any instances of pam_console. # cd /etc/pam.d # grep pam_console.so * For any files containing an un-commented reference to pam_console.so, edit the file and remove or comment out the reference. Remove the console.perms file if it exists: # rm /etc/security/console.perms

b
The /etc/securetty file must be group-owned by root, sys, or bin.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218182 - SV-218182r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX00620
Vuln IDs
  • V-218182
  • V-12038
Rule IDs
  • SV-218182r603259_rule
  • SV-63013
The securetty file contains the list of terminals permitting direct root logins. It must be protected from unauthorized modification.
Checks: C-19657r561473_chk

Check /etc/securetty group ownership: # ls -lL /etc/securetty If /etc/securetty is not group owned by root, sys, or bin, then this is a finding.

Fix: F-19655r561474_fix

Change the group-owner of /etc/securetty to root, sys, or bin. Example: # chgrp root /etc/securetty

b
The /etc/securetty file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218183 - SV-218183r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000000-LNX00640
Vuln IDs
  • V-218183
  • V-12039
Rule IDs
  • SV-218183r603259_rule
  • SV-63061
The securetty file contains the list of terminals permitting direct root logins. It must be protected from unauthorized modification.
Checks: C-19658r553886_chk

Check /etc/securetty ownership. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/securetty If /etc/securetty is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19656r553887_fix

Change the owner of the /etc/securetty file to root. Procedure: # chown root /etc/securetty

b
The /etc/securetty file must have mode 0600 or less permissive.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218184 - SV-218184r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000000-LNX00660
Vuln IDs
  • V-218184
  • V-12040
Rule IDs
  • SV-218184r603259_rule
  • SV-63071
The securetty file contains the list of terminals permitting direct root logins. It must be protected from unauthorized modification.
Checks: C-19659r553889_chk

Check /etc/securetty permissions. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/securetty If /etc/securetty has a mode more permissive than 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19657r553890_fix

Change the mode of the /etc/securetty file to 0600. Procedure: # chmod 0600 /etc/securetty

a
Auditing must be enabled at boot by setting a kernel parameter.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-218185 - SV-218185r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000000-LNX00720
Vuln IDs
  • V-218185
  • V-22598
Rule IDs
  • SV-218185r603259_rule
  • SV-63081
If auditing is enabled late in the boot process, the actions of startup scripts may not be audited. Some audit systems also maintain state information only available if auditing is enabled before a given process is created.
Checks: C-19660r553892_chk

Check for the audit=1 kernel parameter. # grep 'audit=1' /proc/cmdline If no results are returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19658r553893_fix

Edit the grub bootloader file /boot/grub/grub.conf or /boot/grub/menu.lst by appending the "audit=1" parameter to the kernel boot line. Reboot the system for the change to take effect.

a
The system must use a Linux Security Module configured to limit the privileges of system services.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-218186 - SV-218186r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000000-LNX00800
Vuln IDs
  • V-218186
  • V-22584
Rule IDs
  • SV-218186r603259_rule
  • SV-63085
Linux Security Modules such as SELinux and AppArmor can be used to provide protection from software exploits by explicitly defining the privileges permitted to each software package.
Checks: C-19661r553895_chk

Check if SELinux is enabled with at least a "targeted" policy. # grep ^SELINUX /etc/sysconfig/selinux If the SELINUX option is not set to "enforcing", this is a finding. If the SELINUXTYPE option is not set to "targeted" or "strict", this is a finding. If the use of the system is incompatible with the confines of SELinux this rule may be waived.

Fix: F-19659r553896_fix

Enable one of the SELinux policies. Edit /etc/sysconfig/selinux and set the value of the SELINUX option to "enforcing" and SELINUXTYPE to "targeted" or "strict". Restart the system.

b
The system must require authentication upon booting into single-user and maintenance modes.
AC-3 - Medium - CCI-000213 - V-218187 - SV-218187r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000213
Version
GEN000020
Vuln IDs
  • V-218187
  • V-756
Rule IDs
  • SV-218187r603259_rule
  • SV-63087
If the system does not require valid root authentication before it boots into single-user or maintenance mode, anyone who invokes single-user or maintenance mode is granted privileged access to all files on the system.
Checks: C-19662r553898_chk

Check if the system requires a password for entering single-user mode. # grep ':S:' /etc/inittab If /sbin/sulogin is not listed, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19660r553899_fix

Edit /etc/inittab and set sulogin to run in single-user mode. Example line in /etc/inittab: ~:S:wait:/sbin/sulogin Note: The first field in the /etc/inittab line may be any sequence of 1-4 characters.

c
The operating system must be a supported release.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000366 - V-218188 - SV-218188r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000100
Vuln IDs
  • V-218188
  • V-11940
Rule IDs
  • SV-218188r603259_rule
  • SV-63095
An operating system release is considered "supported" if the vendor continues to provide security patches for the product. With an unsupported release, it will not be possible to resolve security issues discovered in the system software.
Checks: C-19663r553901_chk

Check the version of the operating system. Example: # cat /etc/oracle-release Vendor End-of-Support Information: Oracle Linux 5 premier support ends on March 2017, but sustaining support continues indefinitely. For more information, see the Oracle Lifetime Support Policy for Oracle Linux at: http://www.oracle.com/us/support/library/elsp-lifetime-069338.pdf. Check with the vendor for additional information. If the version installed is not supported, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19661r553902_fix

Upgrade to a supported version of the operating system.

b
System security patches and updates must be installed and up-to-date.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218189 - SV-218189r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000120
Vuln IDs
  • V-218189
  • V-783
Rule IDs
  • SV-218189r603259_rule
  • SV-63099
Timely patching is critical for maintaining the operational availability, confidentiality, and integrity of information technology (IT) systems. However, failure to keep operating system and application software patched is a common mistake made by IT professionals. New patches are released daily, and it is often difficult for even experienced system administrators to keep abreast of all the new patches. When new weaknesses in an operating system exist, patches are usually made available by the vendor to resolve the problems. If the most recent security patches and updates are not installed, unauthorized users may take advantage of weaknesses present in the unpatched software. The lack of prompt attention to patching could result in a system compromise.
Checks: C-19664r561404_chk

Obtain the list of available package security updates from the operating system vendor. Check the available package security updates have been installed on the system. Use the "rpm" command to list the packages installed on the system. Example: # rpm -qa -last If updated packages are available and applicable to the system and have not been installed, this is a finding. For more information, see: (1) http://linux.oracle.com/errata/ and (2) http://linux.oracle.com/cve/.

Fix: F-19662r561405_fix

Install the patches or updated packages available from the vendor.

b
A file integrity baseline including cryptographic hashes must be created.
CM-2 - Medium - CCI-000293 - V-218190 - SV-218190r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000293
Version
GEN000140-2
Vuln IDs
  • V-218190
  • V-27250
Rule IDs
  • SV-218190r603259_rule
  • SV-63101
A file integrity baseline is a collection of file metadata which is to evaluate the integrity of the system. A minimal baseline must contain metadata for all device files, setuid files, setgid files, system libraries, system binaries, and system configuration files. The minimal metadata must consist of the mode, owner, group owner, and modification times. For regular files, metadata must also include file size and a cryptographic hash of the file's contents.
Checks: C-19665r568507_chk

Verify a system integrity baseline exists. The Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment (AIDE) tool is included with the operating system. Other host intrusion detection system (HIDS) software is available but must be checked manually. Procedure: # grep DBDIR /etc/aide.conf If /etc/aide.conf does not exist AIDE has not been installed. Unless another HIDS is used on the system, this is a finding. Examine the response for "database" this indicates the location of the system integrity baseline database used as input to a comparison. # ls -la &lt;DBDIR&gt; If no "database" file as defined in /etc/aide.conf exists a system integrity baseline has not been created, this is a finding. Examine /etc/aide.conf to ensure some form of cryptographic hash (i.e., md5, rmd160, sha256) is used for files. In the default /etc/aide.conf the "NORMAL" or "LSPP" rules which are used for virtually all files DO include some form of cryptographic hash. If the site has defined rules to replace the functionality provided by the default "NORMAL" and "LSPP" rules but DOES NOT include cryptographic hashes, this is a finding. Otherwise, if any element used to define the "NORMAL" and "LSPP" rules has been modified resulting in cryptographic hashes not being used, this is a finding. If any other modification to the default /etc/aide.conf file have been made resulting in rules which do not include cryptographic hashes on appropriate files, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19663r568508_fix

Use AIDE to create a file integrity baseline, including cryptographic hashes, for the system. Configure the /etc/aide.conf file to ensure some form of cryptographic hash (e.g., md5, rmd160, sha256) is used for files. In the default /etc/aide.conf the "NORMAL" or "LSPP" rules which are used for virtually all files DO include some form of cryptographic hash.

b
A file integrity baseline including cryptographic hashes must be maintained.
CM-2 - Medium - CCI-000293 - V-218191 - SV-218191r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000293
Version
GEN000140-3
Vuln IDs
  • V-218191
  • V-27251
Rule IDs
  • SV-218191r603259_rule
  • SV-63129
A file integrity baseline is a collection of file metadata which is to evaluate the integrity of the system. A minimal baseline must contain metadata for all device files, setuid files, setgid files, system libraries, system binaries, and system configuration files. The minimal metadata must consist of the mode, owner, group owner, and modification times. For regular files, metadata must also include file size and a cryptographic hash of the file's contents.
Checks: C-19666r568510_chk

Verify a system integrity baseline is maintained. The baseline has been updated to be consistent with the latest approved system configuration changes. The Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment (AIDE) tool is included with the operating system. Other host intrusion detection system (HIDS) software is available but must be checked manually. Procedure: # grep DBDIR /etc/aide.conf If /etc/aide.conf does not exist AIDE has not been installed. Unless another HIDS is used on the system, this is a finding. Examine the response for "database" indicates the location of the system integrity baseline database used as input to a comparison. # ls -la &lt;DBDIR&gt; If the no "database" file as defined in /etc/aide.conf a system integrity baseline has not been created, this is a finding. Ask the SA when the last approved system configuration changes occurred. If the modification date of the AIDE database is prior to the last approved configuration change, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19664r568511_fix

Regularly rebuild the integrity baseline, including cryptographic hashes, for the system to be consistent with the latest approved system configuration. Procedure: After an approved modification to the system configuration has been made perform: # aide -u This will update the database.

b
A file integrity tool must be used at least weekly to check for unauthorized file changes, particularly the addition of unauthorized system libraries or binaries, or for unauthorized modification to authorized system libraries or binaries.
RA-5 - Medium - CCI-001069 - V-218192 - SV-218192r603259_rule
RMF Control
RA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001069
Version
GEN000220
Vuln IDs
  • V-218192
  • V-11945
Rule IDs
  • SV-218192r603259_rule
  • SV-63133
Changes in system libraries, binaries and other critical system files can indicate compromise or significant system events such as patching needing to be checked by automated processes and the results reviewed by the SA. NOTE: The frequency may be increased to daily, if necessary, in accordance with the contingency plan.
Checks: C-19667r568513_chk

Check for the presence of an aide on the system: # rpm -qa | grep aide If aide is not installed, ask the SA what file integrity tool is being used to check the system. Check the global crontabs for the presence of an "aide" job to run at least weekly, if aide is installed. Otherwise, check for the presence of a cron job to run the alternate file integrity checking application. # grep aide /etc/cron*/* If a tool is being run then the configuration file for the appropriate tool needs to be checked for selection lines /bin, /sbin, /lib, and /usr. Procedure: Check the root crontab (crontab -l) and the global crontabs in /etc/crontab, /etc/cron.d/* for the presence of an "aide" job to run at least weekly, which should have asterisks (*) in columns 3, 4, and 5. Check the weekly cron directory (/etc/cron.weekly) for any script running "aide --check" or "aide -C" or simply "aide". If there is not, this is a finding. NOTE: The frequency may be increased to daily, if necessary, in accordance with the contingency plan.

Fix: F-19665r568514_fix

Establish an automated job, scheduled to run weekly or more frequently, to run "aide --check" which is the file integrity tool to check for unauthorized system libraries or binaries. NOTE: The frequency may be increased to daily, if necessary, in accordance with the contingency plan.

b
The system clock must be synchronized to an authoritative DoD time source.
AU-8 - Medium - CCI-001492 - V-218193 - SV-218193r603259_rule
RMF Control
AU-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001492
Version
GEN000240
Vuln IDs
  • V-218193
  • V-4301
Rule IDs
  • SV-218193r603259_rule
  • SV-63137
To assure the accuracy of the system clock, it must be synchronized with an authoritative time source within DoD. Many system functions, including time-based login and activity restrictions, automated reports, system logs, and audit records depend on an accurate system clock. If there is no confidence in the correctness of the system clock, time-based functions may not operate as intended and records may be of diminished value. Authoritative time sources include authorized time servers within the enclave that synchronize with upstream authoritative sources. Specific requirements for the upstream synchronization of network time protocol (NTP) servers are covered in the Network Other Devices STIG. For systems located on isolated or closed networks, it is not necessary to synchronize with a global authoritative time source. If a global authoritative time source is not available to systems on an isolated network, a local authoritative time source must be established on this network and used by the systems connected to this network. This is necessary to provide the ability to correlate events and allow for the correct operation of time-dependent protocols between systems on the isolated network. If the system is completely isolated (i.e., it has no connections to networks or other systems), time synchronization is not required as no correlation of events between systems will be necessary. If the system is completely isolated, this requirement is not applicable.
Checks: C-19668r568516_chk

Check if NTP running: # ps -ef | egrep "xntpd|ntpd" Check if "ntpd -qg" scheduled to run: # grep "ntpd -qg" /var/spool/cron/* # grep "ntpd -qg" /etc/cron.d/* # grep "ntpd -qg" /etc/cron.daily/* # grep "ntpd -qg" /etc/cron.hourly/* # grep "ntpd -qg" /etc/cron.monthly/* # grep "ntpd -qg" /etc/cron.weekly/* If NTP is running or "ntpd -qg" is found: # more /etc/ntp.conf Confirm the timeservers and peers or multicast client (as applicable) are local or authoritative U.S. DoD sources appropriate for the level of classification which the network operates. If a non-local/non-authoritative time-server is used, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19666r568517_fix

Use an authoritative local time server or a time server operated by the U.S. government. Ensure all systems in the facility feed from one or more local time servers which feed from the authoritative U.S. government time server.

b
The system clock must be synchronized continuously.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218194 - SV-218194r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000241
Vuln IDs
  • V-218194
  • V-22290
Rule IDs
  • SV-218194r603259_rule
  • SV-63143
A synchronized system clock is critical for the enforcement of time-based policies and the correlation of logs and audit records with other systems. Internal system clocks tend to drift and require periodic resynchronization to ensure their accuracy. Software, such as ntpd, can be used to continuously synchronize the system clock with authoritative sources. Alternatively, the system may be synchronized periodically, with a maximum of one day between synchronizations. If the system is completely isolated (i.e., it has no connections to networks or other systems), time synchronization is not required as no correlation of events or operation of time-dependent protocols between systems will be necessary. If the system is completely isolated, this requirement is not applicable.
Checks: C-19669r568519_chk

Check to see if ntp is running in continuous mode. # ps -ax | grep ntp If the process is found, then check the ntp.conf file for the maxpoll option setting. # grep maxpoll /etc/ntp.conf If the option is set to 17 or is not set, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19667r568520_fix

Enable the NTP daemon for continuous synchronization. # service ntpd start ; chkconfig ntpd on Edit the "/etc/ntp.conf" file and add or update an entry to define "maxpoll" to "10".

b
The system must use at least two time sources for clock synchronization.
AU-8 - Medium - CCI-000160 - V-218195 - SV-218195r603259_rule
RMF Control
AU-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000160
Version
GEN000242
Vuln IDs
  • V-218195
  • V-22291
Rule IDs
  • SV-218195r603259_rule
  • SV-63147
A synchronized system clock is critical for the enforcement of time-based policies and the correlation of logs and audit records with other systems. For redundancy, two time sources are required so synchronization continues to function if one source fails. If the system is completely isolated (i.e., it has no connections to networks or other systems), time synchronization is not required as no correlation of events or operation of time-dependent protocols between systems will be necessary. If the system is completely isolated, this requirement is not applicable. Note: For the network time protocol (NTP), the requirement is two servers, but it is recommended to configure at least four distinct time servers which allow NTP to effectively exclude a time source not consistent with the others. The system's local clock must be excluded from the count of time sources.
Checks: C-19670r568522_chk

Check the root crontab (crontab -l) and the global crontabs in /etc/crontab, /etc/cron.d/*, or scripts in the /etc/cron.daily directory for the presence of an "ntpd -qg" job. If the "ntpd -qg" command is not invoked with at least two external NTP servers listed, this is a finding. Check the NTP daemon configuration for at least two external servers. # grep ^server /etc/ntp.conf | egrep -v '(127.127.1.0|127.127.1.1)' If less than two servers or external reference clocks (127.127.x.x other than 127.127.1.0 or 127.127.1.1) are listed, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19668r568523_fix

If using "ntpd -qg", add additional NTP servers to the cron job running "ntpd -qg". If using the NTP daemon, add an additional "server" line to /etc/ntp.conf for each additional NTP server.

a
The system must use time sources local to the enclave.
AU-8 - Low - CCI-000160 - V-218196 - SV-218196r603259_rule
RMF Control
AU-8
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000160
Version
GEN000244
Vuln IDs
  • V-218196
  • V-22292
Rule IDs
  • SV-218196r603259_rule
  • SV-63153
A synchronized system clock is critical for the enforcement of time-based policies and the correlation of logs and audit records with other systems. The network architecture should provide multiple time servers within an enclave providing local service to the enclave and synchronize with time sources outside of the enclave. If this server is an enclave time server, this requirement is not applicable. If the system is completely isolated (i.e., it has no connections to networks or other systems), time synchronization is not required as no correlation of events or operation of time-dependent protocols between systems will be necessary. If the system is completely isolated, this requirement is not applicable.
Checks: C-19671r568525_chk

Check the root crontab (crontab -l) and the global crontabs in /etc/crontab, /etc/cron.d/*, or scripts in the /etc/cron.daily directory for the presence of an "ntpd -qg" job. If the "ntpd -qg" command is invoked with NTP servers outside of the enclave, this is a finding. Check the NTP daemon configuration for NTP servers. # grep ^server /etc/ntp.conf | grep -v 127.127.1.1 If an NTP server is listed outside of the enclave, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19669r568526_fix

If using "ntpd -qg", remove NTP servers external to the enclave from the cron job running "ntpd -qg". If using the NTP daemon, remove the "server" line from /etc/ntp.conf for each NTP server external to the enclave.

b
The time synchronization configuration file (such as /etc/ntp.conf) must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218197 - SV-218197r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000250
Vuln IDs
  • V-218197
  • V-22294
Rule IDs
  • SV-218197r603259_rule
  • SV-63161
A synchronized system clock is critical for the enforcement of time-based policies and the correlation of logs and audit records with other systems. If an illicit time source is used for synchronization, the integrity of system logs and the security of the system could be compromised. If the configuration files controlling time synchronization are not owned by a system account, unauthorized modifications could result in the failure of time synchronization.
Checks: C-19672r568528_chk

Check the ownership of the NTP configuration file. # ls -l /etc/ntp.conf If the owner is not root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19670r568529_fix

Change the owner of the NTP configuration file. # chown root /etc/ntp.conf

b
The time synchronization configuration file (such as /etc/ntp.conf) must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218198 - SV-218198r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000251
Vuln IDs
  • V-218198
  • V-22295
Rule IDs
  • SV-218198r603259_rule
  • SV-63165
A synchronized system clock is critical for the enforcement of time-based policies and the correlation of logs and audit records with other systems. If an illicit time source is used for synchronization, the integrity of system logs and the security of the system could be compromised. If the configuration files controlling time synchronization are not owned by a system group, unauthorized modifications could result in the failure of time synchronization.
Checks: C-19673r568531_chk

Check the group ownership of the NTP configuration file. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/ntp.conf If the group owner is not root, bin, or sys, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19671r568532_fix

Change the group-owner of the NTP configuration file. Procedure: # chgrp root /etc/ntp.conf

b
The time synchronization configuration file (such as /etc/ntp.conf) must have mode 0640 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218199 - SV-218199r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000252
Vuln IDs
  • V-218199
  • V-22296
Rule IDs
  • SV-218199r603259_rule
  • SV-63171
A synchronized system clock is critical for the enforcement of time-based policies and the correlation of logs and audit records with other systems. If an illicit time source is used for synchronization, the integrity of system logs and the security of the system could be compromised. If the configuration files controlling time synchronization are not protected, unauthorized modifications could result in the failure of time synchronization.
Checks: C-19674r568534_chk

Check the mode for the NTP configuration file is not more permissive than 0640. # ls -l /etc/ntp.conf If the mode is more permissive than 0640, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19672r568535_fix

Change the mode of the NTP configuration file to 0640 or more restrictive. # chmod 0640 /etc/ntp.conf

b
The time synchronization configuration file (such as /etc/ntp.conf) must not have an extended ACL.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218200 - SV-218200r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000253
Vuln IDs
  • V-218200
  • V-22297
Rule IDs
  • SV-218200r603259_rule
  • SV-63177
A synchronized system clock is critical for the enforcement of time-based policies and the correlation of logs and audit records with other systems. If an illicit time source is used for synchronization, the integrity of system logs and the security of the system could be compromised. If the configuration files controlling time synchronization are not protected, unauthorized modifications could result in the failure of time synchronization.
Checks: C-19675r568537_chk

Check the NTP configuration file has no extended ACL. # ls -l /etc/ntp.conf If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19673r568538_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the NTP configuration file. # setfacl --remove-all /etc/ntp.conf

b
Direct logins must not be permitted to shared, default, application, or utility accounts.
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000770 - V-218201 - SV-218201r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000770
Version
GEN000280
Vuln IDs
  • V-218201
  • V-760
Rule IDs
  • SV-218201r603259_rule
  • SV-63187
Shared accounts (accounts where two or more people log in with the same user identification) do not provide identification and authentication. There is no way to provide for non-repudiation or individual accountability.
Checks: C-19676r553940_chk

Use the last command to check for multiple accesses to an account from different workstations/IP addresses. # last -w If users log directly on to accounts, rather than using the switch user (su) command from their own named account to access them, this is a finding (such as logging directly onto oracle). Verify with the SA or the ISSO on documentation for users/administrators to log on to their own accounts first and then switch user (su) to the account to be shared has been maintained, including requirements and procedures. If no such documentation exists, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19674r553941_fix

Use the switch user (su) command from a named account login to access shared accounts. Document requirements and procedures for users/administrators to log into their own accounts first and then switch user (su) to the account to be shared.

b
The system must not have unnecessary accounts.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-000012 - V-218202 - SV-218202r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000012
Version
GEN000290
Vuln IDs
  • V-218202
  • V-4269
Rule IDs
  • SV-218202r603259_rule
  • SV-63195
Accounts providing no operational purpose provide additional opportunities for system compromise. Unnecessary accounts include user accounts for individuals not requiring access to the system and application accounts for applications not installed on the system.
Checks: C-19677r568540_chk

Check the system for unnecessary user accounts. Procedure: # more /etc/passwd Obtain a list of authorized accounts from the IAO. If any unnecessary accounts are found on the system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19675r568541_fix

Remove all unnecessary accounts from the /etc/passwd file before connecting a system to the network. Other accounts that are associated with a service not in use should also be removed.

b
The system must not have the unnecessary games account.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-000012 - V-218203 - SV-218203r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000012
Version
GEN000290-1
Vuln IDs
  • V-218203
  • V-29376
Rule IDs
  • SV-218203r603259_rule
  • SV-63201
Accounts that provide no operational purpose provide additional opportunities for system compromise. Unnecessary accounts include user accounts for individuals not requiring access to the system and application accounts for applications not installed on the system.
Checks: C-19678r568543_chk

Check the system for the unnecessary "games" accounts. Procedure: # grep ^games /etc/passwd If this account exists, it is a finding.

Fix: F-19676r568544_fix

Remove the "games" account from the /etc/passwd file before connecting a system to the network.

b
The system must not have the unnecessary news account.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-000012 - V-218204 - SV-218204r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000012
Version
GEN000290-2
Vuln IDs
  • V-218204
  • V-27275
Rule IDs
  • SV-218204r603259_rule
  • SV-63215
Accounts that provide no operational purpose provide additional opportunities for system compromise. Unnecessary accounts include user accounts for individuals not requiring access to the system and application accounts for applications not installed on the system.
Checks: C-19679r568546_chk

Check the system for the unnecessary "news" accounts. Procedure: # rpm -q inn If the "inn" is installed the "news" user is necessary and this is not a finding. # grep ^news /etc/passwd If this account exists and "inn" is not installed, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19677r568547_fix

Remove the "news" account from the /etc/passwd file before connecting a system to the network.

b
The system must not have the unnecessary gopher account.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-000012 - V-218205 - SV-218205r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000012
Version
GEN000290-3
Vuln IDs
  • V-218205
  • V-27276
Rule IDs
  • SV-218205r603259_rule
  • SV-63227
Accounts that provide no operational purpose provide additional opportunities for system compromise. Unnecessary accounts include user accounts for individuals not requiring access to the system and application accounts for applications not installed on the system.
Checks: C-19680r568549_chk

Check the system for the unnecessary "gopher" accounts. Procedure: # grep ^gopher /etc/passwd If this account exists, it is a finding.

Fix: F-19678r568550_fix

Remove the "gopher" account from the /etc/passwd file before connecting a system to the network.

b
The system must not have the unnecessary ftp account.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-000012 - V-218206 - SV-218206r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000012
Version
GEN000290-4
Vuln IDs
  • V-218206
  • V-27279
Rule IDs
  • SV-218206r603259_rule
  • SV-63231
Accounts that provide no operational purpose provide additional opportunities for system compromise. Unnecessary accounts include user accounts for individuals not requiring access to the system and application accounts for applications not installed on the system.
Checks: C-19681r568552_chk

Check the system for the unnecessary "ftp" accounts. Procedure: # rpm -q krb5-workstation An ftp server is part of "krb5-workstation". If it is installed the "ftp" user is necessary and this is not a finding. # rpm -q vsftp If the "vsftp" ftp server is installed the "ftp" user is necessary and this is not a finding. # grep ^ftp /etc/passwd If this account exists and no ftp server is installed which requires it, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19679r568553_fix

Remove the "ftp" account from the /etc/passwd file before connecting a system to the network.

b
All accounts on the system must have unique user or account names.
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000764 - V-218207 - SV-218207r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000764
Version
GEN000300
Vuln IDs
  • V-218207
  • V-761
Rule IDs
  • SV-218207r603259_rule
  • SV-63251
A unique user name is the first part of the identification and authentication process. If user names are not unique, there can be no accountability on the system for auditing purposes. Multiple accounts sharing the same name could result in the denial of service to one or both of the accounts or unauthorized access to files or privileges.
Checks: C-19682r561407_chk

Check the system for duplicate account names. Example: # pwck -r If any duplicate account names are found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19680r561408_fix

Change user account names, or delete accounts, so each account has a unique name.

b
All accounts must be assigned unique User Identification Numbers (UIDs).
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000764 - V-218208 - SV-218208r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000764
Version
GEN000320
Vuln IDs
  • V-218208
  • V-762
Rule IDs
  • SV-218208r603259_rule
  • SV-63255
Accounts sharing a UID have full access to each others' files. This has the same effect as sharing a login. There is no way to assure identification, authentication, and accountability because the system sees them as the same user. If the duplicate UID is 0, this gives potential intruders another privileged account to attack.
Checks: C-19683r561410_chk

Perform the following to ensure there are no duplicate UIDs: # cut -d: -f3 /etc/passwd | uniq -d If any duplicate UIDs are found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19681r561411_fix

Edit user accounts to provide unique UIDs for each account.

b
UIDs reserved for system accounts must not be assigned to non-system accounts.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218209 - SV-218209r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000340
Vuln IDs
  • V-218209
  • V-11946
Rule IDs
  • SV-218209r603259_rule
  • SV-63277
Reserved UIDs are typically used by system software packages. If non-system accounts have UIDs in this range, they may conflict with system software, possibly leading to the user having permissions to modify system files.
Checks: C-19684r553964_chk

Check the UID assignments for all accounts. # cut -d: -f 1,3 /etc/passwd | egrep ":[1-4][0-9]{2}$|:[0-9]{1,2}$" Confirm all accounts with a UID of 499 and below are used by a system account. If a UID reserved for system accounts (0 - 499) is used by a non-system account, then this is a finding.

Fix: F-19682r553965_fix

Change the UID numbers for non-system accounts with reserved UIDs (those less or equal to 499).

b
GIDs reserved for system accounts must not be assigned to non-system groups.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218210 - SV-218210r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000360
Vuln IDs
  • V-218210
  • V-780
Rule IDs
  • SV-218210r603259_rule
  • SV-63299
Reserved GIDs are typically used by system software packages. If non-system groups have GIDs in this range, they may conflict with system software, possibly leading to the group having permissions to modify system files.
Checks: C-19685r553967_chk

Confirm all accounts with a GID of 499 and below are used by a system account. Procedure: List all the users with a GID of 0-499. # cut -d: -f 1,4 /etc/passwd|egrep ":[1-4][0-9]{2}$|:[0-9]{1,2}$" If a GID reserved for system accounts (0 - 499) is used by a non-system account, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19683r553968_fix

Change the primary group GID numbers for non-system accounts with reserved primary group GIDs (those less or equal to 499).

a
All GIDs referenced in the /etc/passwd file must be defined in the /etc/group file.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-218211 - SV-218211r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000380
Vuln IDs
  • V-218211
  • V-781
Rule IDs
  • SV-218211r603259_rule
  • SV-63319
If a user is assigned the GID of a group not existing on the system, and a group with the GID is subsequently created, the user may have unintended rights to the group.
Checks: C-19686r553970_chk

Perform the following to ensure there are no GIDs referenced in /etc/passwd not defined in /etc/group: # pwck -r If GIDs referenced in /etc/passwd are not defined in /etc/group are returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19684r553971_fix

Add a group to the system for each GID referenced without a corresponding group.

b
The Department of Defense (DoD) login banner must be displayed immediately prior to, or as part of, console login prompts.
AC-8 - Medium - CCI-000048 - V-218212 - SV-218212r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000048
Version
GEN000400
Vuln IDs
  • V-218212
  • V-763
Rule IDs
  • SV-218212r603259_rule
  • SV-63333
Failure to display the logon banner prior to a logon attempt will negate legal proceedings resulting from unauthorized access to system resources.
Checks: C-19687r553973_chk

Access the system console and make a login attempt. Check for either of the following login banners based on the character limitations imposed by the system. An exact match is required. If one of these banners is not displayed, this is a finding. You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests- -not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. OR I've read &amp; consent to terms in IS user agreem't.

Fix: F-19685r553974_fix

Edit /etc/issue and add one of the DoD login banners (based on the character limitations imposed by the system). DoD Login Banners: You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests- -not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. OR I've read & consent to terms in IS user agreem't.

b
The Department of Defense (DoD) login banner must be displayed immediately prior to, or as part of, graphical desktop environment login prompts.
AC-8 - Medium - CCI-000048 - V-218213 - SV-218213r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000048
Version
GEN000402
Vuln IDs
  • V-218213
  • V-24331
Rule IDs
  • SV-218213r603259_rule
  • SV-63351
Failure to display the logon banner prior to a logon attempt will negate legal proceedings resulting from unauthorized access to system resources. This requirement applies to graphical desktop environments provided by the system to locally attached displays and input devices as well as to graphical desktop environments provided to remote systems, including thin clients.
Checks: C-19688r568555_chk

Access the graphical desktop environment(s) provided by the system and attempt to log in. Check for either of the following login banners based on the character limitations imposed by the system. An exact match is required. If one of these banners is not displayed, this is a finding. You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests- -not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. OR I've read &amp; consent to terms in IS user agreem't.

Fix: F-19686r568556_fix

Configure the system to display one of the DoD login banners prior to, or as part of, the graphical desktop environment login process. Procedure: Modify /usr/share/gdm/themes/RHEL/RHEL.xml by adding the following xml after the first two "pixmap" entries. <item type="rect" id="custom-dod-banner"> <pos anchor="nw" x="20%" y="10" width="80%" height="100%"/> <box> <item type="label"> <normal font="Sans Bold 9" color="#ffffff"/> <text> Insert the "approved text" here based on the character limitations imposed by the system. </text> </item> </box> </item> Approved text: DoD Login Banners: You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. OR I've read & consent to terms in IS user agreem't.

b
The FTPS/FTP service on the system must be configured with the Department of Defense (DoD) login banner.
AC-8 - Medium - CCI-000048 - V-218214 - SV-218214r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000048
Version
GEN000410
Vuln IDs
  • V-218214
  • V-23732
Rule IDs
  • SV-218214r603259_rule
  • SV-63359
Failure to display the logon banner prior to a logon attempt will negate legal proceedings resulting from unauthorized access to system resources. Note: SFTP and FTPS are encrypted alternatives to FTP to be used in place of FTP. SFTP is implemented by the SSH service and uses its banner configuration.
Checks: C-19689r568558_chk

FTP to the system. # ftp localhost Check for either of the following login banners based on the character limitations imposed by the system. An exact match is required. If one of these banners is not displayed, this is a finding. If the system does not run the FTP service, this is not applicable. DoD Login Banners: You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. OR I've read &amp; consent to terms in IS user agreem't.

Fix: F-19687r568559_fix

Provide the proper text for the DoD banner to be presented by the FTP server to the user. For vsftp: Examine the /etc/vsftp.conf file for the "banner_file" entry. (i.e., banner_file = /etc/banner/vsftp) For gssftp: Examine the /etc/xinetd.d/gssftp file for the "banner" entry. (i.e., banner = /etc/banner/gssftp) For both: Add the banner entry if one is not found. Modify or create the referenced banner file to contain one of the following DoD login banners (based on the character limitations imposed by the system). DoD Login Banners: You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. OR I've read & consent to terms in IS user agreem't.

b
Successful and unsuccessful logins and logouts must be logged.
AU-2 - Medium - CCI-000126 - V-218215 - SV-218215r603259_rule
RMF Control
AU-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000126
Version
GEN000440
Vuln IDs
  • V-218215
  • V-765
Rule IDs
  • SV-218215r603259_rule
  • SV-63363
Monitoring and recording successful and unsuccessful logins assists in tracking unauthorized access to the system. Without this logging, the ability to track unauthorized activity to specific user accounts may be diminished.
Checks: C-19690r553982_chk

Determine if all logon attempts are being logged. Procedure: Verify successful logins are being logged: # last -R | more If the command does not return successful logins, this is a finding. Verify if unsuccessful logons are being logged: # lastb -R | more If the command does not return unsuccessful logins, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19688r553983_fix

Make sure the collection files exist. Procedure: If there are no successful logins being returned from the "last" command, create /var/log/wtmp: # touch /var/log/wtmp If there are no unsuccessful logins being returned from the "lastb" command, create /var/log/btmp: # touch /var/log/btmp

a
The system must limit users to 10 simultaneous system logins, or a site-defined number, in accordance with operational requirements.
AC-10 - Low - CCI-000054 - V-218216 - SV-218216r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-10
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000054
Version
GEN000450
Vuln IDs
  • V-218216
  • V-22298
Rule IDs
  • SV-218216r603259_rule
  • SV-63367
Limiting simultaneous user logins can insulate the system from denial of service problems caused by excessive logins. Automated login processes operating improperly or maliciously may result in an exceptional number of simultaneous login sessions. If the defined value of 10 logins does not meet operational requirements, the site may define the permitted number of simultaneous login sessions based on operational requirements. This limit is for the number of simultaneous login sessions for EACH user account. This is NOT a limit on the total number of simultaneous login sessions on the system.
Checks: C-19691r568561_chk

Check for a default maxlogins line in the /etc/security/limits.conf and /etc/security/limits.d/* files. Procedure: #grep maxlogins /etc/security/limits.conf /etc/security/limits.d/* The default maxlimits should be set to a max of 10 or a documented site defined number: * - maxlogins 10 If no such line exists, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19689r568562_fix

Add a "maxlogins" line such as "* hard maxlogins 10" to /etc/security/limits.conf or a file in /etc/security/limits.d. The enforced maximum should be defined by site requirements and policy.

a
The system must display the date and time of the last successful account login upon login.
AC-9 - Low - CCI-000052 - V-218217 - SV-218217r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-9
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000052
Version
GEN000452
Vuln IDs
  • V-218217
  • V-22299
Rule IDs
  • SV-218217r603259_rule
  • SV-63373
Providing users with feedback on when account accesses last occurred facilitates user recognition and reporting of unauthorized account use.
Checks: C-19692r553988_chk

Check that pam_lastlog is used and not silent, or that the SSH daemon is configured to display last login information. # grep pam_lastlog /etc/pam.d/sshd If pam_lastlog is present, and does not have the "silent" option, this is not a finding. # grep -i PrintLastLog /etc/ssh/sshd_config If PrintLastLog is not present in the configuration, this is not a finding. This is the default setting. If PrintLastLog is present in the configuration and set to "yes" (case insensitive), this is not a finding. Otherwise, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19690r553989_fix

Implement pam_lastlog, or enable PrintLastLog in the SSH daemon. To enable pam_lastlog, add a line such as "session required pam_lastlog.so" to /etc/pam.d/sshd. To enable PrintLastLog in the SSH daemon, remove any lines disabling this option from /etc/ssh/sshd_config.

b
The system must disable accounts after three consecutive unsuccessful login attempts.
AC-7 - Medium - CCI-000044 - V-218218 - SV-218218r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000044
Version
GEN000460
Vuln IDs
  • V-218218
  • V-766
Rule IDs
  • SV-218218r603259_rule
  • SV-63383
Disabling accounts after a limited number of unsuccessful login attempts improves protection against password guessing attacks.
Checks: C-19693r553991_chk

Check the pam_tally configuration. # more /etc/pam.d/system-auth Confirm the following line is configured, before any "auth sufficient" lines: auth required pam_tally2.so deny=3 If no such line is found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19691r553992_fix

By default link /etc/pam.d/system-auth points to /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac which is the file maintained by the authconfig utility. In order to add pam options other than those available via the utility create /etc/pam.d/system-auth-local with the options and including system-auth-ac. In order to set the account lockout to three failed attempts the content should be similar to: auth required pam_access.so auth required pam_tally2.so deny=3 auth include system-auth-ac account required pam_tally2.so account include system-auth-ac password include system-auth-ac session include system-auth-ac Once system-auth-local is written reset the /etc/pam.d/system-auth to point to system-auth-local. This is necessary because authconfig writes directly to system-auth-ac so any changes made by hand will be lost if authconfig is run.

b
The delay between login prompts following a failed login attempt must be at least 4 seconds.
AC-7 - Medium - CCI-002238 - V-218219 - SV-218219r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002238
Version
GEN000480
Vuln IDs
  • V-218219
  • V-768
Rule IDs
  • SV-218219r603259_rule
  • SV-63391
Enforcing a delay between successive failed login attempts increases protection against automated password guessing attacks.
Checks: C-19694r553994_chk

Check the value of the FAIL_DELAY variable and the ability to use it. Procedure: # grep FAIL_DELAY /etc/login.defs If the value does not exist, or is less than 4, this is a finding. Check for the use of pam_faildelay. # grep pam_faildelay /etc/pam.d/system-auth* If pam_faildelay.so module is not present, this is a finding. If pam_faildelay is present only in /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac: ensure that /etc/pam.d/system-auth includes /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac. #grep system-auth-ac /etc/pam.d/system-auth This should return: auth include system-auth-ac account include system-auth-ac password include system-auth-ac session include system-auth-ac /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac should only be included by /etc/pam.d/system-auth. All other pam files should include /etc/pam.d/system-auth. If pam_faildelay is not defined in /etc/pam.d/system-auth either directly or through inclusion of system-auth-ac, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19692r553995_fix

Add the pam_faildelay module and set the FAIL_DELAY variable. Procedure: Edit /etc/login.defs and set the value of the FAIL_DELAY variable to 4 or more. The default link /etc/pam.d/system-auth points to /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac which is the file maintained by the authconfig utility. In order to add pam options other than those available via the utility create or modify /etc/pam.d/system-auth-local with the options and including system-auth-ac. For example: auth required pam_access.so auth optional pam_faildelay.so delay=4000000 auth include system-auth-ac account include system-auth-ac password include system-auth-ac session include system-auth-ac Once system-auth-local is written ensure the /etc/pam.d/system-auth points to system-auth-local. This is necessary because authconfig writes directly to system-auth-ac so any manual changes made will be lost if authconfig is run.

b
Graphical desktop environments provided by the system must automatically lock after 15 minutes of inactivity and the system must require users to re-authenticate to unlock the environment. Applications requiring continuous, real-time screen display (i.e., network management products) require the following and need to be documented with the IAO. -The logon session does not have administrator rights. -The display station (i.e., keyboard, monitor, etc.) is located in a controlled access area.
AC-11 - Medium - CCI-000057 - V-218220 - SV-218220r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-11
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000057
Version
GEN000500
Vuln IDs
  • V-218220
  • V-4083
Rule IDs
  • SV-218220r603259_rule
  • SV-63405
If graphical desktop sessions do not lock the session after 15 minutes of inactivity, requiring re-authentication to resume operations, the system or individual data could be compromised by an alert intruder who could exploit the oversight. This requirement applies to graphical desktop environments provided by the system to locally attached displays and input devices as well as to graphical desktop environments provided to remote systems, including thin clients.
Checks: C-19695r568564_chk

If the "xorg-x11-server-Xorg" package is not installed, this is not applicable. For the Gnome screen saver, check the idle_activation_enabled flag. Procedure: # gconftool-2 --direct --config-source xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory --get /apps/gnome-screensaver/idle_activation_enabled If this does not return "true" and a documented exception has not been made by the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19693r568565_fix

For the Gnome screen saver, set the idle_activation_enabled flag. Procedure: # gconftool-2 --direct --config-source xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory --type bool --set /apps/gnome-screensaver/idle_activation_enabled true

b
The graphical desktop environment must set the idle timeout to no more than 15 minutes.
AC-11 - Medium - CCI-000057 - V-218221 - SV-218221r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-11
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000057
Version
GEN000500-2
Vuln IDs
  • V-218221
  • V-27283
Rule IDs
  • SV-218221r603259_rule
  • SV-63609
If graphical desktop sessions do not lock the session after 15 minutes of inactivity, requiring re-authentication to resume operations, the system or individual data could be compromised by an alert intruder who could exploit the oversight. This requirement applies to graphical desktop environments provided by the system to locally attached displays and input devices as well as to graphical desktop environments provided to remote systems, including thin clients.
Checks: C-19696r568567_chk

If the "xorg-x11-server-Xorg" package is not installed, this is not applicable. For the Gnome screen saver, check the idle_delay setting. Procedure: # gconftool-2 --direct --config-source xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory --get /apps/gnome-screensaver/idle_delay If this does not return 15 or less, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19694r568568_fix

For the Gnome screen saver, set idle_delay to 15. Procedure: # gconftool-2 --direct --config-source xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory --type int --set /apps/gnome-screensaver/idle_delay 15

b
Graphical desktop environments provided by the system must have automatic lock enabled.
AC-11 - Medium - CCI-000057 - V-218222 - SV-218222r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-11
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000057
Version
GEN000500-3
Vuln IDs
  • V-218222
  • V-27284
Rule IDs
  • SV-218222r603259_rule
  • SV-63619
If graphical desktop sessions do not lock the session after 15 minutes of inactivity, requiring re-authentication to resume operations, the system or individual data could be compromised by an alert intruder who could exploit the oversight. This requirement applies to graphical desktop environments provided by the system to locally attached displays and input devices as well as to graphical desktop environments provided to remote systems, including thin clients.
Checks: C-19697r568570_chk

If the "xorg-x11-server-Xorg" package is not installed, this is not applicable. For the Gnome screen saver, check the lock_enabled flag. Procedure: # gconftool-2 --direct --config-source xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory --get /apps/gnome-screensaver/lock_enabled If this does not return "true", this is a finding.

Fix: F-19695r568571_fix

For the Gnome screen saver, set the lock_enabled flag. Procedure: # gconftool-2 --direct --config-source xml:readwrite:/etc/gconf/gconf.xml.mandatory --type bool --set /apps/gnome-screensaver/lock_enabled true

a
The system must display a publicly-viewable pattern during a graphical desktop environment session lock.
AC-14 - Low - CCI-000061 - V-218223 - SV-218223r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-14
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000061
Version
GEN000510
Vuln IDs
  • V-218223
  • V-22301
Rule IDs
  • SV-218223r603259_rule
  • SV-63633
To protect the on-screen content of a session, it must be replaced with a publicly-viewable pattern upon session lock. Examples of publicly viewable patterns include screen saver patterns, photographic images, solid colors, or a blank screen, so long as none of those patterns convey sensitive information. This requirement applies to graphical desktop environments provided by the system to locally attached displays and input devices, as well as, to graphical desktop environments provided to remote systems using remote access protocols.
Checks: C-19698r568573_chk

Determine if a publicly-viewable pattern is displayed during a session lock. Some screensaver themes available but not included in the operating system distribution use a snapshot of the current screen as a graphic. This theme does not qualify as a publicly-viewable pattern. If the screen lock pattern is not publicly-viewable, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19696r568574_fix

Configure the system to display a publicly-viewable pattern during a session lock. This is done graphically by selecting a screensaver theme using gnome-screensaver-preferences command. Any of the themes distributed with this operating system may be used including "Blank Screen".

b
The root user must not own the logon session for an application requiring a continuous display.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218224 - SV-218224r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000520
Vuln IDs
  • V-218224
  • V-769
Rule IDs
  • SV-218224r603259_rule
  • SV-63649
If an application is providing a continuous display and is running with root privileges, unauthorized users could interrupt the process and gain root access to the system.
Checks: C-19699r561413_chk

If there is an application running on the system continuously in use (such as a network monitoring application), ask the SA what the name of the application is. Verify documentation exists for the requirement and justification of the application. If no documentation exists, this is a finding. Execute "ps -ef | more" to determine which user owns the process(es) associated with the application. If the owner is root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19697r561414_fix

Configure the system so the owner of a session requires a continuous screen display, such as a network management display, is not root. Ensure the display is also located in a secure, controlled access area. Document and justify this requirement and ensure the terminal and keyboard for the display (or workstation) are secure from all but authorized personnel by maintaining them in a secure area, in a locked cabinet where a swipe card, or other positive forms of identification, must be used to gain entry.

b
Users must not be able to change passwords more than once every 24 hours.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000198 - V-218225 - SV-218225r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000198
Version
GEN000540
Vuln IDs
  • V-218225
  • V-1032
Rule IDs
  • SV-218225r603259_rule
  • SV-63659
The ability to change passwords frequently facilitates users reusing the same password. This can result in users effectively never changing their passwords. This would be accomplished by users changing their passwords when required and then immediately changing it to the original value.
Checks: C-19700r568576_chk

Check the minimum time period between password changes for each user account is 1 day. # cat /etc/shadow | cut -d ':' -f 4 | grep -v 1 If any results are returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19698r568577_fix

Change the minimum time period between password changes for each user account to 1 day. # passwd -n 1 <user name>

c
The system must not have accounts configured with blank or null passwords.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000366 - V-218226 - SV-218226r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000560
Vuln IDs
  • V-218226
  • V-770
Rule IDs
  • SV-218226r603259_rule
  • SV-63787
If an account is configured for password authentication but does not have an assigned password, it may be possible to log into the account without authentication. If the root user is configured without a password, the entire system may be compromised. For user accounts not using password authentication, the account must be configured with a password lock value instead of a blank or null value.
Checks: C-19701r561416_chk

Verify the system will not log in accounts with blank passwords. # grep nullok /etc/pam.d/system-auth /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac If an entry for nullok is found, this is a finding on Linux.

Fix: F-19699r561417_fix

Edit /etc/pam.d/system-auth and remove the "nullok" setting.

b
The system must require passwords contain a minimum of 15 characters.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000205 - V-218227 - SV-218227r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000205
Version
GEN000580
Vuln IDs
  • V-218227
  • V-11947
Rule IDs
  • SV-218227r603259_rule
  • SV-63903
The use of longer passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques by increasing the password search space.
Checks: C-19702r554018_chk

Check the system password length setting. Procedure: Check the password minlen option # grep pam_cracklib.so /etc/pam.d/system-auth Confirm the minlen option is set to at least 15 as in the example below: password required pam_cracklib.so minlen=15 There may be other options on the line. If no such line is found, or the minlen is less than 15 this is a finding. # grep PASS_MIN_LEN /etc/login.defs Confirm the PASS_MIN_LEN option is set to at least 15 as in the example below: PASS_MIN_LEN 15 If this line does not exist, or is less than 15, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19700r554019_fix

Edit "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" to include the line: password required pam_cracklib.so minlen=15 prior to the "password include system-auth-ac" line. Edit /etc/login.defs to include the line: PASS_MIN_LEN 15

b
The system must enforce compliance of the entire password during authentication.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000205 - V-218228 - SV-218228r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000205
Version
GEN000585
Vuln IDs
  • V-218228
  • V-22302
Rule IDs
  • SV-218228r603259_rule
  • SV-63933
Some common password hashing schemes only process the first eight characters of a user's password, which reduces the effective strength of the password.
Checks: C-19703r554021_chk

Verify no valid password hash in /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow begins with a character other than an underscore (_) or dollar sign ($). # cut -d ':' -f2 /etc/passwd # cut -d ':' -f2 /etc/shadow If any valid password hash is present that does not have an initial underscore (_) or dollar sign ($) character, this is a finding. Note: Locked accounts are indicated by a leading exclamation point (!). System accounts, other than "root", may have an asterisk (*) in the password field. On systems utilizing shadow passwords, the password field in /etc/passwd will be a single "x".

Fix: F-19701r554022_fix

Change the passwords for all accounts using non-compliant password hashes. (This requires GEN000590 is already met.)

b
The system must use a FIPS 140-2 approved cryptographic hashing algorithm for generating account password hashes.
IA-7 - Medium - CCI-000803 - V-218229 - SV-218229r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000803
Version
GEN000590
Vuln IDs
  • V-218229
  • V-22303
Rule IDs
  • SV-218229r603259_rule
  • SV-63943
Systems must employ cryptographic hashes for passwords using the SHA-2 family of algorithms or FIPS 140-2 approved successors. The use of unapproved algorithms may result in weak password hashes more vulnerable to compromise.
Checks: C-19704r554024_chk

Verify the algorithm used for password hashing is of the SHA-2 family. # egrep "password .* pam_unix.so" /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac # egrep "ENCRYPT_METHOD" /etc/login.defs # egrep "crypt_style" /etc/libuser.conf If any output indicates the hash algorithm is not set to sha256 or sha512, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19702r554025_fix

Change the default password algorithm. # authconfig --passalgo=sha512 --update NOTE: Executing the above command will also update the required parameters in /etc/login.defs and /etc/libuser.conf

b
The password hashes stored on the system must have been generated using a FIPS 140-2 approved cryptographic hashing algorithm.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000196 - V-218230 - SV-218230r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000196
Version
GEN000595
Vuln IDs
  • V-218230
  • V-22304
Rule IDs
  • SV-218230r603259_rule
  • SV-63949
Systems must employ cryptographic hashes for passwords using the SHA-2 family of algorithms or FIPS 140-2 approved successors. The use of unapproved algorithms may result in weak password hashes more vulnerable to compromise.
Checks: C-19705r554027_chk

Check all password hashes in /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow begin with '$5$' or '$6$'. Procedure: # cut -d ':' -f2 /etc/passwd # cut -d ':' -f2 /etc/shadow Any password hashes present not beginning with '$5$' or, '$6$' is a finding. Any entries showing only NP, LK, or x are not findings.

Fix: F-19703r554028_fix

Change the passwords for all accounts using non-compliant password hashes. (This requires GEN000590 is already met.)

b
The system must require passwords contain at least one uppercase alphabetic character.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000192 - V-218231 - SV-218231r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000192
Version
GEN000600
Vuln IDs
  • V-218231
  • V-11948
Rule IDs
  • SV-218231r603259_rule
  • SV-63973
To enforce the use of complex passwords, minimum numbers of characters of different classes are mandated. The use of complex passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques. Complexity requirements increase the password search space by requiring users to construct passwords from a larger character set than they may otherwise use.
Checks: C-19706r568579_chk

Check the ucredit setting. # grep ucredit /etc/pam.d/system-auth If ucredit is not set to -1, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19704r568580_fix

Edit "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" to include the line: password required pam_cracklib.so ucredit=-1 prior to the "password include system-auth-ac" line.

b
Global settings defined in system-auth must be applied in the pam.d definition files.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000192 - V-218232 - SV-218232r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000192
Version
GEN000600-2
Vuln IDs
  • V-218232
  • V-27285
Rule IDs
  • SV-218232r603259_rule
  • SV-63987
Pam global requirements are generally defined in the /etc/pam.d/system-auth or /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac file. In order for the requirements to be applied the file containing them must be included directly or indirectly in each program's definition file in /etc/pam.d
Checks: C-19707r568657_chk

Verify the system-auth settings are being applied. Procedure: Verify the additional pam.d requirements are in use. The file "/etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac" is auto generated by "authconfig". Any manual changes made to it will be lost next time "authconfig" is run. Check to see if the systems default of the symlink "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" pointing to "/etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac" has been changed. # ls -l /etc/pam.d/system-auth If the symlink points to "/etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac", manual changes cannot be protected. This is a finding. # grep system-auth-ac /etc/pam.d/system-auth The local system-auth file pointed to by "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" must contain "/etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac" for the auth, account, password, and session lines. If it does not then the parameters maintained by "authconfig" will not be applied, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19705r568658_fix

By default, the operating system delivers /etc/pam.d/system-auth as a symbolic link to /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac (an automatically generated file). When a site adds password requirements a new system-auth-local file must be created with only the additional requirements and includes for auth, account, passwd and session pointing to "/etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac". Then the symlink "/etc/system-auth" is modified to point to "/etc/pam.d/system-auth-local". This way any changes made do not get lost when "/etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac" is regenerated and each program's pam.d definition file need only have "include system-auth" for auth, account, passwd and session, as needed, in order to assure the password requirements will be applied to it.

b
The system must require passwords contain at least one lowercase alphabetic character.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000193 - V-218233 - SV-218233r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000193
Version
GEN000610
Vuln IDs
  • V-218233
  • V-22305
Rule IDs
  • SV-218233r603259_rule
  • SV-64065
To enforce the use of complex passwords, minimum numbers of characters of different classes are mandated. The use of complex passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques. Complexity requirements increase the password search space by requiring users to construct passwords from a larger character set than they may otherwise use.
Checks: C-19708r568660_chk

Check /etc/pam.d/system-auth for lcredit setting. Procedure: Check the password lcredit option # grep pam_cracklib.so /etc/pam.d/system-auth Confirm the lcredit option is set to -1 as in the example: password required pam_cracklib.so lcredit=-1 There may be other options on the line. If no such line is found, or the lcredit is not -1 this is a finding.

Fix: F-19706r568661_fix

Edit "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" to include the line: password required pam_cracklib.so lcredit=-1 prior to the "password include system-auth-ac" line.

b
The system must require passwords contain at least one numeric character.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000194 - V-218234 - SV-218234r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000194
Version
GEN000620
Vuln IDs
  • V-218234
  • V-11972
Rule IDs
  • SV-218234r603259_rule
  • SV-64071
To enforce the use of complex passwords, minimum numbers of characters of different classes are mandated. The use of complex passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques. Complexity requirements increase the password search space by requiring users to construct passwords from a larger character set than they may otherwise use.
Checks: C-19709r568663_chk

Check the dcredit setting. Procedure: Check the password dcredit option # grep pam_cracklib.so /etc/pam.d/system-auth Confirm the dcredit option is set to -1 as in the example: password required pam_cracklib.so dcredit=-1 There may be other options on the line. If no such line is found, or the dcredit option is not -1 this is a finding.

Fix: F-19707r568664_fix

Edit "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" to include the line: password required pam_cracklib.so dcredit=-1 prior to the "password include system-auth-ac" line.

b
The system must require passwords contain at least one special character.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-001619 - V-218235 - SV-218235r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001619
Version
GEN000640
Vuln IDs
  • V-218235
  • V-11973
Rule IDs
  • SV-218235r603259_rule
  • SV-64075
To enforce the use of complex passwords, minimum numbers of characters of different classes are mandated. The use of complex passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques. Complexity requirements increase the password search space by requiring users to construct passwords from a larger character set than they may otherwise use.
Checks: C-19710r568666_chk

Check the ocredit setting. Procedure: Check the password ocredit option # grep pam_cracklib.so /etc/pam.d/system-auth Confirm the ocredit option is set to -1 as in the example: password required pam_cracklib.so ocredit=-1 There may be other options on the line. If no such line is found, or the ocredit is not -1 this is a finding.

Fix: F-19708r568667_fix

Edit "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" to include the line: password required pam_cracklib.so ocredit=-1 prior to the "password include system-auth-ac" line.

b
The system must require passwords contain no more than three consecutive repeating characters.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218236 - SV-218236r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000680
Vuln IDs
  • V-218236
  • V-11975
Rule IDs
  • SV-218236r603259_rule
  • SV-64079
To enforce the use of complex passwords, the number of consecutive repeating characters is limited. Passwords with excessive repeated characters may be more vulnerable to password-guessing attacks.
Checks: C-19711r554045_chk

Check the maxrepeat setting. Procedure: Check the password maxrepeat configuration # grep pam_cracklib.so /etc/pam.d/system-auth If the maxrepeat option is missing, this is a finding. If the maxrepeat option is set to more than 3, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19709r554046_fix

Edit "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" to include the line: password required pam_cracklib.so maxrepeat=3 prior to the "password include system-auth-ac" line.

b
User passwords must be changed at least every 60 days.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000180 - V-218237 - SV-218237r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000180
Version
GEN000700
Vuln IDs
  • V-218237
  • V-11976
Rule IDs
  • SV-218237r603259_rule
  • SV-64083
Limiting the lifespan of authenticators limits the period of time an unauthorized user has access to the system while using compromised credentials and reduces the period of time available for password-guessing attacks to run against a single password.
Checks: C-19712r554048_chk

Check the max days field (the 5th field) of /etc/shadow. # more /etc/shadow If the max days field is equal to 0 or greater than 60 for any user, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19710r554049_fix

Set the max days field to 60 for all user accounts. # passwd -x 60 <user>

b
All non-interactive/automated processing account passwords must be changed at least once per year or be locked.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000199 - V-218238 - SV-218238r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000199
Version
GEN000740
Vuln IDs
  • V-218238
  • V-11977
Rule IDs
  • SV-218238r603259_rule
  • SV-64091
Limiting the lifespan of authenticators limits the period of time an unauthorized user has access to the system while using compromised credentials and reduces the period of time available for password-guessing attacks to run against a single password. Locking the password for non-interactive and automated processing accounts is preferred as it removes the possibility of accessing the account by a password. On some systems, locking the passwords of these accounts may prevent the account from functioning properly. Passwords for non-interactive/automated processing accounts must not be used for direct logon to the system.
Checks: C-19713r568669_chk

Ask the SA if there are any automated processing accounts on the system. If there are automated processing accounts on the system, ask the SA if the passwords for those automated accounts are changed at least once a year or are locked. If SA indicates passwords for automated processing accounts are not changed once per year or are not locked, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19711r568670_fix

Implement or establish procedures to change the passwords of automated processing accounts at least once per year or lock them.

b
The system must require at least eight characters be changed between the old and new passwords during a password change.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000195 - V-218239 - SV-218239r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000195
Version
GEN000750
Vuln IDs
  • V-218239
  • V-22306
Rule IDs
  • SV-218239r603259_rule
  • SV-64283
To ensure password changes are effective in their goals, the system must ensure that old and new passwords have significant differences. Without significant changes, new passwords may be easily guessed based on the value of a previously compromised password.
Checks: C-19714r568672_chk

Check /etc/pam.d/system-auth for a pam_cracklib parameter difok. Procedure: # grep difok /etc/pam.d/system-auth If difok is not present, or has a value less than 8, this is a finding. Check for system-auth-ac inclusions. # grep -c system-auth-ac /etc/pam.d/* If the system-auth-ac file is included anywhere # more /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac | grep difok If system-auth-ac is included anywhere and difok is not present, or has a value less than 8, this is a finding. Ensure the passwd command uses the system-auth settings. # grep system-auth /etc/pam.d/passwd If a line "password include system-auth" is not found then the password checks in system-auth will not be applied to new passwords.

Fix: F-19712r568673_fix

If /etc/pam.d/system-auth references /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac refer to the man page for system-auth-ac for a description of how to add options not configurable with authconfig. Edit /etc/pam.d/system-auth and add or edit a pam_cracklib entry with a difok parameter set equal to or greater than 8.

b
Accounts must be locked upon 35 days of inactivity.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-000017 - V-218240 - SV-218240r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000017
Version
GEN000760
Vuln IDs
  • V-218240
  • V-918
Rule IDs
  • SV-218240r603259_rule
  • SV-64285
On some systems, accounts with disabled passwords still allow access using rcp, remsh, or rlogin through equivalent remote hosts. All that is required is the remote host name and the user name match an entry in a hosts.equiv file and have a .rhosts file in the user directory. Using a shell called /bin/false or /dev/null (or an equivalent) will add a layered defense. Non-interactive accounts on the system, such as application accounts, may be documented exceptions.
Checks: C-19715r568675_chk

Indications of inactive accounts are those that have no entries in the "last" log. Check the date in the "last" log to verify it is within the last 35 days or the maximum numbers of days set by the site if more restrictive. If an inactive account is not disabled via an entry in the password field in the /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow (or equivalent), check the /etc/passwd file to check if the account has a valid shell. The passwd command can also be used to list a status for an account. For example, the following may be used to provide status information on each local account: NOTE: The following must be done in the BASH shell. # cut -d: -f1 /etc/passwd | xargs -n1 passwd -S If an inactive account is found not disabled, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19713r568676_fix

All inactive accounts will have /sbin/nologin (or an equivalent), as the default shell in the /etc/passwd file and have the password disabled. Examine the user accounts using the "last" command. Note the date of last login for each account. If any (other than system and application accounts) exceed 35 days or the maximum number of days set by the site, not to exceed 35 days, then disable the accounts using system-config-users tool. Alternately place a shell field of /sbin/nologin /bin/false or /dev/null in the passwd file entry for the account.

b
The system must prevent the use of dictionary words for passwords.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000189 - V-218241 - SV-218241r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000189
Version
GEN000790
Vuln IDs
  • V-218241
  • V-22307
Rule IDs
  • SV-218241r603259_rule
  • SV-64303
An easily guessable password provides an open door to any external or internal malicious intruder. Many computer compromises occur as the result of account name and password guessing. This is generally done by someone with an automated script that uses repeated logon attempts until the correct account and password pair is guessed. Utilities, such as cracklib, can be used to validate passwords are not dictionary words and meet other criteria during password changes.
Checks: C-19716r568678_chk

Check /etc/pam.d/system-auth for pam_cracklib configuration. Procedure: # grep pam_cracklib /etc/pam.d/system-auth* If pam_cracklib is not present. This is a finding. If pam_cracklib is present only in /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac: ensure that /etc/pam.d/system-auth includes /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac. #grep system-auth-ac /etc/pam.d/system-auth This should return: auth include system-auth-ac account include system-auth-ac password include system-auth-ac session include system-auth-ac /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac should only be included by /etc/pam.d/system-auth. All other pam files should include /etc/pam.d/system-auth. If pam_cracklib is not defined in /etc/pam.d/system-auth either directly or through inclusion of system-auth-ac, this is a finding. Ensure the passwd command uses the system-auth settings. # grep system-auth /etc/pam.d/passwd If a line "password include system-auth" is not found then the password checks in system-auth will not be applied to new passwords, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19714r568679_fix

If /etc/pam.d/system-auth references /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac refer to the man page for system-auth-ac for a description of how to add options not configurable with authconfig. Edit /etc/pam.d/system-auth and configure pam_cracklib by adding a line such as "password required pam_cracklib.so"

b
The system must prohibit the reuse of passwords within five iterations.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000200 - V-218242 - SV-218242r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000200
Version
GEN000800
Vuln IDs
  • V-218242
  • V-4084
Rule IDs
  • SV-218242r603259_rule
  • SV-64321
If a user, or root, used the same password continuously or was allowed to change it back shortly after being forced to change it to something else, it would provide a potential intruder with the opportunity to keep guessing at one user's password until it was guessed correctly.
Checks: C-19717r568681_chk

# ls /etc/security/opasswd If /etc/security/opasswd does not exist, then this is a finding. # grep password /etc/pam.d/system-auth| egrep '(pam_pwhistory.so|pam_unix.so|pam_cracklib.so)' | grep remember If the "remember" option in /etc/pam.d/system-auth is not 5 or greater, this is a finding. Check for system-auth-ac inclusions. # grep -c system-auth-ac /etc/pam.d/* If the system-auth-ac file is included anywhere, this is a finding. # more /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac | grep password | egrep '(pam_pwhistory.so|pam_unix.so|pam_cracklib.so)' | grep remember If in /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac is referenced by another file and the "remember" option is not set to 5 or greater, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19715r568682_fix

Create the password history file. # touch /etc/security/opasswd # chown root:root /etc/security/opasswd # chmod 0600 /etc/security/opasswd Enable password history. If /etc/pam.d/system-auth references /etc/pam.d/system-auth-ac refer to the man page for system-auth-ac for a description of how to add options not configurable with authconfig. Edit /etc/pam.d/system-auth to include the remember option on any "password pam_unix" or "password pam_pwhistory" lines set to at least 5.

a
The system must restrict the ability to switch to the root user to members of a defined group.
AC-2 - Low - CCI-000009 - V-218243 - SV-218243r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000009
Version
GEN000850
Vuln IDs
  • V-218243
  • V-22308
Rule IDs
  • SV-218243r603259_rule
  • SV-64327
Configuring a supplemental group for users permitted to switch to the root user prevents unauthorized users from accessing the root account, even with knowledge of the root credentials.
Checks: C-19718r561578_chk

Check /etc/pam.d/su uses pam_wheel. # grep pam_wheel /etc/pam.d/su If pam_wheel is not present, or is commented out, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19716r561579_fix

Edit /etc/pam.d/su and uncomment or add a line such as "auth required pam_wheel.so". If necessary, create a "wheel" group and add administrative users to the group.

b
The root account must be the only account having a UID of 0.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218244 - SV-218244r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000880
Vuln IDs
  • V-218244
  • V-773
Rule IDs
  • SV-218244r603259_rule
  • SV-64341
If an account has a UID of 0, it has root authority. Multiple accounts with a UID of 0 afford more opportunity for potential intruders to guess a password for a privileged account.
Checks: C-19719r554069_chk

Check the system for duplicate UID 0 assignments by listing all accounts assigned UID 0. Procedure: # awk -F: '($3 == 0) { print $1 }' /etc/passwd If any accounts other than root are assigned UID 0, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19717r554070_fix

Remove or change the UID of accounts other than root that have UID 0.

a
The root users home directory must not be the root directory (/).
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-218245 - SV-218245r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000900
Vuln IDs
  • V-218245
  • V-774
Rule IDs
  • SV-218245r603259_rule
  • SV-64353
Changing the root home directory to something other than / and assigning it a 0700 protection makes it more difficult for intruders to manipulate the system by reading the files root places in its default directory. It also gives root the same discretionary access control for root's home directory as for the other user home directories.
Checks: C-19720r561419_chk

Determine if root is assigned a home directory other than / by listing its home directory. Procedure: # awk -F: '($1 == "root") { print $6 }' /etc/passwd If the root user home directory is /, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19718r561420_fix

The root home directory should be something other than / (such as /roothome). Procedure: # mkdir /rootdir # chown root /rootdir # chgrp root /rootdir # chmod 700 /rootdir # cp -r /.??* /rootdir/. Then, edit the passwd file and change the root home directory to /rootdir. The cp -r /.??* command copies all files and subdirectories of file names beginning with "." into the new root directory, which preserves the previous root environment. Ensure you are in the "/" directory when executing the "cp" command.

b
The root accounts home directory (other than /) must have mode 0700 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218246 - SV-218246r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000920
Vuln IDs
  • V-218246
  • V-775
Rule IDs
  • SV-218246r603259_rule
  • SV-64359
Permissions greater than 0700 could allow unauthorized users access to the root home directory.
Checks: C-19721r561422_chk

Check the mode of the root home directory. Procedure: # find ~root -type d -prune -exec ls -ld {} \; If the home directory is /, this check will be marked "Not Applicable". If the mode of the directory is not set to 0700 or less permissive, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19719r561423_fix

The root home directory will be configured to have permission set of 0700 or less permissive. Do not change the protections of the / directory. Use the following command to change protections for the root home directory: # chmod 0700 /rootdir.

b
The root accounts home directory must not have an extended ACL.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218247 - SV-218247r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN000930
Vuln IDs
  • V-218247
  • V-22309
Rule IDs
  • SV-218247r603259_rule
  • SV-64363
File system extended ACLs provide access to files beyond what is allowed by the UNIX permissions of the files.
Checks: C-19722r568684_chk

Check the root account's home directory has no extended ACL. # find ~root -type d -prune -exec ls -ld {} \; If the permissions include a '+' the directory has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19720r568685_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the root account's home directory. # setfacl --remove-all <root home directory>

b
The root accounts executable search path must be the must contain only authorized paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218248 - SV-218248r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000940
Vuln IDs
  • V-218248
  • V-776
Rule IDs
  • SV-218248r603259_rule
  • SV-64373
The executable search path (typically the PATH environment variable) contains a list of directories for the shell to search to find executables. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, executables in these directories may be executed instead of system commands. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period, this is interpreted as the current working directory. Entries starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.
Checks: C-19723r561425_chk

To view the root user's PATH, log in as the root user, and execute: # env | grep PATH This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. Relative path entries must be document with the ISSO. Such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period this is a finding. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), or has not been documented with the ISSO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19721r561426_fix

Edit the root user's local initialization files ~/.profile,~/.bashrc (assuming root shell is bash). Remove any relative path entries that have not been documented with the ISSO. Remove any empty path entries that are defined in these files.

b
The root accounts library search path must be the system default and must contain only absolute paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218249 - SV-218249r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000945
Vuln IDs
  • V-218249
  • V-22310
Rule IDs
  • SV-218249r603259_rule
  • SV-64377
The library search path environment variable(s) contain a list of directories for the dynamic linker to search to find libraries. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, libraries in these directories may be loaded instead of system libraries. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon or two consecutive colons, this is interpreted as the current working directory. Entries starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.
Checks: C-19724r568687_chk

Check the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable is empty or not defined for the root user. # echo $LD_LIBRARY_PATH If a path list is returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19722r568688_fix

Edit the root user initialization files and remove any definition of LD_LIBRARY_PATH.

b
The root accounts list of preloaded libraries must be empty.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218250 - SV-218250r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000950
Vuln IDs
  • V-218250
  • V-22311
Rule IDs
  • SV-218250r603259_rule
  • SV-64383
The library preload list environment variable contains a list of libraries for the dynamic linker to load before loading the libraries required by the binary. If this list contains paths to libraries relative to the current working directory, unintended libraries may be preloaded. This variable is formatted as a space-separated list of libraries. Paths starting with (/) are absolute paths.
Checks: C-19725r568690_chk

Check the LD_PRELOAD environment variable is empty or not defined for the root user. # echo $LD_PRELOAD If a path list is returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19723r568691_fix

Edit the root user initialization files and remove any definition of LD_PRELOAD.

b
The root account must not have world-writable directories in its executable search path.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218251 - SV-218251r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN000960
Vuln IDs
  • V-218251
  • V-777
Rule IDs
  • SV-218251r603259_rule
  • SV-64387
If the root search path contains a world-writable directory, malicious software could be placed in the path by intruders and/or malicious users and inadvertently run by root with all of root's privileges.
Checks: C-19726r554090_chk

Check for world-writable permissions on all directories in the root user's executable search path. Procedure: # ls -ld `echo $PATH | sed "s/:/ /g"` If any of the directories in the PATH variable are world-writable, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19724r554091_fix

For each world-writable path in root's executable search path, do one of the following: 1. Remove the world-writable permission on the directory. Procedure: # chmod o-w <path> 2. Remove the world-writable directory from the executable search path. Procedure: Identify and edit the initialization file referencing the world-writable directory and remove it from the PATH variable.

b
The system must prevent the root account from directly logging in except from the system console.
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000770 - V-218252 - SV-218252r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000770
Version
GEN000980
Vuln IDs
  • V-218252
  • V-778
Rule IDs
  • SV-218252r603259_rule
  • SV-64389
Limiting the root account direct logins to only system consoles protects the root account from direct unauthorized access from a non-console device.
Checks: C-19727r554093_chk

Check /etc/securetty # more /etc/securetty If the file does not exist, or contains more than "console" or a single "tty" device this is a finding.

Fix: F-19725r554094_fix

Create if needed and set the contents of /etc/securetty to a "console" or "tty" device. # echo console > /etc/securetty or # echo tty1 > /etc/securetty

b
Remote consoles must be disabled or protected from unauthorized access.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218253 - SV-218253r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001000
Vuln IDs
  • V-218253
  • V-4298
Rule IDs
  • SV-218253r603259_rule
  • SV-64393
The remote console feature provides an additional means of access to the system which could allow unauthorized access if not disabled or properly secured. With virtualization technologies, remote console access is essential as there is no physical console for virtual machines. Remote console access must be protected in the same manner as any other remote privileged access method.
Checks: C-19728r568693_chk

Check /etc/securetty # more /etc/securetty If the file does not exist, or contains more than "console" or a single "tty" device this is a finding.

Fix: F-19726r568694_fix

Create if needed and set the contents of /etc/securetty to a "console" or "tty" device. # echo console > /etc/securetty or # echo tty1 > /etc/securetty

b
The root account must not be used for direct log in.
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000770 - V-218254 - SV-218254r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000770
Version
GEN001020
Vuln IDs
  • V-218254
  • V-11979
Rule IDs
  • SV-218254r603259_rule
  • SV-64397
Direct login with the root account prevents individual user accountability. Acceptable non-routine uses of the root account for direct login are limited to emergency maintenance, the use of single-user mode for maintenance, and situations where individual administrator accounts are not available.
Checks: C-19729r568696_chk

Check if root is used for direct logins. Procedure: # last root | grep -v reboot Direct logins are indicated by the presence of a terminal or pseudo-terminal ID and/or X display name in the output of the last command. If any direct login records for root are listed, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19727r568697_fix

Enforce policy requiring all root account access is attained by first logging into a user account and then becoming root preferably through the use of "sudo" which provides traceability to the command level. If that is not workable then using "su" to access the root account will provide traceability to the login user.

b
The sudo command must require authentication.
IA-11 - Medium - CCI-002038 - V-218255 - SV-218255r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-11
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002038
Version
GEN001025
Vuln IDs
  • V-218255
  • V-58539
Rule IDs
  • SV-218255r603259_rule
  • SV-75261
The "sudo" command allows authorized users to run programs (including shells) as other users, system users, and root. The "/etc/sudoers" file is used to configure authorized "sudo" users as well as the programs they are allowed to run. Some configuration options in the "/etc/sudoers" file allow configured users to run programs without re-authenticating. Use of these configuration options makes it easier for one compromised account to be used to compromise other accounts.
Checks: C-19730r568699_chk

Verify neither the "NOPASSWD" option nor the "!authenticate" option is configured for use in "/etc/sudoers" and associated files. Note that the "#include" and "#includedir" directives may be used to include configuration data from locations other than the defaults enumerated here. # egrep '^[^#]*NOPASSWD' /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d/* # egrep '^[^#]*!authenticate' /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d/* If the "NOPASSWD" or "!authenticate" options are configured for use in "/etc/sudoers" or associated files, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19728r568700_fix

Update the "/etc/sudoers" or other sudo configuration files to remove or comment out lines utilizing the "NOPASSWD" and "!authenticate" options. # visudo # visudo -f [other sudo configuration file]

b
The system must log successful and unsuccessful access to the root account.
AU-2 - Medium - CCI-000126 - V-218256 - SV-218256r603259_rule
RMF Control
AU-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000126
Version
GEN001060
Vuln IDs
  • V-218256
  • V-11980
Rule IDs
  • SV-218256r603259_rule
  • SV-64435
If successful and unsuccessful logins and logouts are not monitored or recorded, access attempts cannot be tracked. Without this logging, it may be impossible to track unauthorized access to the system.
Checks: C-19731r554105_chk

Check the log files to determine if access to the root account is being logged. Procedure: Depending on what system is used for log processing either /etc/syslog.conf or /etc/rsyslog.conf will be the logging configuration file. Examine /etc/syslog.conf or /etc/rsyslog.conf to confirm the location to which "authpriv" messages will be directed. The default syslog.conf or rsyslog.conf uses /var/log/messages and /var/log/secure but this needs to be confirmed. # grep @ /etc/syslog.conf Or: # grep @ /etc/rsyslog.conf If a line starting with "*.*" is returned then all syslog messages will be sent to system whose address appears after the "@". In this case syslog may or may not be configured to also log "authpriv" messages locally. # grep authpriv /etc/syslog.conf Or: # grep authpriv /etc/rsyslog.conf If any lines are returned which do not start with "#" the "authpriv" messages will be sent to the indicated files or remote systems. Try to "su -" and enter an incorrect password. If there are no records indicating the authentication failure, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19729r554106_fix

Troubleshoot the system logging configuration to provide for logging of root account login attempts. Procedure: Edit /etc/syslog.conf or /etc/rsyslog.conf to make sure "authpriv.*" messages are directed to a file or remote system. Examine /etc/audit/audit.rules to ensure user authentication messages have not been specifically excluded. Remove any entries that correspond to: -a exclude,never -Fmsgtype=USER_START -a exclude,never -Fmsgtype=USER_LOGIN -a exclude,never -Fmsgtype=USER_AUTH -a exclude,never -Fmsgtype=USER_END -a exclude,never -Fmsgtype=USER_ACCT

a
The root shell must be located in the / file system.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-218257 - SV-218257r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001080
Vuln IDs
  • V-218257
  • V-1062
Rule IDs
  • SV-218257r603259_rule
  • SV-64441
To ensure the root shell is available in repair and administrative modes, the root shell must be located in the / file system.
Checks: C-19732r554108_chk

Determine if root's shell executable resides on a dedicated file system. Procedure: Find the location of the root user's shell # grep "^root" /etc/passwd|cut -d: -f7|cut -d/ -f2 The result is the top level directory under / where the shell resides (e.g., usr) Check if it is on a dedicated file system. # grep /&lt;top level directory&gt; /etc/fstab If /&lt;top level directory&gt; is on a dedicated file system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19730r554109_fix

Change the root account's shell to one present on the / file system. Procedure: Edit /etc/passwd and change the shell for the root account to one present on the / file system (such as /bin/sh, assuming /bin is not on a separate file system). If the system does not store shell configuration in the /etc/passwd file, consult vendor documentation for the correct procedure for the system.

c
Root passwords must never be passed over a network in clear text form.
IA-5 - High - CCI-000197 - V-218258 - SV-218258r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000197
Version
GEN001100
Vuln IDs
  • V-218258
  • V-1046
Rule IDs
  • SV-218258r603259_rule
  • SV-64449
If a user accesses the root account (or any account) using an unencrypted connection, the password is passed over the network in clear text form and is subject to interception and misuse. This is true even if recommended procedures are followed by logging on to a named account and using the su command to access root.
Checks: C-19733r568702_chk

Determine if root has logged in over an unencrypted network connection. Examine /etc/syslog.conf to confirm the location to which "authpriv" messages are being sent. # grep authpriv.* /etc/syslog.conf Once the file is determined, perform the following command: # grep password &lt;file&gt; | more Look for any lines that do not have sshd as the associated service. If root has logged in over the network and sshd is not running, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19731r568703_fix

Enable SSH on the system and use it for all remote connections used to attain root access

b
The system must not permit root logins using remote access programs such as ssh.
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000770 - V-218259 - SV-218259r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000770
Version
GEN001120
Vuln IDs
  • V-218259
  • V-1047
Rule IDs
  • SV-218259r603259_rule
  • SV-64455
Even though communications are encrypted, an additional layer of security may be gained by extending the policy of not logging directly on as root. In addition, logging in with a user-specific account preserves the audit trail.
Checks: C-19734r554114_chk

Determine if the SSH daemon is configured to permit root logins. Procedure: # grep -v "^#" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | grep -i permitrootlogin If the PermitRootLogin entry is not found or is not set to "no", this is a finding.

Fix: F-19732r554115_fix

Edit the sshd_config file and set the PermitRootLogin option to "no".

b
System files and directories must not have uneven access permissions.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218260 - SV-218260r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001140
Vuln IDs
  • V-218260
  • V-784
Rule IDs
  • SV-218260r603259_rule
  • SV-64461
Discretionary access control is undermined if users, other than a file owner, have greater access permissions to system files and directories than the owner.
Checks: C-19735r561428_chk

Check system directories for uneven file permissions. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc /bin /usr/bin /usr/lbin /usr/usb /sbin /usr/sbin Uneven file permissions exist if the file owner has less permissions than the group or other user classes. If any of the files in the above listed directories contain uneven file permissions, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19733r561429_fix

Change the mode of files with uneven permissions so owners do not have less permission than group or world users.

b
All files and directories must have a valid owner.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218261 - SV-218261r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001160
Vuln IDs
  • V-218261
  • V-785
Rule IDs
  • SV-218261r603259_rule
  • SV-64463
Un-owned files and directories may be unintentionally inherited if a user is assigned the same UID as the UID of the un-owned files.
Checks: C-19736r554120_chk

Check the system for files with no assigned owner. Procedure: # find / -ignore_readdir_race -nouser If any files have no assigned owner, this is a finding. Caution should be used when centralized authorization is used because valid files may appear as unowned due to communication issues.

Fix: F-19734r554121_fix

All directories and files (executable and data) will have an identifiable owner and group name. Either trace files to an authorized user, change the file's owner to root, or delete them. Determine the legitimate owner of the files and use the chown command to set the owner and group to the correct value. If the legitimate owner cannot be determined, change the owner to root (but make sure none of the changed files remain executable because they could be Trojan horses or other malicious code). Examine the files to determine their origin and the reason for their lack of an owner/group.

b
All files and directories must have a valid group-owner.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218262 - SV-218262r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001170
Vuln IDs
  • V-218262
  • V-22312
Rule IDs
  • SV-218262r603259_rule
  • SV-64465
Files without a valid group owner may be unintentionally inherited if a group is assigned the same GID as the GID of the files without a valid group-owner.
Checks: C-19737r554123_chk

Search the system for files without a valid group-owner. # find / -ignore_readdir_race -nogroup If any files are found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19735r554124_fix

Change the group-owner for each file without a valid group-owner. # chgrp avalidgroup /tmp/a-file-without-a-valid-group-owner

b
All network services daemon files must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218263 - SV-218263r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001180
Vuln IDs
  • V-218263
  • V-786
Rule IDs
  • SV-218263r603259_rule
  • SV-64467
Restricting permission on daemons will protect them from unauthorized modification and possible system compromise.
Checks: C-19738r561431_chk

Check the mode of network services daemons. # find /usr/sbin -type f -perm +022 -exec stat -c %a:%n {} \; This will return the octal permissions and name of all files that are group or world writable. If any network services daemon listed is world or group writable (either or both of the 2 lowest order digits contain a 2, 3 or 6), this is a finding. Note: Network daemons not residing in these directories (such as httpd or sshd) must also be checked for the correct permissions.

Fix: F-19736r561432_fix

Change the mode of the network services daemon. # chmod go-w <path>

b
All network services daemon files must not have extended ACLs.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218264 - SV-218264r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001190
Vuln IDs
  • V-218264
  • V-22313
Rule IDs
  • SV-218264r603259_rule
  • SV-64473
Restricting permission on daemons will protect them from unauthorized modification and possible system compromise.
Checks: C-19739r568705_chk

Check network services daemon files have no extended ACLs. # ls -la /usr/sbin If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding. Note: Network daemons not residing in these directories must also be checked.

Fix: F-19737r568706_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all /usr/sbin/*

b
All system command files must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-218265 - SV-218265r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
GEN001200
Vuln IDs
  • V-218265
  • V-794
Rule IDs
  • SV-218265r603259_rule
  • SV-64477
Restricting permissions will protect system command files from unauthorized modification. System command files include files present in directories used by the operating system for storing default system executables and files present in directories included in the system's default executable search paths.
Checks: C-19740r568708_chk

Check the permissions for files in /etc, /bin, /usr/bin, /usr/lbin, /usr/ucb, /sbin, and /usr/sbin. Procedure: # DIRS="/etc /bin /usr/bin /usr/lbin /usr/ucb /sbin /usr/sbin";for DIR in $DIRS;do find $DIR -type f -perm +022 -exec stat -c %a:%n {} \;;done This will return the octal permissions and name of all group or world writable files. If any command file is listed and is world or group writable (either or both of the 2 lowest order digits contain a 2, 3, or 6), this is a finding. Note: Elevate to Severity Code I if any command file listed is world writable.

Fix: F-19738r568709_fix

Change the mode for system command files to 0755 or less permissive taking into account necessary GIUD and SUID bits. Procedure: # chmod go-w <filename>

b
All system command files must not have extended ACLs.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-218266 - SV-218266r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
GEN001210
Vuln IDs
  • V-218266
  • V-22314
Rule IDs
  • SV-218266r603259_rule
  • SV-64479
Restricting permissions will protect system command files from unauthorized modification. System command files include files present in directories used by the operating system for storing default system executables and files present in directories included in the system's default executable search paths.
Checks: C-19741r568711_chk

Check all system command files have no extended ACLs. # ls -lL /etc /bin /usr/bin /usr/lbin /usr/usb /sbin /usr/sbin If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19739r568712_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all [file with extended ACL]

b
All system files, programs, and directories must be owned by a system account.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-218267 - SV-218267r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
GEN001220
Vuln IDs
  • V-218267
  • V-795
Rule IDs
  • SV-218267r603259_rule
  • SV-64483
Restricting permissions will protect the files from unauthorized modification.
Checks: C-19742r554138_chk

Check the ownership of system files, programs, and directories. Procedure: # ls -lLa /etc /bin /usr/bin /usr/lbin /usr/usb /sbin /usr/sbin If any of the system files, programs, or directories are not owned by a system account, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19740r554139_fix

Change the owner of system files, programs, and directories to a system account. Procedure: # chown root /some/system/file (A different system user may be used in place of root.)

b
System files, programs, and directories must be group-owned by a system group.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-218268 - SV-218268r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
GEN001240
Vuln IDs
  • V-218268
  • V-796
Rule IDs
  • SV-218268r603259_rule
  • SV-64485
Restricting permissions will protect the files from unauthorized modification.
Checks: C-19743r554141_chk

Check the group-ownership of system files, programs, and directories. Procedure: # ls -lLa /etc /bin /usr/bin /usr/lbin /usr/usb /sbin /usr/sbin If any system file, program, or directory is not owned by a system group, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19741r554142_fix

Change the group-owner of system files to a system group. Procedure: # chgrp root /path/to/system/file (System groups other than root may be used.)

b
System log files must have mode 0640 or less permissive.
SI-11 - Medium - CCI-001314 - V-218269 - SV-218269r603259_rule
RMF Control
SI-11
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001314
Version
GEN001260
Vuln IDs
  • V-218269
  • V-787
Rule IDs
  • SV-218269r603259_rule
  • SV-64487
If the system log files are not protected, unauthorized users could change the logged data, eliminating its forensic value.
Checks: C-19744r554144_chk

Check the mode of log files. Procedure: # find /var/log /var/log/syslog /var/adm -type f -perm -640 \! -perm 640 With the exception of /var/log/wtmp, /var/log/Xorg.0.log, and /var/log/gdm/:0.log, if any of the log files have modes more permissive than 0640, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19742r554145_fix

Change the mode of the system log file(s) to 0640 or less permissive. Procedure: # chmod 0640 /path/to/system-log-file Note: Do not confuse system log files with audit logs.

b
System log files must not have extended ACLs, except as needed to support authorized software.
SI-11 - Medium - CCI-001314 - V-218270 - SV-218270r603259_rule
RMF Control
SI-11
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001314
Version
GEN001270
Vuln IDs
  • V-218270
  • V-22315
Rule IDs
  • SV-218270r603259_rule
  • SV-64493
If the system log files are not protected, unauthorized users could change the logged data, eliminating its forensic value. Authorized software may be given log file access through the use of extended ACLs when needed and configured to provide the least privileges required.
Checks: C-19745r568714_chk

Verify system log files have no extended ACLs. Procedure: # ls -lL /var/log If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If an extended ACL exists, verify with the SA if the ACL is required to support authorized software and provides the minimum necessary permissions. If an extended ACL exists, providing access beyond the needs of authorized software, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19743r568715_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. Procedure: # setfacl --remove-all [file with extended ACL]

a
Manual page files must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-218271 - SV-218271r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001280
Vuln IDs
  • V-218271
  • V-792
Rule IDs
  • SV-218271r603259_rule
  • SV-64517
If manual pages are compromised, misleading information could be inserted, causing actions to compromise the system.
Checks: C-19746r568717_chk

Check the mode of the manual page files. Procedure: # find /usr/share/man /usr/share/info /usr/share/infopage -type f -perm +022 -exec stat -c %a:%n {} \; |&gt; more Note: This list only displays manual files with offending permissions. If any of the manual page files have a mode more permissive than 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19744r568718_fix

Change the mode of manual page files to 0644 or less permissive. Procedure (example): # chmod 0644 /path/to/manpage

a
All manual page files must not have extended ACLs.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-218272 - SV-218272r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001290
Vuln IDs
  • V-218272
  • V-22316
Rule IDs
  • SV-218272r603259_rule
  • SV-64521
If manual pages are compromised, misleading information could be inserted, causing actions to compromise the system.
Checks: C-19747r561617_chk

Verify all manual page files have no extended ACLs. # ls -lLR /usr/share/man /usr/share/info /usr/share/infopage If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL this is a finding.

Fix: F-19745r561618_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all /usr/share/man/* /usr/share/info/* /usr/share/infopage/*

b
Library files must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-218273 - SV-218273r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
GEN001300
Vuln IDs
  • V-218273
  • V-793
Rule IDs
  • SV-218273r603259_rule
  • SV-64525
Unauthorized access could destroy the integrity of the library files.
Checks: C-19748r554156_chk

Check the mode of library files. Procedure: # DIRS="/usr/lib /lib /usr/lib64 /lib64";for DIR in $DIRS;do find $DIR -type f -perm +022 -exec stat -c %a:%n {} \;;done This will return the octal permissions and name of all group or world writable files. If any file listed is world or group writable (either or both of the 2 lowest order digits contain a 2, 3 or 6), this is a finding.

Fix: F-19746r554157_fix

Change the mode of library files to 0755 or less permissive. Procedure (example): # chmod go-w </path/to/library-file> Note: Library files should have an extension of ".a" or a ".so" extension, possibly followed by a version number.

b
All library files must not have extended ACLs.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-218274 - SV-218274r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
GEN001310
Vuln IDs
  • V-218274
  • V-22317
Rule IDs
  • SV-218274r603259_rule
  • SV-64531
Unauthorized access could destroy the integrity of the library files.
Checks: C-19749r554159_chk

Verify system libraries have no extended ACLs. # ls -lLR /usr/lib/ /lib/ /usr/lib64 /lib64 | grep "+ " If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and has not been approved by the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19747r554160_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all /usr/lib/* /lib/*

b
NIS/NIS+/yp files must be owned by root, sys, or bin.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218275 - SV-218275r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001320
Vuln IDs
  • V-218275
  • V-789
Rule IDs
  • SV-218275r603259_rule
  • SV-64537
NIS/NIS+/yp files are part of the system's identification and authentication processes and are critical to system security. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.
Checks: C-19750r561434_chk

Perform the following to check NIS file ownership: # ls -la /var/yp/*; If the file ownership is not root, sys, or bin, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19748r561435_fix

Change the ownership of NIS/NIS+/yp files to root, sys or bin. Procedure (example): # chown root <filename>

b
NIS/NIS+/yp files must be group-owned by root, sys, or bin.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218276 - SV-218276r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001340
Vuln IDs
  • V-218276
  • V-790
Rule IDs
  • SV-218276r603259_rule
  • SV-64515
NIS/NIS+/yp files are part of the system's identification and authentication processes and are, therefore, critical to system security. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.
Checks: C-19751r561437_chk

Perform the following to check NIS file group ownership: # ls -la /var/yp/* If the file group ownership is not root, sys, or bin, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19749r561438_fix

Perform the following to change NIS file ownership. # chgrp root /var/yp/*

b
The NIS/NIS+/yp command files must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218277 - SV-218277r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001360
Vuln IDs
  • V-218277
  • V-791
Rule IDs
  • SV-218277r603259_rule
  • SV-64509
NIS/NIS+/yp files are part of the system's identification and authentication processes and are critical to system security. Unauthorized modification of these files could compromise these processes and the system.
Checks: C-19752r561620_chk

Perform the following to check NIS file permissions. # ls -la /var/yp/* If the file's mode is more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19750r561621_fix

Change the mode of NIS/NIS+/yp command files to 0755 or less permissive. Procedure (example): # chmod 0755 <filename>

b
NIS/NIS+/yp command files must not have extended ACLs.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218278 - SV-218278r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001361
Vuln IDs
  • V-218278
  • V-22318
Rule IDs
  • SV-218278r603259_rule
  • SV-64503
NIS/NIS+/yp files are part of the system's identification and authentication processes and are critical to system security. ACLs on these files could result in unauthorized modification, which could compromise these processes and the system.
Checks: C-19753r561623_chk

Verify NIS/NIS+/yp files have no extended ACLs. # ls -lL /var/yp/* If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19751r561624_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all /var/yp/*

b
The /etc/resolv.conf file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218279 - SV-218279r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001362
Vuln IDs
  • V-218279
  • V-22319
Rule IDs
  • SV-218279r603259_rule
  • SV-64497
The resolv.conf (or equivalent) file configures the system's DNS resolver. DNS is used to resolve host names to IP addresses. If DNS configuration is modified maliciously, host name resolution may fail or return incorrect information. DNS may be used by a variety of system security functions such as time synchronization, centralized authentication, and remote system logging.
Checks: C-19754r568720_chk

Verify the /etc/resolv.conf file is owned by root. # ls -l /etc/resolv.conf If the file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19752r568721_fix

Change the owner of the /etc/resolv.conf file to root. # chown root /etc/resolv.conf

b
The /etc/resolv.conf file must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218280 - SV-218280r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001363
Vuln IDs
  • V-218280
  • V-22320
Rule IDs
  • SV-218280r603259_rule
  • SV-64099
The resolv.conf (or equivalent) file configures the system's DNS resolver. DNS is used to resolve host names to IP addresses. If DNS configuration is modified maliciously, host name resolution may fail or return incorrect information. DNS may be used by a variety of system security functions such as time synchronization, centralized authentication, and remote system logging.
Checks: C-19755r568723_chk

Check the group ownership of the resolv.conf file. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/resolv.conf If the file is not group-owned by root, bin, or sys, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19753r568724_fix

Change the group-owner of the /etc/resolv.conf file to root, bin, or sys. Procedure: # chgrp root /etc/resolv.conf

b
The /etc/resolv.conf file must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218281 - SV-218281r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001364
Vuln IDs
  • V-218281
  • V-22321
Rule IDs
  • SV-218281r603259_rule
  • SV-64185
The resolv.conf (or equivalent) file configures the system's DNS resolver. DNS is used to resolve host names to IP addresses. If DNS configuration is modified maliciously, host name resolution may fail or return incorrect information. DNS may be used by a variety of system security functions such as time synchronization, centralized authentication, and remote system logging.
Checks: C-19756r568726_chk

Check the mode of the /etc/resolv.conf file. # ls -l /etc/resolv.conf If the file mode is not 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19754r568727_fix

Change the mode of the /etc/resolv.conf file to 0644. # chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf

b
The /etc/resolv.conf file must not have an extended ACL.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218282 - SV-218282r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001365
Vuln IDs
  • V-218282
  • V-22322
Rule IDs
  • SV-218282r603259_rule
  • SV-64513
The resolv.conf (or equivalent) file configures the system's DNS resolver. DNS is used to resolve host names to IP addresses. If DNS configuration is modified maliciously, host name resolution may fail or return incorrect information. DNS may be used by a variety of system security functions such as time synchronization, centralized authentication, and remote system logging.
Checks: C-19757r568729_chk

Verify /etc/resolv.conf has no extended ACL. # ls -l /etc/resolv.conf If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19755r568730_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all /etc/resolv.conf

b
The /etc/hosts file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218283 - SV-218283r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001366
Vuln IDs
  • V-218283
  • V-22323
Rule IDs
  • SV-218283r603259_rule
  • SV-64519
The /etc/hosts file (or equivalent) configures local host name to IP address mappings that typically take precedence over DNS resolution. If this file is maliciously modified, it could cause the failure or compromise of security functions requiring name resolution, which may include time synchronization, centralized authentication, and remote system logging.
Checks: C-19758r568807_chk

Verify the /etc/hosts file is owned by root. # ls -l /etc/hosts If the file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19756r568808_fix

Change the owner of the /etc/hosts file to root. # chown root /etc/hosts

b
The /etc/hosts file must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218284 - SV-218284r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001367
Vuln IDs
  • V-218284
  • V-22324
Rule IDs
  • SV-218284r603259_rule
  • SV-64523
The /etc/hosts file (or equivalent) configures local host name to IP address mappings that typically take precedence over DNS resolution. If this file is maliciously modified, it could cause the failure or compromise of security functions requiring name resolution, which may include time synchronization, centralized authentication, and remote system logging.
Checks: C-19759r568810_chk

Check the /etc/hosts file's group ownership. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/hosts If the file is not group-owned by root, bin, or sys, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19757r568811_fix

Change the group-owner of the /etc/hosts file to root, sys, or bin. Procedure: # chgrp root /etc/hosts

b
The /etc/hosts file must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218285 - SV-218285r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001368
Vuln IDs
  • V-218285
  • V-22325
Rule IDs
  • SV-218285r603259_rule
  • SV-64527
The /etc/hosts file (or equivalent) configures local host name to IP address mappings that typically take precedence over DNS resolution. If this file is maliciously modified, it could cause the failure or compromise of security functions requiring name resolution, which may include time synchronization, centralized authentication, and remote system logging.
Checks: C-19760r568813_chk

Check the mode of the /etc/hosts file. # ls -l /etc/hosts If the file mode is not 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19758r568814_fix

Change the mode of the /etc/hosts file to 0644. # chmod 0644 /etc/hosts

b
The /etc/hosts file must not have an extended ACL.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218286 - SV-218286r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001369
Vuln IDs
  • V-218286
  • V-22326
Rule IDs
  • SV-218286r603259_rule
  • SV-64533
The /etc/hosts file (or equivalent) configures local host name to IP address mappings that typically take precedence over DNS resolution. If this file is maliciously modified, it could cause the failure or compromise of security functions requiring name resolution, which may include time synchronization, centralized authentication, and remote system logging.
Checks: C-19761r568816_chk

Verify /etc/hosts has no extended ACL. # ls -l /etc/hosts If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19759r568817_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all /etc/hosts

b
The /etc/nsswitch.conf file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218287 - SV-218287r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001371
Vuln IDs
  • V-218287
  • V-22327
Rule IDs
  • SV-218287r603259_rule
  • SV-64535
The nsswitch.conf file (or equivalent) configures the source of a variety of system security information including account, group, and host lookups. Malicious changes could prevent the system from functioning or compromise system security.
Checks: C-19762r561650_chk

Verify the /etc/nsswitch.conf file is owned by root. # ls -l /etc/nsswitch.conf If the file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19760r561651_fix

Change the owner of the /etc/nsswitch.conf file to root. # chown root /etc/nsswitch.conf

b
The /etc/nsswitch.conf file must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218288 - SV-218288r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001372
Vuln IDs
  • V-218288
  • V-22328
Rule IDs
  • SV-218288r603259_rule
  • SV-64539
The nsswitch.conf file (or equivalent) configures the source of a variety of system security information including account, group, and host lookups. Malicious changes could prevent the system from functioning or compromise system security.
Checks: C-19763r561653_chk

Check the group ownership of the nsswitch.conf file. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/nsswitch.conf If the file is not group-owned by root, bin or sys, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19761r561654_fix

Change the group-owner of the /etc/nsswitch.conf file to root, bin or sys. Procedure: # chgrp root /etc/nsswitch.conf

b
The /etc/nsswitch.conf file must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218289 - SV-218289r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001373
Vuln IDs
  • V-218289
  • V-22329
Rule IDs
  • SV-218289r603259_rule
  • SV-64541
The nsswitch.conf file (or equivalent) configures the source of a variety of system security information including account, group, and host lookups. Malicious changes could prevent the system from functioning or compromise system security.
Checks: C-19764r561656_chk

Check the mode of the /etc/nsswitch.conf file. # ls -l /etc/nsswitch.conf If the file mode is not 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19762r561657_fix

Change the mode of the /etc/nsswitch.conf file to 0644 or less permissive. # chmod 0644 /etc/nsswitch.conf

b
The /etc/nsswitch.conf file must not have an extended ACL.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218290 - SV-218290r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001374
Vuln IDs
  • V-218290
  • V-22330
Rule IDs
  • SV-218290r603259_rule
  • SV-64545
The nsswitch.conf file (or equivalent) configures the source of a variety of system security information including account, group, and host lookups. Malicious changes could prevent the system from functioning or compromise system security.
Checks: C-19765r561659_chk

Verify /etc/nsswitch.conf has no extended ACL. # ls -l /etc/nsswitch.conf If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19763r561660_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all /etc/nsswitch.conf

a
For systems using DNS resolution, at least two name servers must be configured.
SC-22 - Low - CCI-001182 - V-218291 - SV-218291r603259_rule
RMF Control
SC-22
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-001182
Version
GEN001375
Vuln IDs
  • V-218291
  • V-22331
Rule IDs
  • SV-218291r603259_rule
  • SV-64547
To provide availability for name resolution services, multiple redundant name servers are mandated. A failure in name resolution could lead to the failure of security functions requiring name resolution, which may include time synchronization, centralized authentication, and remote system logging.
Checks: C-19766r568819_chk

Determine if DNS is enabled on the system. # grep dns /etc/nsswitch.conf If no line is returned, or any returned line is commented out, the system does not use DNS, and this is not applicable. Determine the name servers used by the system. # grep nameserver /etc/resolv.conf If less than two lines are returned that are not commented out, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19764r568820_fix

Edit /etc/resolv.conf and add additional "nameserver" lines until at least two are present.

b
The /etc/passwd file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218292 - SV-218292r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001378
Vuln IDs
  • V-218292
  • V-22332
Rule IDs
  • SV-218292r603259_rule
  • SV-64549
The /etc/passwd file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification.
Checks: C-19767r561665_chk

Verify the /etc/passwd file is owned by root. # ls -l /etc/passwd If the file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19765r561666_fix

Change the owner of the /etc/passwd file to root. # chown root /etc/passwd

b
The /etc/passwd file must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218293 - SV-218293r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001379
Vuln IDs
  • V-218293
  • V-22333
Rule IDs
  • SV-218293r603259_rule
  • SV-64553
The /etc/passwd file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification.
Checks: C-19768r561668_chk

Check the group ownership of the passwd file. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/passwd If the file is not group-owned by root, bin or sys, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19766r561669_fix

Change the group-owner of the /etc/passwd file to root, bin or sys. Procedure: # chgrp root /etc/passwd

b
The /etc/passwd file must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218294 - SV-218294r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001380
Vuln IDs
  • V-218294
  • V-798
Rule IDs
  • SV-218294r603259_rule
  • SV-64557
If the passwd file is writable by a group-owner or the world, the risk of passwd file compromise is increased. The passwd file contains the list of accounts on the system and associated information.
Checks: C-19769r561671_chk

Check the mode of the /etc/passwd file. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/passwd If /etc/passwd has a mode more permissive than 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19767r561672_fix

Change the mode of the passwd file to 0644. Procedure: # chmod 0644 /etc/passwd

b
The /etc/passwd file must not have an extended ACL.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218295 - SV-218295r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001390
Vuln IDs
  • V-218295
  • V-22334
Rule IDs
  • SV-218295r603259_rule
  • SV-64559
File system ACLs can provide access to files beyond what is allowed by the mode numbers of the files. The /etc/passwd file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification.
Checks: C-19770r561674_chk

Verify /etc/passwd has no extended ACL. # ls -l /etc/passwd If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19768r561675_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all /etc/passwd

b
The /etc/group file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218296 - SV-218296r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001391
Vuln IDs
  • V-218296
  • V-22335
Rule IDs
  • SV-218296r603259_rule
  • SV-64561
The /etc/group file is critical to system security and must be owned by a privileged user. The group file contains a list of system groups and associated information.
Checks: C-19771r561677_chk

Verify the /etc/group file is owned by root. # ls -l /etc/group If the file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19769r561678_fix

Change the owner of the /etc/group file to root. # chown root /etc/group

b
The /etc/group file must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218297 - SV-218297r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001392
Vuln IDs
  • V-218297
  • V-22336
Rule IDs
  • SV-218297r603259_rule
  • SV-64563
The /etc/group file is critical to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The group file contains a list of system groups and associated information.
Checks: C-19772r561680_chk

Check the group ownership of the /etc/group file. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/group If the file is not group-owned by root, bin or sys, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19770r561681_fix

Change the group-owner of the /etc/group file. Procedure: # chgrp root /etc/group

b
The /etc/group file must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218298 - SV-218298r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001393
Vuln IDs
  • V-218298
  • V-22337
Rule IDs
  • SV-218298r603259_rule
  • SV-64565
The /etc/group file is critical to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The group file contains a list of system groups and associated information.
Checks: C-19773r561683_chk

Check the mode of the /etc/group file. # ls -l /etc/group If the file mode is more permissive than 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19771r561684_fix

Change the mode of the /etc/group file to 0644 or less permissive. # chmod 0644 /etc/group

b
The /etc/group file must not have an extended ACL.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218299 - SV-218299r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001394
Vuln IDs
  • V-218299
  • V-22338
Rule IDs
  • SV-218299r603259_rule
  • SV-64567
The /etc/group file is critical to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The group file contains a list of system groups and associated information.
Checks: C-19774r561686_chk

Verify /etc/group has no extended ACL. # ls -l /etc/group If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19772r561687_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all /etc/group

b
The /etc/shadow (or equivalent) file must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218300 - SV-218300r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001400
Vuln IDs
  • V-218300
  • V-797
Rule IDs
  • SV-218300r603259_rule
  • SV-64569
The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.
Checks: C-19775r568822_chk

Check the ownership of the /etc/shadow file. # ls -lL /etc/shadow If the /etc/shadow file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19773r568823_fix

Change the ownership of the /etc/shadow (or equivalent) file. # chown root /etc/shadow

b
The /etc/shadow file (or equivalent) must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218301 - SV-218301r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001410
Vuln IDs
  • V-218301
  • V-22339
Rule IDs
  • SV-218301r603259_rule
  • SV-64571
The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The file also contains password hashes which must not be accessible to users other than root.
Checks: C-19776r561692_chk

Check the ownership of the /etc/shadow file. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/shadow If the file is not group-owned by root, bin, or sys, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19774r561693_fix

Change the group-owner of the /etc/shadow file. Procedure: # chgrp root /etc/shadow

b
The /etc/shadow (or equivalent) file must have mode 0400.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218302 - SV-218302r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001420
Vuln IDs
  • V-218302
  • V-800
Rule IDs
  • SV-218302r603259_rule
  • SV-64573
The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The file also contains password hashes which must not be accessible to users other than root.
Checks: C-19777r561695_chk

Check the mode of the /etc/shadow file. # ls -lL /etc/shadow If the /etc/shadow file has a mode more permissive than 0400, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19775r561696_fix

Change the mode of the /etc/shadow (or equivalent) file. # chmod 0400 /etc/shadow

b
The /etc/shadow file must not have an extended ACL.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218303 - SV-218303r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001430
Vuln IDs
  • V-218303
  • V-22340
Rule IDs
  • SV-218303r603259_rule
  • SV-64575
The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The file also contains password hashes which must not be accessible to users other than root.
Checks: C-19778r561698_chk

Verify /etc/shadow has no extended ACL. # ls -l /etc/shadow If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19776r561699_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all /etc/shadow

a
All interactive users must be assigned a home directory in the /etc/passwd file.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-218304 - SV-218304r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001440
Vuln IDs
  • V-218304
  • V-899
Rule IDs
  • SV-218304r603259_rule
  • SV-64577
If users do not have a valid home directory, there is no place for the storage and control of files they own.
Checks: C-19779r554249_chk

Use pwck to verify home directory assignments are present. # pwck If any user is not assigned a home directory, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19777r554250_fix

Assign a home directory to any user without one.

a
All interactive user home directories defined in the /etc/passwd file must exist.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-218305 - SV-218305r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001460
Vuln IDs
  • V-218305
  • V-900
Rule IDs
  • SV-218305r603259_rule
  • SV-64579
If a user has a home directory defined that does not exist, the user may be given the / directory, by default, as the current working directory upon logon. This could create a Denial of Service because the user would not be able to perform useful tasks in this location.
Checks: C-19780r568825_chk

Use pwck to verify assigned home directories exist. # pwck If any user's assigned home directory does not exist, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19778r568826_fix

If a user has no home directory, determine why. If possible, delete accounts without a home directory. If the account is valid, then create the home directory using the appropriate system administration utility or manually. For instance: mkdir directoryname; copy the skeleton files into the directory; chown accountname for the new directory and the skeleton files. Document all changes.

b
The /etc/passwd file must not contain password hashes.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000201 - V-218306 - SV-218306r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000201
Version
GEN001470
Vuln IDs
  • V-218306
  • V-22347
Rule IDs
  • SV-218306r603259_rule
  • SV-64581
If password hashes are readable by non-administrators, the passwords are subject to attack through lookup tables or cryptographic weaknesses in the hashes.
Checks: C-19781r554255_chk

Verify no password hashes are present in /etc/passwd. # cut -d : -f 2 /etc/passwd | egrep -v '^(x|\*)$' If any password hashes are returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19779r554256_fix

Migrate /etc/passwd password hashes to /etc/shadow. # pwconv

b
The /etc/group file must not contain any group password hashes.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218307 - SV-218307r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001475
Vuln IDs
  • V-218307
  • V-22348
Rule IDs
  • SV-218307r603259_rule
  • SV-64583
Group passwords are typically shared and should not be used. Additionally, if password hashes are readable by non-administrators, the passwords are subject to attack through lookup tables or cryptographic weaknesses in the hashes.
Checks: C-19782r554258_chk

Check the /etc/group file for password hashes. # cut -d : -f 2 /etc/group | egrep -v '^(x|!)$' If any password hashes are returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19780r554259_fix

Edit /etc/group and change the password field to an exclamation point (!) to lock the group password.

b
All user home directories must have mode 0750 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218308 - SV-218308r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001480
Vuln IDs
  • V-218308
  • V-901
Rule IDs
  • SV-218308r603259_rule
  • SV-64585
Excessive permissions on home directories allow unauthorized access to user files.
Checks: C-19783r554261_chk

Check the home directory mode of each user in /etc/passwd. Procedure: # cut -d: -f6 /etc/passwd|sort|uniq|xargs -n1 ls -ld If a user home directory's mode is more permissive than 0750, this is a finding. Note: Application directories are allowed and may need 0755 permissions (or greater) for correct operation.

Fix: F-19781r554262_fix

Change the mode of user home directories to 0750 or less permissive. Procedure (example): # chmod 0750 <home directory> Note: Application directories are allowed and may need 0755 permissions (or greater) for correct operation.

a
User home directories must not have extended ACLs.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-218309 - SV-218309r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001490
Vuln IDs
  • V-218309
  • V-22350
Rule IDs
  • SV-218309r603259_rule
  • SV-64587
Excessive permissions on home directories allow unauthorized access to user files.
Checks: C-19784r554264_chk

Verify user home directories have no extended ACLs. # cut -d : -f 6 /etc/passwd | xargs -n1 ls -ld If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL this is a finding.

Fix: F-19782r554265_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all [user home directory with extended ACL]

b
All interactive user home directories must be owned by their respective users.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218310 - SV-218310r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001500
Vuln IDs
  • V-218310
  • V-902
Rule IDs
  • SV-218310r603259_rule
  • SV-64589
If users do not own their home directories, unauthorized users could access user files.
Checks: C-19785r554267_chk

Check the ownership of each user home directory listed in the /etc/passwd file. Procedure: # cut -d : -f 6 /etc/passwd | xargs -n1 ls -ld If any user home directory is not owned by the assigned user, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19783r554268_fix

Change the owner of a user's home directory to its assigned user. Procedure: # chown <user> <home directory>

b
All interactive user home directories must be group-owned by the home directory owners primary group.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218311 - SV-218311r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001520
Vuln IDs
  • V-218311
  • V-903
Rule IDs
  • SV-218311r603259_rule
  • SV-63825
If the Group Identifier (GID) of the home directory is not the same as the GID of the user, this would allow unauthorized access to files.
Checks: C-19786r554270_chk

Check the group ownership for each user in the /etc/passwd file. Procedure: # cut -d : -f 6 /etc/passwd | xargs -n1 ls -ld If any user home directory is not group-owned by the assigned user's primary group, this is a finding. Home directories for application accounts requiring different group ownership must be documented using site-defined procedures.

Fix: F-19784r554271_fix

Change the group-owner for user home directories to the primary group of the assigned user. Procedure: Find the primary group of the user (GID) which is the fourth field of the user entry in /etc/passwd. # chgrp <GID> <user home directory> Document all changes.

a
All files and directories contained in interactive user home directories must be owned by the home directorys owner.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-218312 - SV-218312r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001540
Vuln IDs
  • V-218312
  • V-914
Rule IDs
  • SV-218312r603259_rule
  • SV-63831
If users do not own the files in their directories, unauthorized users may be able to access them. Additionally, if files are not owned by the user, this could be an indication of system compromise.
Checks: C-19787r554273_chk

For each user in the /etc/passwd file, check for the presence of files and directories within the user's home directory not owned by the home directory owner. Procedure: # find /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt; ! -fstype nfs ! -user &lt;username&gt; ! \( -name .bashrc -o -name .bash_login -o -name .bash_logout -o -name .bash_profile -o -name .cshrc -o -name .kshrc -o -name .login -o -name .logout -o -name .profile -o -name .tcshrc -o -name .env -o -name .dtprofile -o -name .dispatch -o -name .emacs -o -name .exrc \) -exec ls -ld {} \; If user home directories contain files or directories not owned by the home directory owner, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19785r554274_fix

Change the ownership of files and directories in user home directories to the owner of the home directory. Procedure: # chown accountowner filename

b
All files and directories contained in user home directories must be group-owned by a group of which the home directorys owner is a member.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218313 - SV-218313r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001550
Vuln IDs
  • V-218313
  • V-22351
Rule IDs
  • SV-218313r603259_rule
  • SV-63833
If a user's files are group-owned by a group of which the user is not a member, unintended users may be able to access them.
Checks: C-19788r554276_chk

Check the contents of user home directories for files group-owned by a group of which the home directory's owner is not a member. 1. List the user accounts. # cut -d : -f 1 /etc/passwd 2. For each user account, get a list of GIDs for files in the user's home directory. # find ~username -printf %G\\n | sort | uniq 3. Obtain the list of GIDs where the user is a member. # id -G username 4. Check the GID lists. If there are GIDs in the file list not present in the user list, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19786r554277_fix

Change the group of a file not group-owned by a group of which the home directory's owner is a member. # chgrp <group with user as member> <file with bad group ownership> Document all changes.

a
All files and directories contained in user home directories must have mode 0750 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Low - CCI-000225 - V-218314 - SV-218314r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001560
Vuln IDs
  • V-218314
  • V-915
Rule IDs
  • SV-218314r603259_rule
  • SV-63837
Excessive permissions allow unauthorized access to user files.
Checks: C-19789r554279_chk

For each user in the /etc/passwd file, check for files and directories with a mode more permissive than 0750. Procedure: # find /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt; ! -fstype nfs ! \( -name .bashrc -o -name .bash_login -o -name .bash_logout -o -name .bash_profile -o -name .cshrc -o -name .kshrc -o -name .login -o -name .logout -o -name .profile -o -name .tcshrc -o -name .env -o -name .dtprofile -o -name .dispatch -o -name .emacs -o -name .exrc \) \( -perm -0001 -o -perm -0002 -o -perm -0004 -o -perm -0020 -o -perm -2000 -o -perm -4000 \) -exec ls -ld {} \; If user home directories contain files or directories more permissive than 0750, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19787r554280_fix

Change the mode of files and directories within user home directories to 0750. Procedure: # chmod 0750 filename Document all changes.

b
All files and directories contained in user home directories must not have extended ACLs.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218315 - SV-218315r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001570
Vuln IDs
  • V-218315
  • V-22352
Rule IDs
  • SV-218315r603259_rule
  • SV-63839
Excessive permissions allow unauthorized access to user files.
Checks: C-19790r554282_chk

Check the contents of user home directories for files with extended ACLs. # cut -d : -f 6 /etc/passwd | xargs -n1 -IDIR ls -alLR DIR If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19788r554283_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all <user file with extended ACL>

b
All run control scripts must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218316 - SV-218316r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001580
Vuln IDs
  • V-218316
  • V-906
Rule IDs
  • SV-218316r603259_rule
  • SV-63843
If the startup files are writable by other users, they could modify the startup files to insert malicious commands into the startup files.
Checks: C-19791r568828_chk

Check run control script modes. # cd /etc # ls -lL rc* # cd /etc/init.d # ls -l If any run control script has a mode more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19789r568829_fix

Ensure all system startup files have mode 0755 or less permissive. Examine the "rc" files, and all files in the rc1.d (rc2.d, and so on) directories, and in the /etc/init.d directory to ensure they are not world-writable. If they are world-writable, use the chmod command to correct the vulnerability and research why they are world-writable. Procedure: # chmod 755 <startup file>

b
All run control scripts must have no extended ACLs.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218317 - SV-218317r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001590
Vuln IDs
  • V-218317
  • V-22353
Rule IDs
  • SV-218317r603259_rule
  • SV-63847
If the startup files are writable by other users, they could modify the startup files to insert malicious commands into the startup files.
Checks: C-19792r561707_chk

Verify run control scripts have no extended ACLs. # ls -lL /etc/rc* /etc/init.d If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19790r561708_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all <run control script with extended ACL>

b
Run control scripts executable search paths must contain only authorized paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218318 - SV-218318r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001600
Vuln IDs
  • V-218318
  • V-907
Rule IDs
  • SV-218318r603259_rule
  • SV-63849
The executable search path (typically the PATH environment variable) contains a list of directories for the shell to search to find executables. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, executables in these directories may be executed instead of system commands. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period, this is interpreted as the current working directory. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.
Checks: C-19793r568831_chk

Verify run control scripts' library search paths. # grep -r '\bPATH\b' /etc/rc* /etc/init.d This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. Such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), or has not been documented with the ISSO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19791r568832_fix

Edit the run control script and remove any relative path entries from the executable search path variable that are not documented with the ISSO. Remove any empty path entries that are defined in these files.

b
Run control scripts library search paths must contain only authorized paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218319 - SV-218319r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001605
Vuln IDs
  • V-218319
  • V-22354
Rule IDs
  • SV-218319r603259_rule
  • SV-63851
The library search path environment variable(s) contain a list of directories for the dynamic linker to search to find libraries. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, libraries in these directories may be loaded instead of system libraries. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period, this is interpreted as the current working directory. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.
Checks: C-19794r568834_chk

Verify run control scripts' library search paths. # grep -r LD_LIBRARY_PATH /etc/rc* /etc/init.d This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. Such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period, this is a finding. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), or has not been documented with the ISSO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19792r568835_fix

Edit the run control script and remove the relative path entries from the library search path variables that are not documented with the ISSO. Remove any empty path entries that are defined in these files.

b
Run control scripts lists of preloaded libraries must contain only authorized paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218320 - SV-218320r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001610
Vuln IDs
  • V-218320
  • V-22355
Rule IDs
  • SV-218320r603259_rule
  • SV-63853
The library preload list environment variable contains a list of libraries for the dynamic linker to load before loading the libraries required by the binary. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), or has If this list contains paths to libraries to the current working directory that have not been authorized, unintended libraries may be preloaded. This variable is formatted as a space-separated list of libraries. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.
Checks: C-19795r568837_chk

Verify run control scripts' library preload list. # grep -r LD_PRELOAD /etc/rc* /etc/init.d This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. Such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period, this is a finding. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), or has not been documented with the ISSO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19793r568838_fix

Edit the run control script and remove the relative path entries from the library preload variables that are not documented with the ISSO. Remove any empty path entries that are defined in these files.

c
Run control scripts must not execute world-writable programs or scripts.
AC-6 - High - CCI-000225 - V-218321 - SV-218321r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001640
Vuln IDs
  • V-218321
  • V-910
Rule IDs
  • SV-218321r603259_rule
  • SV-63855
World-writable files could be modified accidentally or maliciously to compromise system integrity.
Checks: C-19796r568840_chk

Check the permissions on the files or scripts executed from system startup scripts to see if they are world-writable. Create a list of all potential run command level scripts. ls -l /etc/init.d/* | tr '\011' ' ' | tr -s ' ' | cut -f 9,9 -d " " Create a list of world writeable files. # find / -perm -002 -type f &gt;&gt; worldWriteableFileList Determine if any of the world writeable files in worldWriteableFileList are called from the run command level scripts. Note: Depending upon the number of scripts vs. world writeable files, it may be easier to inspect the scripts manually. # more `ls -l /etc/init.d/* | tr '\011' ' ' | tr -s ' ' | cut -f 9,9 -d "` If any system startup script executes any file or script that is world-writable, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19794r568841_fix

Remove the world-writable permission from programs or scripts executed by run control scripts. Procedure: # chmod o-w <program or script executed from run control script>

b
All system start-up files must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218322 - SV-218322r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001660
Vuln IDs
  • V-218322
  • V-4089
Rule IDs
  • SV-218322r603259_rule
  • SV-63857
System start-up files not owned by root could lead to system compromise by allowing malicious users or applications to modify them for unauthorized purposes. This could lead to system and network compromise.
Checks: C-19797r561722_chk

Check run control scripts' ownership. # ls -lL /etc/rc* /etc/init.d Alternatively: # find /etc -name "[SK][0-9]*"|xargs stat -L -c %U:%n If any run control script is not owned by root or bin, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19795r561723_fix

Change the ownership of the run control script(s) with incorrect ownership. # find /etc -name "[SK][0-9]*"|xargs stat -L -c %U:%n|egrep -v "^root:"|cut -d: -f2|xargs chown root

b
All system start-up files must be group-owned by root, sys, bin, other, or system.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218323 - SV-218323r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001680
Vuln IDs
  • V-218323
  • V-4090
Rule IDs
  • SV-218323r603259_rule
  • SV-63859
If system start-up files do not have a group owner of root or a system group, the files may be modified by malicious users or intruders.
Checks: C-19798r568843_chk

Check run control scripts' group ownership. Procedure: # ls -lL /etc/rc* /etc/init.d Alternatively: # find /etc -name "[SK][0-9]*"|xargs stat -L -c %G:%n|egrep -v "^(root|sys|bin|other):" If any run control script is not group-owned by root, sys, bin, or other system groups, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19796r568844_fix

Change the group ownership of the run control script(s) with incorrect group ownership. Procedure: # chgrp root <run control script> # find /etc -name "[SK][0-9]*"|xargs stat -L -c %G:%n|egrep -v "^(root|sys|bin|other):"|cut -d: -f2|xargs chgrp root

b
System start-up files must only execute programs owned by a privileged UID or an application.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218324 - SV-218324r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001700
Vuln IDs
  • V-218324
  • V-4091
Rule IDs
  • SV-218324r603259_rule
  • SV-63861
System start-up files executing programs owned by other than root (or another privileged user) or an application indicating the system may have been compromised.
Checks: C-19799r568846_chk

Determine the programs executed by system start-up files. Determine the ownership of the executed programs. # cat /etc/rc*/* /etc/init.d/* | more # ls -l &lt;executed program&gt; Alternatively: # for FILE in `egrep -r "/" /etc/rc.* /etc/init.d|awk '/^.*[^\/][0-9A-Za-z_\/]*/{print $2}'|egrep "^/"|sort|uniq`;do if [ -e $FILE ]; then stat -L -c '%U:%n' $FILE;fi;done This provides a list of files referenced by initialization scripts and their associated UIDs. If any file is run by an initialization file and is not owned by root, sys, bin, or in rare cases, an application account, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19797r568847_fix

Change the ownership of the file executed from system startup scripts to root, bin, sys, or other. # chown root <executed file>

b
All global initialization files must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218325 - SV-218325r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001720
Vuln IDs
  • V-218325
  • V-11981
Rule IDs
  • SV-218325r603259_rule
  • SV-63865
Global initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon.
Checks: C-19800r568849_chk

Check global initialization files permissions: # ls -l /etc/bashrc # ls -l /etc/csh.cshrc # ls -l /etc/csh.login # ls -l /etc/csh.logout # ls -l /etc/environment # ls -l /etc/ksh.kshrc # ls -l /etc/profile # ls -l /etc/suid_profile # ls -l /etc/profile.d/* If global initialization files are more permissive than 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19798r568850_fix

Change the mode of the global initialization file(s) to 0644. # chmod 0644 <global initialization file>

b
All global initialization files must not have extended ACLs.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218326 - SV-218326r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001730
Vuln IDs
  • V-218326
  • V-22356
Rule IDs
  • SV-218326r603259_rule
  • SV-63867
Global initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon.
Checks: C-19801r568852_chk

Check global initialization files for extended ACLs: # ls -l /etc/bashrc /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout /etc/environment /etc/ksh.kshrc /etc/profile /etc/suid_profile /etc/profile.d/* 2&gt;null|grep "\+ " If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19799r568853_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # ls -l etc/bashrc /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout /etc/environment /etc/ksh.kshrc /etc/profile /etc/suid_profile /etc/profile.d/* 2>null|grep "\+ "|sed "s/^.* \///g"|xargs setfacl --remove-all

b
All global initialization files must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218327 - SV-218327r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001740
Vuln IDs
  • V-218327
  • V-11982
Rule IDs
  • SV-218327r603259_rule
  • SV-63869
Global initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.
Checks: C-19802r568855_chk

Check the ownership of global initialization files. Procedure: # ls -lL etc/bashrc /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout /etc/environment /etc/ksh.kshrc /etc/profile /etc/suid_profile /etc/profile.d/* This should show information for each file. Examine to ensure the owner is always root or: # ls etc/bashrc /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout /etc/environment /etc/ksh.kshrc /etc/profile /etc/suid_profile /etc/profile.d/* 2&gt;null|xargs stat -L -c %U:%n|egrep -v "^root" This will show you only the owner and filename of files not owned by root. If any global initialization file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19800r568856_fix

Change the ownership of global initialization files with incorrect ownership. Procedure: # chown root <global initialization files> or: # ls etc/bashrc /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout /etc/environment /etc/ksh.kshrc /etc/profile /etc/suid_profile /etc/profile.d/* 2>null|xargs stat -L -c %U:%n|egrep -v "^root"|cut -d: -f2|xargs chown root will set the owner of all files not currently owned by root to root.

b
All global initialization files must be group-owned by root, sys, bin, other, system, or the system default.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218328 - SV-218328r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001760
Vuln IDs
  • V-218328
  • V-11983
Rule IDs
  • SV-218328r603259_rule
  • SV-63871
Global initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.
Checks: C-19803r568858_chk

Check the group ownership of global initialization files. Procedure: # ls -lL etc/bashrc /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout /etc/environment /etc/ksh.kshrc /etc/profile /etc/suid_profile /etc/profile.d/* This should show information for each file. Examine to ensure the group is always root or: # ls -lL etc/bashrc /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout /etc/environment /etc/ksh.kshrc /etc/profile /etc/suid_profile /etc/profile.d/* 2&gt;null|sed "s/^[^\/]*//"|xargs stat -L -c %G:%n|egrep -v "^(root|sys|bin|other):" will show you only the group and filename of files not owned by one of the approved groups. If any global initialization file is not group-owned by root, sys, bin, other, system, or the system default, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19801r568859_fix

Change the group ownership of the global initialization file(s) with incorrect group ownership. Procedure: # chgrp root <global initialization file> or: # ls -lL /etc/bashrc /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout /etc/environment /etc/ksh.kshrc /etc/profile /etc/suid_profile /etc/profile.d/* 2>null|sed "s/^[^\/]*//"|xargs stat -L -c %G:%n|egrep -v "^(root|sys|bin|other):"|cut -d: -f2|xargs chgrp root will set the group of all files not currently owned by an approved group to root.

a
Global initialization files must contain the mesg -n or mesg n commands.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-218329 - SV-218329r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001780
Vuln IDs
  • V-218329
  • V-825
Rule IDs
  • SV-218329r603259_rule
  • SV-63875
If the "mesg -n" or "mesg n" command is not placed into the system profile, messaging can be used to cause a Denial of Service attack.
Checks: C-19804r554324_chk

Check global initialization files for the presence of "mesg -n" or "mesg n". Procedure: # grep "mesg" etc/bashrc /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout /etc/environment /etc/ksh.kshrc /etc/profile /etc/suid_profile /etc/profile.d/* If no global initialization files contain "mesg -n" or "mesg n", this is a finding.

Fix: F-19802r554325_fix

Edit /etc/profile or another global initialization script, and add the "mesg -n" command.

b
All skeleton files (typically those in /etc/skel) must have mode 0644 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218330 - SV-218330r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001800
Vuln IDs
  • V-218330
  • V-788
Rule IDs
  • SV-218330r603259_rule
  • SV-63879
If the skeleton files are not protected, unauthorized personnel could change user startup parameters and possibly jeopardize user files.
Checks: C-19805r561440_chk

Check skeleton files permissions. # ls -alL /etc/skel If a skeleton file has a mode more permissive than 0644, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19803r561441_fix

Change the mode of skeleton files with incorrect mode: # chmod 0644 <skeleton file>

b
Skeleton files must not have extended ACLs.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218331 - SV-218331r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001810
Vuln IDs
  • V-218331
  • V-22357
Rule IDs
  • SV-218331r603259_rule
  • SV-63881
If the skeleton files are not protected, unauthorized personnel could change user startup parameters and possibly jeopardize user files.
Checks: C-19806r561743_chk

Check skeleton files for extended ACLs: # ls -alL /etc/skel If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19804r561744_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all [skeleton file with extended ACL] or: # ls -lL /etc/skel|grep "\+ "|sed "s/^.* \//|xargs setfacl --remove-all will remove all ACLs from the files.

b
All skeleton files and directories (typically in /etc/skel) must be owned by root or bin.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218332 - SV-218332r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001820
Vuln IDs
  • V-218332
  • V-11984
Rule IDs
  • SV-218332r603259_rule
  • SV-63307
If the skeleton files are not protected, unauthorized personnel could change user startup parameters and possibly jeopardize user files. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.
Checks: C-19807r568861_chk

Check skeleton files ownership. # ls -alL /etc/skel If a skeleton file is not owned by root or bin, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19805r568862_fix

Change the ownership of skeleton files with incorrect mode: # chown root <skeleton file> or # ls -L /etc/skel|xargs stat -L -c %U:%n|egrep -v "^(root|bin):"|cut -d: -f2|chown root will change all files not owned by root or bin to root.

b
All skeleton files (typically in /etc/skel) must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, system, or other.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218333 - SV-218333r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001830
Vuln IDs
  • V-218333
  • V-22358
Rule IDs
  • SV-218333r603259_rule
  • SV-63323
If the skeleton files are not protected, unauthorized personnel could change user startup parameters and possibly jeopardize user files.
Checks: C-19808r568864_chk

Verify the skeleton files are group-owned by root. Procedure: # ls -alL /etc/skel If a skeleton file is not group-owned by root, bin, sys, system, or other this is a finding.

Fix: F-19806r568865_fix

Change the group-owner of the skeleton file to root, bin, sys, system, or other. Procedure: # chgrp <group> /etc/skel/[skeleton file] or: # ls -L /etc/skel|xargs stat -L -c %G:%n|egrep -v "^(root|bin|sy|sytem|other):"|cut -d: -f2|chgrp root will change the group of all files not already one of the approved group to root.

b
All global initialization files executable search paths must contain only authorized paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218334 - SV-218334r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001840
Vuln IDs
  • V-218334
  • V-11985
Rule IDs
  • SV-218334r603259_rule
  • SV-63327
The executable search path (typically the PATH environment variable) contains a list of directories for the shell to search to find executables. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, executables in these directories may be executed instead of system commands. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories, such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period, this is interpreted as the current working directory. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.
Checks: C-19809r568867_chk

Check the global initialization files' executable search paths. Procedure: # grep PATH /etc/bashrc /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout /etc/environment /etc/ksh.kshrc /etc/profile /etc/suid_profile /etc/profile.d/* This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. Such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period this is a finding. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), or has not been documented with the ISSO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19807r568868_fix

Edit the global initialization file(s) with PATH variables containing relative paths and remove any relative path from the PATH variables that have not been authorized by the ISSO. Remove any empty path entries that are defined in these files.

b
Global initialization files library search paths must contain only authorized paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218335 - SV-218335r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001845
Vuln IDs
  • V-218335
  • V-22359
Rule IDs
  • SV-218335r603259_rule
  • SV-63331
The library search path environment variable(s) contain a list of directories for the dynamic linker to search to find libraries. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, libraries in these directories may be loaded instead of system libraries. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories, such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period; this is interpreted as the current working directory. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.
Checks: C-19810r568870_chk

Check the global initialization files' library search paths. Procedure: # grep LD_LIBRARY_PATH /etc/bashrc /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout /etc/environment /etc/ksh.kshrc /etc/profile /etc/suid_profile /etc/profile.d/* This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. Such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period, this is a finding. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), or has not been documented with the ISSO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19808r568871_fix

Edit the global initialization file and remove the relative path entries from the library search path variables that have not been documented with the ISSO. Remove any empty path entries that are defined in these files.

b
Global initialization files lists of preloaded libraries must contain only authorized paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218336 - SV-218336r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001850
Vuln IDs
  • V-218336
  • V-22360
Rule IDs
  • SV-218336r603259_rule
  • SV-63335
The library preload list environment variable contains a list of libraries for the dynamic linker to load before loading the libraries required by the binary. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), or has If this list contains paths to libraries to the current working directory that have not been authorized, unintended libraries may be preloaded. This variable is formatted as a space-separated list of libraries. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.
Checks: C-19811r568873_chk

Check the global initialization files' library preload list. # grep -r LD_PRELOAD /etc/bashrc /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout /etc/environment /etc/ksh.kshrc /etc/profile /etc/suid_profile /etc/profile.d/* This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of paths. Such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period, this is a finding. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), or has not been documented with the ISSO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19809r568874_fix

Edit the global initialization file and remove the relative path entry from the library preload variable that has not been authorized by the ISSO. Remove any empty path entries that are defined in these files.

b
All local initialization files must be owned by the home directorys user or root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218337 - SV-218337r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001860
Vuln IDs
  • V-218337
  • V-904
Rule IDs
  • SV-218337r603259_rule
  • SV-63339
Local initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon.
Checks: C-19812r568876_chk

NOTE: The following commands must be run in the BASH shell. Check the ownership of local initialization files. Procedure: # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.login # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.cshrc # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.logout # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.profile # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.bash_profile # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.bashrc # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.bash_logout # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.env # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.dtprofile # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.dispatch # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.emacs # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.exrc # find /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.dt ! -fstype nfs ! -user &lt;username&gt; -exec ls -ld {} \; If local initialization files are not owned by the home directory's user, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19810r568877_fix

Change the ownership of the startup and login files in the user's directory to the user or root, as appropriate. Examine each user's home directory and verify all filenames beginning with "." are owned by the owner of the directory or root. If they are not, use the chown command to change the owner to the user and research the reasons why the owners were not assigned as required. Procedure: # chown username .filename Document all changes.

b
Local initialization files must be group-owned by the users primary group or root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218338 - SV-218338r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001870
Vuln IDs
  • V-218338
  • V-22361
Rule IDs
  • SV-218338r603259_rule
  • SV-63343
Local initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon.
Checks: C-19813r568879_chk

Check user home directories for local initialization files group-owned by a group other than the user's primary group or root. Procedure: # FILES=" .login .cshrc .logout .profile .bash_profile .bashrc .bash_logout .env .dtprofile .dispatch .emacs .exrc"; # for PWLINE in `cut -d: -f4,6 /etc/passwd`; do HOMEDIR=$(echo ${PWLINE}|cut -d: -f2);GROUP=$(echo ${PWLINE} | cut -d: -f1);for INIFILE in $FILES;do stat -c %g/%G:%n ${HOMEDIR}/${INIFILE} 2&gt;null|egrep -v "${GROUP}";done;done If any file is not group-owned by root or the user's primary GID, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19811r568880_fix

Change the group-owner of the local initialization file to the user's primary group, or root. # chgrp <user's primary GID> <user's local initialization file> Procedure: # FILES=".bashrc .bash_login .bash_logout .bash_profile .cshrc .kshrc .login .logout .profile .tcshrc .env .dtprofile .dispatch .emacs .exrc"; # for PWLINE in `cut -d: -f4,6 /etc/passwd`; do HOMEDIR=$(echo ${PWLINE}|cut -d: -f2);GROUP=$(echo ${PWLINE} | cut -d: -f1);for INIFILE in $FILES;do MATCH=$(stat -c %g/%G:%n ${HOMEDIR}/${INIFILE} 2>null|egrep -c -v "${GROUP}");if [ $MATCH != 0 ] ; then chgrp ${GROUP} ${HOMEDIR}/${INIFILE};fi;done;done

b
All local initialization files must have mode 0740 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218339 - SV-218339r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001880
Vuln IDs
  • V-218339
  • V-905
Rule IDs
  • SV-218339r603259_rule
  • SV-63345
Local initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon.
Checks: C-19814r569008_chk

Check the modes of local initialization files. Procedure: # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.bashrc # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.bash_login # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.bash_logout # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.bash_profile # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.cshrc # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.kshrc # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.login # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.logout # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.profile # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.tcshrc # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.env # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.dtprofile (permissions should be 0755) # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.dispatch # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.emacs # ls -al /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.exrc # find /&lt;usershomedirectory&gt;/.dt ! -fstype nfs \( -perm -0002 -o -perm -0020 \) -exec ls -ld {} \; (permissions not to be more permissive than 0755) If local initialization files are more permissive than 0740 or the .dt directory is more permissive than 0755 or the .dtprofile file is more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19812r569009_fix

Ensure user startup files have permissions of 0740 or more restrictive. Examine each user's home directory and verify all file names beginning with "." have access permissions of 0740 or more restrictive. If they do not, use the chmod command to correct the vulnerability. Procedure: # chmod 0740 .filename Note: The period is part of the file name and is required.

b
Local initialization files must not have extended ACLs.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218340 - SV-218340r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001890
Vuln IDs
  • V-218340
  • V-22362
Rule IDs
  • SV-218340r603259_rule
  • SV-63537
Local initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon.
Checks: C-19815r569011_chk

Check user home directories for local initialization files with extended ACLs. # cut -d : -f 6 /etc/passwd | xargs -n1 -IDIR ls -alL DIR/.bashrc DIR/.bash_login DIR/.bash_logout DIR/.bash_profile DIR/.cshrc DIR/.kshrc DIR/.login DIR/.logout DIR/.profile DIR/.env DIR/.dtprofile DIR/.dispatch DIR/.emacs DIR/.exrc If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19813r569012_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all <local initialization file with extended ACL>

b
All local initialization files executable search paths must contain only authorized paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218341 - SV-218341r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001900
Vuln IDs
  • V-218341
  • V-11986
Rule IDs
  • SV-218341r603259_rule
  • SV-63541
The executable search path (typically the PATH environment variable) contains a list of directories for the shell to search to find executables. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, executables in these directories may be executed instead of system commands. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories, such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period; this is interpreted as the current working directory. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.
Checks: C-19816r569014_chk

Verify local initialization files have executable search path containing only absolute paths or relative paths are necessary and documented with the ISSO. Procedure: NOTE: This must be done in the BASH shell. # cut -d: -f6 /etc/passwd |xargs -n1 -IDIR find DIR -name ".*" -type f -maxdepth 1 -exec grep -l PATH {} \; This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. Such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period this is a finding. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), or has not been documented with the ISSO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19814r569015_fix

Edit the local initialization file and remove the relative path entry from the executable search path variable. If this is not feasible, justify and document the necessity of having the relative path for a specific application with the ISSO. Remove any empty path entries that are defined in these files.

b
Local initialization files library search paths must contain only authorized paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218342 - SV-218342r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001901
Vuln IDs
  • V-218342
  • V-22363
Rule IDs
  • SV-218342r603259_rule
  • SV-63549
The library search path environment variable(s) contain a list of directories for the dynamic linker to search to find libraries. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, libraries in these directories may be loaded instead of system libraries. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories, such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period this is interpreted as the current working directory. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.
Checks: C-19817r569017_chk

Verify local initialization files have library search path containing only authorized paths. Procedure: NOTE: This must be done in the BASH shell. # cut -d: -f6 /etc/passwd |xargs -n1 -IDIR find DIR -name ".*" -type f -maxdepth 1 -exec grep -H LD_LIBRARY_PATH {} \; This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. Such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period, this is a finding. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), or has not been documented with the ISSO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19815r569018_fix

Edit the local initialization file and remove any relative path entries that have not been documented with the ISSO. Remove any empty path entries that are defined in these files.

b
Local initialization files lists of preloaded libraries must contain only authorized paths.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218343 - SV-218343r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001902
Vuln IDs
  • V-218343
  • V-22364
Rule IDs
  • SV-218343r603259_rule
  • SV-63569
The library preload list environment variable contains a list of libraries for the dynamic linker to load before loading the libraries required by the binary. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), or has If this list contains paths to libraries to the current working directory that have not been authorized, unintended libraries may be preloaded. This variable is formatted as a space-separated list of libraries. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.
Checks: C-19818r569020_chk

Verify local initialization files have library preload list containing only absolute paths. NOTE: The following must be done in the BASH shell. Procedure: # cut -d: -f6 /etc/passwd |xargs -n1 -IDIR find DIR -name ".*" -type f -maxdepth 1 -exec grep -H LD_PRELOAD {} \; This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of paths. Such as a leading or trailing colon, two consecutive colons, or a single period, this is a finding. If an entry begins with a character other than a slash (/), or has not been documented with the ISSO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19816r569021_fix

Edit the local initialization file and remove any relative path entry from the library preload variable that has not been authorized by the ISSO. Remove any empty path entries that are defined in these files.

b
User start-up files must not execute world-writable programs.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218344 - SV-218344r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN001940
Vuln IDs
  • V-218344
  • V-4087
Rule IDs
  • SV-218344r603259_rule
  • SV-63573
If start-up files execute world-writable programs, especially in unprotected directories, they could be maliciously modified to become trojans that destroy user files or otherwise compromise the system at the user, or higher, level. If the system is compromised at the user level, it is much easier to eventually compromise the system at the root and network level.
Checks: C-19819r569023_chk

Determine the world writable files on the system (Note: ignore all files under /proc): # find / -perm -002 -a -type f -exec ls -ld {} \; | &lt;more or redirect the output to a file&gt; # find / -perm -002 -a -type d -exec ls -ld {} \; | &lt;more or redirect the output to a file&gt; View the password file to determine where the home directories for users are: # more /etc/passwd Once the directory for the human users is determined, grep for the lists of world writable files and directories within the users’ home directories. An example would be: # grep /opt/app/bin/daemon /home/*/.* where /home is the directory for the human users on the system and /opt/app/bin/daemon is a world writable file.

Fix: F-19817r569024_fix

Remove the world-writable permission of files referenced by local initialization scripts, or remove the references to these files in the local initialization scripts.

b
The .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, shosts.equiv, /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, and/or /etc/group files must not contain a plus (+) without defining entries for NIS+ netgroups.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218345 - SV-218345r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN001980
Vuln IDs
  • V-218345
  • V-11987
Rule IDs
  • SV-218345r603259_rule
  • SV-63581
A plus (+) in system accounts files causes the system to lookup the specified entry using NIS. If the system is not using NIS, no such entries should exist.
Checks: C-19820r554372_chk

Check system configuration files for plus (+) entries. Procedure: # find / -name .rhosts # grep + /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/.rhosts # find / -name .shosts # grep + /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/.shosts # find / -name hosts.equiv # grep + /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/hosts.equiv # find / -name shosts.equiv # grep + /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/shosts.equiv # grep + /etc/passwd # grep + /etc/shadow # grep + /etc/group If the .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, shosts.equiv, /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, and/or /etc/group files contain a plus (+) and do not define entries for NIS+ netgroups, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19818r554373_fix

Edit the .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, shosts.equiv, /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, and/or /etc/group files and remove entries containing a plus (+).

b
There must be no .netrc files on the system.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000196 - V-218346 - SV-218346r603259_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000196
Version
GEN002000
Vuln IDs
  • V-218346
  • V-913
Rule IDs
  • SV-218346r603259_rule
  • SV-63591
Unencrypted passwords for remote FTP servers may be stored in .netrc files. Policy requires passwords be encrypted in storage and not used in access scripts.
Checks: C-19821r554375_chk

Check the system for the existence of any .netrc files. Procedure: # find / -name .netrc If any .netrc file exists, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19819r554376_fix

Remove the .netrc file(s). Procedure: # find / -name .netrc # rm <.netrc file>

b
All .rhosts, .shosts, or host.equiv files must only contain trusted host-user pairs.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218347 - SV-218347r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002020
Vuln IDs
  • V-218347
  • V-4427
Rule IDs
  • SV-218347r603259_rule
  • SV-63611
If these files are not properly configured, they could allow malicious access by unknown malicious users from untrusted hosts who could compromise the system.
Checks: C-19822r554378_chk

Locate and examine all r-commands access control files. Procedure: # find / -name .rhosts # more /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/.rhosts # find / -name .shosts # more /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/.shosts # find / -name hosts.equiv # more /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/hosts.equiv # find / -name shosts.equiv # more /&lt;directorylocation&gt;/shosts.equiv If any .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, or shosts.equiv file contains other than host-user pairs, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19820r554379_fix

If possible, remove the .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, and shosts.equiv files. If the files are required, remove any content from the files except for necessary host-user pairs.

c
There must be no .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, or shosts.equiv files on the system.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000366 - V-218348 - SV-218348r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002040
Vuln IDs
  • V-218348
  • V-11988
Rule IDs
  • SV-218348r603259_rule
  • SV-63621
The .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, and shosts.equiv files are used to configure host-based authentication for individual users or the system. Host-based authentication is not sufficient for preventing unauthorized access to the system.
Checks: C-19823r554381_chk

Check for the existence of the files. # find / -name .rhosts # find / -name .shosts # find / -name hosts.equiv # find / -name shosts.equiv If .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, or shosts.equiv are found and their use has not been documented and approved by the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19821r554382_fix

Remove all the r-commands access control files. Procedure: # find / -name .rhosts -exec rm {} \; # find / -name .shosts -exec rm {} \; # find / -name hosts.equiv -exec rm {} \; # find / -name shosts.equiv -exec rm {} \;

b
All .rhosts, .shosts, .netrc, or hosts.equiv files must be accessible by only root or the owner.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218349 - SV-218349r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002060
Vuln IDs
  • V-218349
  • V-4428
Rule IDs
  • SV-218349r603259_rule
  • SV-63635
If these files are accessible by users other than root or the owner, they could be used by a malicious user to set up a system compromise.
Checks: C-19824r569026_chk

Procedure: # ls -l /etc/hosts.equiv # ls -l /etc/ssh/shosts.equiv # find / -name .rhosts # ls -al &lt;home directory&gt;/.rhosts # find / -name .shosts # ls -al &lt;home directory&gt;/.shosts # find / -name .netrc # ls -al &lt;home directory&gt;/.netrc If the .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, or shosts.equiv files have permissions greater than 600, then this is a finding. If the /etc/hosts.equiv, or /etc/ssh/shosts.equiv files are not owned by root, this is a finding. Any .rhosts, .shosts and .netrc files outside of home directories have no meaning and are not subject to this rule If the ~/.rhosts or ~/.shosts are not owned by the owner of the home directory where they are immediately located or by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19822r569027_fix

Ensure the permission for these files is set to 600 or more restrictive and their owner is root or the same as the owner of the home directory in which they reside. Procedure: # chmod 600 /etc/hosts.equiv # chmod 600 /etc/ssh/shosts.equiv # chown root /etc/hosts.equiv # chown root /etc/ssh/shosts.equiv # find / -name .rhosts # chmod 600 /<home directory>/.rhosts # chown <home directory owner> <home directory>/.rhosts # find / -name .shosts # chmod 600 <directory location>/.shosts # chown <home directory owner> <home directory>/.shosts # find / -name .netrc # chmod 600 <directory location>/.netrc # chown <home directory owner> <home directory>/.netrc

b
The .rhosts file must not be supported in PAM.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218350 - SV-218350r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002100
Vuln IDs
  • V-218350
  • V-11989
Rule IDs
  • SV-218350r603259_rule
  • SV-63647
.rhosts files are used to specify a list of hosts permitted remote access to a particular account without authenticating. The use of such a mechanism defeats strong identification and authentication requirements.
Checks: C-19825r554387_chk

Check the PAM configuration for rhosts_auth. Example: # grep rhosts_auth /etc/pam.d/* If a rhosts_auth entry is found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19823r554388_fix

Edit the file(s) in /etc/pam.d referencing the rhosts_auth module, and remove the references to the rhosts_auth module.

b
The /etc/shells (or equivalent) file must exist.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218351 - SV-218351r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002120
Vuln IDs
  • V-218351
  • V-916
Rule IDs
  • SV-218351r603259_rule
  • SV-63651
The shells file (or equivalent) lists approved default shells. It helps provide layered defense to the security approach by ensuring users cannot change their default shell to an unauthorized unsecure shell.
Checks: C-19826r554390_chk

Verify /etc/shells exists. # ls -l /etc/shells If the file does not exist, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19824r554391_fix

Create a /etc/shells file containing a list of valid system shells. Consult vendor documentation for an appropriate list of system shells. Procedure: # echo "/bin/bash" >> /etc/shells # echo "/bin/csh" >> /etc/shells (Repeat as necessary for other shells.)

b
All shells referenced in /etc/passwd must be listed in the /etc/shells file, except any shells specified for the purpose of preventing logins.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218352 - SV-218352r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002140
Vuln IDs
  • V-218352
  • V-917
Rule IDs
  • SV-218352r603259_rule
  • SV-63671
The shells file lists approved default shells. It helps provide layered defense to the security approach by ensuring users cannot change their default shell to an unauthorized unsecure shell.
Checks: C-19827r554393_chk

Confirm the login shells referenced in the /etc/passwd file are listed in the /etc/shells file. Procedure: Determine which shells are permitted for use by users: # more /etc/shells Note: /usr/bin/false, /bin/false, /dev/null, /sbin/nologin, /bin/sync, /sbin/halt, /sbin/shutdown, (and equivalents) cannot be placed in the /etc/shells file. Determine which shells are being used: # more /etc/passwd (optionally shells found in /etc/passwd can be grepped for in /etc/shells) If any shells are found that are not in /etc/shells, or if false shells are found in /etc/shells, then this is a finding.

Fix: F-19825r554394_fix

Use the "chsh" utility or edit the /etc/passwd file and correct the error by changing the default shell of the account in error to an acceptable shell name contained in the /etc/shells file. Example: # chsh -s /bin/bash testuser

b
All shell files must be owned by root or bin.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218353 - SV-218353r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002200
Vuln IDs
  • V-218353
  • V-921
Rule IDs
  • SV-218353r603259_rule
  • SV-63677
If shell files are owned by users other than root or bin, they could be modified by intruders or malicious users to perform unauthorized actions.
Checks: C-19828r561788_chk

Check the ownership of the system shells. # cat /etc/shells | xargs -n1 ls -l If any shell is not owned by root or bin, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19826r561789_fix

Change the ownership of the shell with incorrect ownership. # chown root <shell>

b
All shell files must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218354 - SV-218354r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002210
Vuln IDs
  • V-218354
  • V-22365
Rule IDs
  • SV-218354r603259_rule
  • SV-63697
If shell files are group-owned by users other than root or a system group, they could be modified by intruders or malicious users to perform unauthorized actions.
Checks: C-19829r569029_chk

If /etc/shells exists, check the group ownership of each shell referenced. Procedure: # cat /etc/shells | xargs -n1 ls -l Otherwise, check any shells found on the system. Procedure: # find / -name "*sh" | xargs -n1 ls -l If a shell is not group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19827r569030_fix

Change the group-owner of the shell to root, bin, sys, or system. Procedure: # chgrp root <shell>

c
All shell files must have mode 0755 or less permissive.
AC-6 - High - CCI-000225 - V-218355 - SV-218355r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002220
Vuln IDs
  • V-218355
  • V-922
Rule IDs
  • SV-218355r603259_rule
  • SV-63713
Shells with world/group write permissions give the ability to maliciously modify the shell to obtain unauthorized access.
Checks: C-19830r569032_chk

If /etc/shells exists, check the group ownership of each shell referenced. # cat /etc/shells | xargs -n1 ls -l Otherwise, check any shells found on the system. # find / -name "*sh" | xargs -n1 ls -l If a shell has a mode more permissive than 0755, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19828r569033_fix

Change the mode of the shell. # chmod 0755 <shell>

b
All shell files must not have extended ACLs.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218356 - SV-218356r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002230
Vuln IDs
  • V-218356
  • V-22366
Rule IDs
  • SV-218356r603259_rule
  • SV-63017
Shells with world/group write permissions give the ability to maliciously modify the shell to obtain unauthorized access.
Checks: C-19831r569035_chk

If /etc/shells exists, check the permissions of each shell referenced. # cat /etc/shells | xargs -n1 ls -lL Otherwise, check any shells found on the system. # find / -name "*sh" | xargs -n1 ls -lL If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19829r569036_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all [shell]

a
The system must be checked for extraneous device files at least weekly.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-218357 - SV-218357r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002260
Vuln IDs
  • V-218357
  • V-923
Rule IDs
  • SV-218357r603259_rule
  • SV-63209
If an unauthorized device is allowed to exist on the system, there is the possibility the system may perform unauthorized operations.
Checks: C-19832r554408_chk

Determine if there are any device files outside of /dev: # find / -type b -o -type c |more Check for the presence of an aide on the system: # rpm -qa | grep aide If aide is not installed, ask the SA what file integrity tool is being used to check the system. Check the global crontabs for the presence of an "aide" job to run at least weekly, if aide is installed. Otherwise, check for the presence of a cron job to run the alternate file integrity checking application. # grep aide /etc/cron*/* If a tool is being run, then the configuration file for the appropriate tool needs to be checked for selection lines for /dev and any other directories/subdirectories that contain device files. Review the process to determine if the system is checked for extraneous device files on a weekly basis. If no weekly automated or manual process is in place, this is a finding. If the process is not identifying extraneous device files, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19830r554409_fix

Establish a weekly automated or manual process to create a list of device files on the system and determine if any files have been added, moved, or deleted since the last list was generated. A list of device files can be generated with this command: # find / -type b -o -type c > device-file-list

b
Device files and directories must only be writable by users with a system account or as configured by the vendor.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218358 - SV-218358r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002280
Vuln IDs
  • V-218358
  • V-924
Rule IDs
  • SV-218358r603259_rule
  • SV-63229
System device files in writable directories could be modified, removed, or used by an unprivileged user to control system hardware.
Checks: C-19833r569038_chk

Find all world-writable device files existing anywhere on the system. Procedure: # find / -perm -2 -a \( -type b -o -type c \) &gt; devicelist Check the permissions on the directories above subdirectories containing device files. If any of the device files or their parent directories are world-writable, excepting device files specifically intended to be world-writable such as /dev/null, this is a finding. These world-writable files on installation are intended to be world-writable: /dev/full /dev/null /selinux/null /dev/ptmx /dev/random /dev/tty /dev/vsock /dev/zero /dev/log

Fix: F-19831r569039_fix

Remove the world-writable permission from the device file(s). Procedure: # chmod o-w <device file> Document all changes.

b
Device files used for backup must only be readable and/or writable by root or the backup user.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218359 - SV-218359r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002300
Vuln IDs
  • V-218359
  • V-925
Rule IDs
  • SV-218359r603259_rule
  • SV-63241
System backups could be accidentally or maliciously overwritten and destroy the ability to recover the system if a compromise should occur. Unauthorized users could also copy system files.
Checks: C-19834r569041_chk

Check the system for world-writable device files. Procedure: # find / -perm -2 -a \( -type b -o -type c \) -exec ls -ld {} \; Ask the SA to identify any device files used for backup purposes. If any device file(s) used for backup are writable by users other than root or the designated backup user, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19832r569042_fix

Use the chmod command to remove the world-writable bit from the backup device files. Procedure: # chmod o-w <back device filename> Document all changes.

b
Audio devices must have mode 0660 or less permissive.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218360 - SV-218360r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002320
Vuln IDs
  • V-218360
  • V-1048
Rule IDs
  • SV-218360r603259_rule
  • SV-63247
Audio and video devices that are globally accessible have proven to be another security hazard. There is software that can activate system microphones and video devices connected to user workstations and/or X terminals. Once the microphone has been activated, it is possible to eavesdrop on otherwise private conversations without the victim being aware of it. This action effectively changes the user's microphone into a bugging device.
Checks: C-19835r569044_chk

Check the mode of audio devices. # ls -lL /dev/audio* /dev/snd/* If the mode of audio devices are more permissive than 660, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19833r569045_fix

Change the mode of audio devices. # chmod 0660 <audio device>

b
Audio devices must not have extended ACLs.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218361 - SV-218361r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002330
Vuln IDs
  • V-218361
  • V-22367
Rule IDs
  • SV-218361r603259_rule
  • SV-63293
File system ACLs can provide access to files beyond what is allowed by the mode numbers of the files.
Checks: C-19836r561809_chk

Check the permissions of audio devices. # ls -lL /dev/audio* /dev/snd/* If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19834r561810_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the file. # setfacl --remove-all [device file]

b
Audio devices must be owned by root.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218362 - SV-218362r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002340
Vuln IDs
  • V-218362
  • V-1049
Rule IDs
  • SV-218362r603259_rule
  • SV-63301
Audio and video devices globally accessible have proven to be another security hazard. There is software that can activate system microphones and video devices connected to user workstations and/or X terminals. Once the microphone has been activated, it is possible to eavesdrop on otherwise private conversations without the victim being aware of it. This action effectively changes the user's microphone into a bugging device.
Checks: C-19837r569047_chk

Check the owner of audio devices. # ls -lL /dev/audio* /dev/snd/* If the owner of any audio device file is not root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19835r569048_fix

Edit the /etc/security/console.perms.d/50-default.perms file and comment the following line: <console> 0600 <sound> 0660 root.audio

b
Audio devices must be group-owned by root, sys, bin, or system.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218363 - SV-218363r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002360
Vuln IDs
  • V-218363
  • V-1061
Rule IDs
  • SV-218363r603259_rule
  • SV-63341
Without privileged group owners, audio devices will be vulnerable to being used as eaves-dropping devices by malicious users or intruders to possibly listen to conversations containing sensitive information.
Checks: C-19838r561815_chk

Check the group-owner of audio devices. Procedure: # ls -lL /dev/audio* /dev/snd/* If the group-owner of an audio device is not root, sys, bin, system, or audio this is a finding.

Fix: F-19836r561816_fix

Change the group-owner of the audio device. Procedure: # chgrp <root, sys, bin, system, audio> <audio device>

b
The owner, group-owner, mode, ACL, and location of files with the setuid bit set must be documented using site-defined procedures.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218364 - SV-218364r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002380
Vuln IDs
  • V-218364
  • V-801
Rule IDs
  • SV-218364r603259_rule
  • SV-63399
All files with the setuid bit set will allow anyone running these files to be temporarily assigned the UID of the file. While many system files depend on these attributes for proper operation, security problems can result if setuid is assigned to programs allowing reading and writing of files, or shell escapes. Only default vendor-supplied executables should have the setuid bit set.
Checks: C-19839r569050_chk

Check for the presence of aide on the system: # rpm -qa | grep aide If aide is not installed, ask the SA what file integrity tool is being used to check the system. Check the global crontabs for the presence of an "aide" job to run at least weekly, if "aide" is installed. Otherwise, check for the presence of a "cron" job to run the alternate file integrity checking application. # grep aide /etc/cron*/* If a tool is being run, then the configuration file for the appropriate tool needs to be checked for selection lines /bin, /sbin, /lib, and /usr. If the file integrity tool is set to check "setuid" and "setgid", this is not a finding. List all "setuid" files on the system. Procedure: # find / -perm -4000 -exec ls -l {} \; | more Note: Executing these commands may result in large listings of files; the output may be redirected to a file for easier analysis. Ask the SA or ISSO if files with the setuid bit set have been documented. Documentation must include the owner, group-owner, mode, ACL, and location of the files. If any undocumented file has its setuid bit set, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19837r569051_fix

Document the files with the suid bit set or unset the suid bit on the executable.

b
The system must be checked weekly for unauthorized setuid files as well as unauthorized modification to authorized setuid files.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218365 - SV-218365r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002400
Vuln IDs
  • V-218365
  • V-803
Rule IDs
  • SV-218365r603259_rule
  • SV-63421
Files with the setuid bit set will allow anyone running these files to be temporarily assigned the UID of the file. While many system files depend on these attributes for proper operation, security problems can result if setuid is assigned to programs allowing reading and writing of files, or shell escapes.
Checks: C-19840r569053_chk

Ask the SA for the weekly automated or manual process used to generate a list of setuid files on the system and compare it with the prior list. If no such process is in place, this is a finding. If a file integrity tool is configured to monitor setuid files weekly, this is not a finding. Review the process. If the process does not identify and report changes in setuid files, this is a finding. NOTE: The frequency may be increased to daily, if necessary, in accordance with the contingency plan.

Fix: F-19838r569054_fix

Establish a weekly automated or manual process to generate a list of suid files on the system and compare it with the prior list. To create a list of suid files: # find / -perm -4000 > suid-file-list NOTE: The frequency may be increased to daily, if necessary, in accordance with the contingency plan.

b
Removable media, remote file systems, and any file system not containing approved setuid files must be mounted with the nosuid option.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218366 - SV-218366r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002420
Vuln IDs
  • V-218366
  • V-805
Rule IDs
  • SV-218366r603259_rule
  • SV-63441
The "nosuid" mount option causes the system to not execute setuid files with owner privileges. This option must be used for mounting any file system not containing approved setuid files. Executing setuid files from untrusted file systems, or file systems not containing approved setuid files, increases the opportunity for unprivileged users to attain unauthorized administrative access.
Checks: C-19841r569056_chk

Check /etc/mtab and verify the "nosuid" mount option is used on file systems mounted from removable media, network shares, or any other file system not containing approved setuid or setgid files. If any of these files systems do not mount with the "nosuid" option, it is a finding.

Fix: F-19839r569057_fix

Edit /etc/fstab and add the "nosuid" mount option to all file systems mounted from removable media or network shares, and any file system not containing approved setuid or setgid files.

b
Removable media, remote file systems, and any file system not containing approved device files must be mounted with the nodev option.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218367 - SV-218367r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002430
Vuln IDs
  • V-218367
  • V-22368
Rule IDs
  • SV-218367r603259_rule
  • SV-63455
The "nodev" (or equivalent) mount option causes the system to not handle device files as system devices. This option must be used for mounting any file system not containing approved device files. Device files can provide direct access to system hardware and can compromise security if not protected.
Checks: C-19842r569059_chk

Check /etc/mtab and verify the "nodev" mount option is used on any filesystems mounted from removable media or network shares. If any filesystem mounted from removable media or network shares does not have this option, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19840r569060_fix

Edit /etc/fstab and add the "nodev" option to any filesystems mounted from removable media or network shares.

b
The owner, group-owner, mode, ACL and location of files with the setgid bit set must be documented using site-defined procedures.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218368 - SV-218368r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002440
Vuln IDs
  • V-218368
  • V-802
Rule IDs
  • SV-218368r603259_rule
  • SV-63459
All files with the setgid bit set will allow anyone running these files to be temporarily assigned the GID of the file. While many system files depend on these attributes for proper operation, security problems can result if setgid is assigned to programs allowing reading and writing of files, or shell escapes.
Checks: C-19843r569062_chk

If STIGID GEN000220 is satisfied, this is not a finding. List all setgid files on the system. Procedure: # find / -perm -2000 -exec ls -l {} \; | more Note: Executing these commands may result in large listings of files; the output may be redirected to a file for easier analysis. Ask the SA or IAO if files with the setgid bit set have been documented. Documentation must include owner, group-owner, mode, ACL, and location. If any undocumented file has its setgid bit set, this is a finding. If a tool is being run then the configuration file for the appropriate tool needs to be checked for selection lines /bin, /sbin, /lib, and /usr. If a file integrity tool is set to check setuid and setgid, this is not a finding.

Fix: F-19841r569063_fix

Document the files with the sgid bit set or unset the sgid bit on the executable.

b
The system must be checked weekly for unauthorized setgid files as well as unauthorized modification to authorized setgid files.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218369 - SV-218369r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002460
Vuln IDs
  • V-218369
  • V-804
Rule IDs
  • SV-218369r603259_rule
  • SV-63589
Files with the setgid bit set will allow anyone running these files to be temporarily assigned the group id of the file. While many system files depend on these attributes for proper operation, security problems can result if setgid is assigned to programs allowing reading and writing of files, or shell escapes.
Checks: C-19844r569065_chk

Ask the SA if a weekly automated or manual process is used to generate a list of setgid files on the system and compare it with the prior list. If no such process is in place, this is a finding. If a file integrity tool is configured to monitor setgid files weekly, this is not a finding. NOTE: The frequency may be increased to daily, if necessary, in accordance with the contingency plan.

Fix: F-19842r569066_fix

Establish a weekly automated or manual process to generate a list of setgid files on the system and compare it with the prior list. To create a list of setgid files: # find / -perm -2000 > setgid-file-list NOTE: The frequency may be increased to daily, if necessary, in accordance with the contingency plan.

b
Public directories must be the only world-writable directories and world-writable files must be located only in public directories.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218370 - SV-218370r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002480
Vuln IDs
  • V-218370
  • V-1010
Rule IDs
  • SV-218370r603259_rule
  • SV-63673
World-writable files and directories make it easy for a malicious user to place potentially compromising files on the system. The only authorized public directories are those temporary directories supplied with the system or those designed to be temporary file repositories. The setting is normally reserved for directories used by the system and by users for temporary file storage, (e.g., /tmp), and for directories requiring global read/write access.
Checks: C-19845r569068_chk

Check the system for world-writable files. Procedure: # find / -perm -2 -a \( -type d -o -type f \) -exec ls -ld {} \; If any world-writable files are located, except those required for system operation such as /tmp and /dev/null, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19843r569069_fix

Remove or change the mode for any world-writable file on the system not required to be world-writable. Procedure: # chmod o-w <file> Document all changes

a
The sticky bit must be set on all public directories.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-218371 - SV-218371r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002500
Vuln IDs
  • V-218371
  • V-806
Rule IDs
  • SV-218371r603259_rule
  • SV-63691
Failing to set the sticky bit on the public directories allows unauthorized users to delete files in the directory structure. The only authorized public directories are those temporary directories supplied with the system or those designed to be temporary file repositories. The setting is normally reserved for directories used by the system and by users for temporary file storage, (e.g., /tmp), and for directories requiring global read/write access.
Checks: C-19846r569071_chk

Check all world-writable directories have the sticky bit set. Procedure: # find / -type d -perm -002 ! -perm -1000 &gt; wwlist If the sticky bit is not set on a world-writable directory, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19844r569072_fix

Set the sticky bit on all public directories. Procedure: # chmod 1777 /tmp (Replace /tmp with the public directory missing the sticky bit, if necessary.)

b
All public directories must be owned by root or an application account.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218372 - SV-218372r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002520
Vuln IDs
  • V-218372
  • V-807
Rule IDs
  • SV-218372r603259_rule
  • SV-63705
If a public directory has the sticky bit set and is not owned by a privileged UID, unauthorized users may be able to modify files created by others. The only authorized public directories are those temporary directories supplied with the system or those designed to be temporary file repositories. The setting is normally reserved for directories used by the system and by users for temporary file storage, (e.g., /tmp), and for directories requiring global read/write access.
Checks: C-19847r569074_chk

Check the ownership of all public directories. Procedure: # find / -type d -perm -1002 -exec ls -ld {} \; If any public directory is not owned by root or an application user, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19845r569075_fix

Change the owner of public directories to root or an application account. Procedure: # chown root /tmp (Replace root with an application user and/or /tmp with another public directory as necessary.)

b
All public directories must be group-owned by root, sys, bin, or an application group.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-000225 - V-218373 - SV-218373r603259_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000225
Version
GEN002540
Vuln IDs
  • V-218373
  • V-11990
Rule IDs
  • SV-218373r603259_rule
  • SV-63797
If a public directory has the sticky bit set and is not group-owned by a privileged GID, unauthorized users may be able to modify files created by others. The only authorized public directories are those temporary directories supplied with the system or those designed to be temporary file repositories. The setting is normally reserved for directories used by the system and by users for temporary file storage, (e.g., /tmp), and for directories requiring global read/write access.
Checks: C-19848r569077_chk

Check the group-ownership of public directories. Procedure: # find / -type d -perm -1002 -exec ls -ld {} \; If any public directory is not group-owned by root, sys, bin, or an application group, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19846r569078_fix

Change the group-ownership of the public directory. Procedure: # chgrp root /tmp (Replace root with a different system group and/or /tmp with a different public directory as necessary.)

b
The system and user default umask must be 077.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218374 - SV-218374r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002560
Vuln IDs
  • V-218374
  • V-808
Rule IDs
  • SV-218374r603259_rule
  • SV-63801
The umask controls the default access mode assigned to newly created files. An umask of 077 limits new files to mode 700 or less permissive. Although umask can be represented as a 4-digit number, the first digit representing special access modes is typically ignored or required to be 0. This requirement applies to the globally configured system defaults and the user defaults for each account on the system.
Checks: C-19849r569080_chk

NOTE: The following commands must be run in the BASH shell. Check global initialization files for the configured umask value. Procedure: # grep umask /etc/* Check local initialization files for the configured umask value. Procedure: # cut -d: -f6 /etc/passwd |xargs -n1 -IDIR find DIR -name ".*" -type f -maxdepth 1 -exec grep umask {} \; If the system and user default umask is not 077, this a finding. Note: If the default umask is 000 or allows for the creation of world-writable files this becomes a Severity Code I finding.

Fix: F-19847r569081_fix

Edit local and global initialization files that contain "umask" and change them to use 077 instead of the current value.

b
Default system accounts must be disabled or removed.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-218375 - SV-218375r603259_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
GEN002640
Vuln IDs
  • V-218375
  • V-810
Rule IDs
  • SV-218375r603259_rule
  • SV-63809
Vendor accounts and software may contain backdoors allowing unauthorized access to the system. These backdoors are common knowledge and present a threat to system security if the account is not disabled.
Checks: C-19850r569083_chk

Determine if default system accounts (such as those for sys, bin, uucp, nuucp, daemon, smtp) have been disabled. # cat /etc/shadow If an account's password field (which is the second field in the /etc/shadow file) is "*", "*LK*", or is prefixed with a '!', the account is locked or disabled. If there are any unlocked default system accounts, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19848r569084_fix

Lock the default system account(s). # passwd -l <user>

b
Auditing must be implemented.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000169 - V-218376 - SV-218376r603259_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000169
Version
GEN002660
Vuln IDs
  • V-218376
  • V-811
Rule IDs
  • SV-218376r603259_rule
  • SV-63819
Without auditing, individual system accesses cannot be tracked and malicious activity cannot be detected and traced back to an individual account.
Checks: C-19851r554465_chk

Determine if auditing is enabled. # ps -ef |grep auditd If the auditd process is not found, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19849r554466_fix

Start the auditd service and set it to start on boot. # service auditd start ; chkconfig auditd on

b
System audit logs must be owned by root.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000162 - V-218377 - SV-218377r603259_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000162
Version
GEN002680
Vuln IDs
  • V-218377
  • V-812
Rule IDs
  • SV-218377r603259_rule
  • SV-63845
Failure to give ownership of system audit log files to root provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information.
Checks: C-19852r554468_chk

Perform the following to determine the location of audit logs and then check the ownership. Procedure: # grep "^log_file" /etc/audit/auditd.conf|sed s/^[^\/]*//|xargs stat -c %U:%n If any audit log file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19850r554469_fix

Change the ownership of the audit log file(s). Procedure: # chown root <audit log file>

b
System audit logs must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000162 - V-218378 - SV-218378r603259_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000162
Version
GEN002690
Vuln IDs
  • V-218378
  • V-22702
Rule IDs
  • SV-218378r603259_rule
  • SV-63873
Sensitive system and user information could provide a malicious user with enough information to penetrate further into the system.
Checks: C-19853r554471_chk

Check the group ownership of the audit logs. Procedure: # grep "^log_file" /etc/audit/auditd.conf|sed s/^[^\/]*//|xargs stat -c %G:%n If any audit log file is not group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19851r554472_fix

Change the group ownership of the audit log file(s). Procedure: # chgrp root <audit log file>

b
System audit logs must have mode 0640 or less permissive.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000163 - V-218379 - SV-218379r603259_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000163
Version
GEN002700
Vuln IDs
  • V-218379
  • V-813
Rule IDs
  • SV-218379r603259_rule
  • SV-63883
If a user can write to the audit logs, audit trails can be modified or destroyed and system intrusion may not be detected. System audit logs are those files generated from the audit system and do not include activity, error, or other log files created by application software.
Checks: C-19854r569086_chk

Perform the following to determine the location of audit logs and then check the mode of the files. Procedure: # grep "^log_file" /etc/audit/auditd.conf|sed s/^[^\/]*//|xargs stat -c %a:%n If any audit log file has a mode more permissive than 0640, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19852r569087_fix

Change the mode of the audit log directories/files. # chmod 0750 <audit directory> # chmod 0640 <audit file>

b
All system audit files must not have extended ACLs.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000163 - V-218380 - SV-218380r603259_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000163
Version
GEN002710
Vuln IDs
  • V-218380
  • V-22369
Rule IDs
  • SV-218380r603259_rule
  • SV-63885
If a user can write to the audit logs, then audit trails can be modified or destroyed and system intrusion may not be detected.
Checks: C-19855r554477_chk

Check the system audit log files for extended ACLs. Procedure: # grep "^log_file" /etc/audit/auditd.conf|sed s/^[^\/]*//|xargs ls -l If the permissions include a '+', the file has an extended ACL. If the file has an extended ACL and it has not been documented with the IAO, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19853r554478_fix

Remove the extended ACL from the system audit file(s).

a
System audit tool executables must be owned by root.
AU-9 - Low - CCI-001493 - V-218381 - SV-218381r603259_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-001493
Version
GEN002715
Vuln IDs
  • V-218381
  • V-22370
Rule IDs
  • SV-218381r603259_rule
  • SV-63959
To prevent unauthorized access or manipulation of system audit logs, the tools for manipulating those logs must be protected.
Checks: C-19856r554480_chk

Verify the audit tool executables are owned by root. # ls -l /sbin/auditctl /sbin/auditd /sbin/ausearch /sbin/aureport /sbin/autrace /sbin/audispd If any listed file is not owned by root, this is a finding.

Fix: F-19854r554481_fix

Change the owner of the audit tool executable to root. # chown root [audit tool executable]

a
System audit tool executables must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system.
AU-9 - Low - CCI-001493 - V-218382 - SV-218382r603259_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-001493
Version
GEN002716
Vuln IDs
  • V-218382
  • V-22371
Rule IDs
  • SV-218382r603259_rule
  • SV-63975
To prevent unauthorized access or manipulation of system audit logs, the tools for manipulating those logs must be protected.
Checks: C-19857r554483_chk

Verify the audit tool executables are group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. Procedure: # ls -lL /sbin/auditctl /sbin/auditd /sbin/ausearch /sbin