MS SQL Server 2016 Instance Security Technical Implementation Guide

  • Version/Release: V2R10
  • Published: 2023-06-01
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This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DOD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: [email protected].
b
SQL Server must limit the number of concurrent sessions to an organization-defined number per user for all accounts and/or account types.
AC-10 - Medium - CCI-000054 - V-213929 - SV-213929r879511_rule
RMF Control
AC-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000054
Version
SQL6-D0-003600
Vuln IDs
  • V-213929
  • V-79119
Rule IDs
  • SV-213929r879511_rule
  • SV-93825
Database management includes the ability to control the number of users and user sessions utilizing SQL Server. Unlimited concurrent connections to SQL Server could allow a successful Denial of Service (DoS) attack by exhausting connection resources; and a system can also fail or be degraded by an overload of legitimate users. Limiting the number of concurrent sessions per user is helpful in reducing these risks. This requirement addresses concurrent session control for a single account. It does not address concurrent sessions by a single user via multiple system accounts; and it does not deal with the total number of sessions across all accounts. The capability to limit the number of concurrent sessions per user must be configured in or added to SQL Server (for example, by use of a logon trigger), when this is technically feasible. Note that it is not sufficient to limit sessions via a web server or application server alone, because legitimate users and adversaries can potentially connect to SQL Server by other means. The organization will need to define the maximum number of concurrent sessions by account type, by account, or a combination thereof. In deciding on the appropriate number, it is important to consider the work requirements of the various types of users. For example, 2 might be an acceptable limit for general users accessing the database via an application; but 10 might be too few for a database administrator using a database management GUI tool, where each query tab and navigation pane may count as a separate session. (Sessions may also be referred to as connections or logons, which for the purposes of this requirement are synonyms.)
Checks: C-15146r799960_chk

Review the system documentation to determine whether any limits have been defined. If it does not, assume a limit of 10 for database administrators and 2 for all other users. If a mechanism other than a logon trigger is used, verify its correct operation by the appropriate means. If it does not work correctly, this is a finding. Otherwise, determine if a logon trigger exists: In SQL Server Management Studio's Object Explorer tree: Expand [SQL Server Instance] >> Server Objects >> Triggers OR Run the query: SELECT name FROM master.sys.server_triggers; If no triggers are listed, this is a finding. If triggers are listed, identify the trigger(s) limiting the number of concurrent sessions per user. If none are found, this is a finding. If they are present but disabled, this is a finding. Examine the trigger source code for logical correctness and for compliance with the documented limit(s). If errors or variances exist, this is a finding. Verify that the system does execute the trigger(s) each time a user session is established. If it does not operate correctly for all types of user, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15144r810822_fix

Establish the limit(s) appropriate to the type(s) of user account accessing the SQL Server instance, and record them in the system documentation. Implement one or more logon triggers to enforce the limit(s), without exposing the dynamic management views to general users. Example script below: CREATE TRIGGER SQL_STIG_Connection_Limit ON ALL SERVER WITH EXECUTE AS 'renamed_sa' /*Make sure to use the renamed SA account here*/ FOR LOGON AS BEGIN If (Select COUNT(1) from sys.dm_exec_sessions WHERE is_user_process = 1 AND original_login_name = ORIGINAL_LOGIN() ) > (CASE ORIGINAL_LOGIN() WHEN 'renamed_sa' THEN 40 /*i.e. the renamed system administrator SQL Login can have up to 40 concurrent logins... */ WHEN 'domain/ima.dba' THEN 150 /*this is a busy DBA’s domain account */ WHEN 'application1_login' THEN 6 /* this is a SQL login for an application */ WHEN 'application2_login' THEN 20 /* this is a SQL login for another application */ … ELSE 1 /* All unspecified users are restricted to a single login */ END) BEGIN PRINT 'The login [' + ORIGINAL_LOGIN() + '] has exceeded its concurrent session limit.' ROLLBACK; END END; Reference: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms189799.aspx

c
SQL Server must integrate with an organization-level authentication/access mechanism providing account management and automation for all users, groups, roles, and any other principals.
AC-2 - High - CCI-000015 - V-213930 - SV-213930r879522_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000015
Version
SQL6-D0-003700
Vuln IDs
  • V-213930
  • V-79121
Rule IDs
  • SV-213930r879522_rule
  • SV-93827
Enterprise environments make account management for applications and databases challenging and complex. A manual process for account management functions adds the risk of a potential oversight or other error. Managing accounts for the same person in multiple places is inefficient and prone to problems with consistency and synchronization. A comprehensive application account management process that includes automation helps to ensure that accounts designated as requiring attention are consistently and promptly addressed. Examples include, but are not limited to, using automation to take action on multiple accounts designated as inactive, suspended, or terminated, or by disabling accounts located in non-centralized account stores, such as multiple servers. Account management functions can also include: assignment of group or role membership; identifying account type; specifying user access authorizations (i.e., privileges); account removal, update, or termination; and administrative alerts. The use of automated mechanisms can include, for example, using email or text messaging to notify account managers when users are terminated or transferred; using the information system to monitor account usage; and using automated telephone notification to report atypical system account usage. SQL Server must be configured to automatically utilize organization-level account management functions, and these functions must immediately enforce the organization's current account policy. Automation may be composed of differing technologies that when placed together contain an overall mechanism supporting an organization's automated account management requirements.
Checks: C-15147r313573_chk

Determine whether SQL Server is configured to use only Windows authentication. In the Object Explorer in SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS), right-click on the server instance. Select "Properties". Select the Security page. If Windows Authentication Mode is selected, this is not a finding. OR In a query interface such as the SSMS Transact-SQL editor, run the statement: SELECT CASE SERVERPROPERTY('IsIntegratedSecurityOnly') WHEN 1 THEN 'Windows Authentication' WHEN 0 THEN 'Windows and SQL Server Authentication' END as [Authentication Mode] If the returned value in the "Authentication Mode" column is "Windows Authentication", this is not a finding. Mixed mode (both SQL Server authentication and Windows authentication) is in use. If the need for mixed mode has not been documented and approved, this is a finding. From the documentation, obtain the list of accounts authorized to be managed by SQL Server. Determine the accounts (SQL Logins) actually managed by SQL Server. Run the statement: SELECT name FROM sys.sql_logins WHERE type_desc = 'SQL_LOGIN' AND is_disabled = 0; If any accounts listed by the query are not listed in the documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15145r822453_fix

If mixed mode is required, document the need and justification; describe the measures taken to ensure the use of SQL Server authentication is kept to a minimum; describe the measures taken to safeguard passwords; list or describe the SQL Logins used. Risk must be accepted by the ISSO/ISSM. If mixed mode is not required, disable it as follows: In the SSMS Object Explorer, right-click on the server instance. Select "Properties". Select the Security page. Click on the radio button for "Windows Authentication Mode". Click on "OK". Restart the SQL Server instance. OR Run the statement: USE [master] EXEC xp_instance_regwrite N'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE', N'Software\Microsoft\MSSQLServer\MSSQLServer', N'LoginMode', REG_DWORD, 2 GO Restart the SQL Server instance. For each account being managed by SQL Server but not requiring it, drop or disable the SQL Login. Replace it with an appropriately configured account, as needed. To drop or disable a login in the SSMS Object Explorer: Navigate to "Security Logins". Right-click on the login name; click "Delete" or "Disable". To drop or disable a login by using a query: USE master; DROP LOGIN login_name; ALTER LOGIN login_name DISABLE; Dropping a login does not delete the equivalent database user(s). There may be more than one database containing a user mapped to the login. Drop the user(s) unless still needed. To drop a user in the SSMS Object Explorer: Navigate to Databases >> Security Users. Right-click on the user name. Click "Delete". To drop a user via a query: USE database_name; DROP USER <user_name>;

b
SQL Server must be configured to utilize the most-secure authentication method available.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-000015 - V-213931 - SV-213931r879522_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000015
Version
SQL6-D0-003800
Vuln IDs
  • V-213931
  • V-79123
Rule IDs
  • SV-213931r879522_rule
  • SV-93829
Enterprise environments make account management for applications and databases challenging and complex. A manual process for account management functions adds the risk of a potential oversight or other error. Managing accounts for the same person in multiple places is inefficient and prone to problems with consistency and synchronization. A comprehensive application account management process that includes automation helps to ensure that accounts designated as requiring attention are consistently and promptly addressed. Examples include, but are not limited to, using automation to take action on multiple accounts designated as inactive, suspended, or terminated, or by disabling accounts located in non-centralized account stores, such as multiple servers. Account management functions can also include: assignment of group or role membership; identifying account type; specifying user access authorizations (i.e., privileges); account removal, update, or termination; and administrative alerts. The use of automated mechanisms can include, for example: using email or text messaging to notify account managers when users are terminated or transferred; using the information system to monitor account usage; and using automated telephone notification to report atypical system account usage. SQL Server must be configured to automatically utilize organization-level account management functions, and these functions must immediately enforce the organization's current account policy. Automation may be comprised of differing technologies that when placed together contain an overall mechanism supporting an organization's automated account management requirements. SQL Server supports several authentication methods to allow operation in various environments, Kerberos, NTLM, and SQL Server. An instance of SQL Server must be configured to utilize the most-secure method available. Service accounts utilized by SQL Server should be unique to a given instance.
Checks: C-15148r754572_chk

If the SQL Server is not part of an Active Directory domain, this finding is Not Applicable. Obtain the fully qualified domain name of the SQL Server instance: Launch Windows Explorer. Right-click on "Computer" or "This PC" (Varies by OS level), click "Properties". Note the value shown for "Full computer name". *** Note: For a cluster, this value must be obtained from the Failover Cluster Manager. *** Obtain the TCP port that is supporting the SQL Server instance: Click Start &gt;&gt; Type "SQL Server 2016 Configuration Manager" &gt;&gt; From the search results, click "SQL Server 2016 Configuration Manager". From the tree on the left, expand "SQL Server Network Configuration". Click "Protocols for &lt;Instance Name&gt;" where &lt;Instance Name&gt; is the name of the instance (MSSQLSERVER is the default name). In the right pane, right-click on "TCP/IP" and choose "Properties". In the window that opens, click the "IP Addresses" tab. Note the TCP port configured for the instance. Obtain the service account that is running the SQL Server service: Click "Start". Type "SQL Server 2016 Configuration Manager". From the search results, click "SQL Server 2016 Configuration Manager". From the tree on the left, select "SQL Server Services". Note the account listed in the "Log On As" column for the SQL Server instance being reviewed. Launch a command-line or PowerShell window. Enter the following command where &lt;Service Account&gt; is the identity of the service account. setspn -L &lt;Service Account&gt; Example: setspn -L CONTOSO\sql2016svc Review the Registered Service Principal Names returned. If the listing does not contain the following supported service principal names (SPN) formats, this is a finding. Named instance MSSQLSvc/&lt;FQDN&gt;:[&lt;port&gt; | &lt;instancename&gt;], where: MSSQLSvc is the service that is being registered. &lt;FQDN&gt; is the fully qualified domain name of the server. &lt;port&gt; is the TCP port number. &lt;instancename&gt; is the name of the SQL Server instance. Default instance MSSQLSvc/&lt;FQDN&gt;:&lt;port&gt; | MSSQLSvc/&lt;FQDN&gt;, where: MSSQLSvc is the service that is being registered. &lt;FQDN&gt; is the fully qualified domain name of the server. &lt;port&gt; is the TCP port number. If the MSSQLSvc service is registered for any fully qualified domain names that do not match the current server, this may indicate the service account is shared across SQL Server instances. Review server documentation, if the sharing of service accounts across instances is not documented and authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15146r810824_fix

Ensure Service Principal Names (SPNs) are properly registered for the SQL Server instance. Utilize the Microsoft Kerberos Configuration Manager to review Kerberos configuration issues for a given SQL Server instance. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=39046 Alternatively, SPNs for SQL Server can be manually registered. For other connections that support Kerberos the SPN is registered in the format MSSQLSvc/<FQDN>/<instancename> for a named instance. The format for registering the default instance is MSSQLSvc/<FQDN>. Using an account with permissions to register SPNs, issue the following commands from a command-prompt: setspn -S MSSQLSvc/<Fully Qualified Domain Name> <Service Account> setspn -S MSSQLSvc/<Fully Qualified Domain Name>:<TCP Port> <Service Account> For a named instance, use: setspn -S MSSQLSvc/<FQDN>:<instancename> <Service Account> setspn -S MSSQLSvc/<FQDN>:<TCP Port> <Service Account> Restart the SQL Server instance. More information regarding this process is available at: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/database-engine/configure-windows/register-a-service-principal-name-for-kerberos-connections#Manual

c
SQL Server must enforce approved authorizations for logical access to information and system resources in accordance with applicable access control policies.
AC-3 - High - CCI-000213 - V-213932 - SV-213932r879530_rule
RMF Control
AC-3
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000213
Version
SQL6-D0-003900
Vuln IDs
  • V-213932
  • V-79125
Rule IDs
  • SV-213932r879530_rule
  • SV-93831
Authentication with a DoD-approved PKI certificate does not necessarily imply authorization to access SQL Server. To mitigate the risk of unauthorized access to sensitive information by entities that have been issued certificates by DoD-approved PKIs, all DoD systems, including databases, must be properly configured to implement access control policies. Successful authentication must not automatically give an entity access to an asset or security boundary. Authorization procedures and controls must be implemented to ensure each authenticated entity also has a validated and current authorization. Authorization is the process of determining whether an entity, once authenticated, is permitted to access a specific asset. Information systems use access control policies and enforcement mechanisms to implement this requirement. Access control policies include identity-based policies, role-based policies, and attribute-based policies. Access enforcement mechanisms include access control lists, access control matrices, and cryptography. These policies and mechanisms must be employed by the application to control access between users (or processes acting on behalf of users) and objects (e.g., devices, files, records, processes, programs, and domains) in the information system. This requirement is applicable to access control enforcement applications, a category that includes database management systems. If SQL Server does not follow applicable policy when approving access, it may be in conflict with networks or other applications in the information system. This may result in users either gaining or being denied access inappropriately and in conflict with applicable policy.
Checks: C-15149r313579_chk

Review the system documentation to determine the required levels of protection for DBMS server securables, by type of login. Review the permissions actually in place on the server. If the actual permissions do not match the documented requirements, this is a finding. Use the supplemental file "Instance permissions assignments to logins and roles.sql."

Fix: F-15147r313580_fix

Use GRANT, REVOKE, DENY, ALTER SERVER ROLE … ADD MEMBER … and/or ALTER SERVER ROLE …. DROP MEMBER statements to add and remove permissions on server-level securables, bringing them into line with the documented requirements.

b
SQL Server must protect against a user falsely repudiating by ensuring all accounts are individual, unique, and not shared.
AU-10 - Medium - CCI-000166 - V-213933 - SV-213933r879554_rule
RMF Control
AU-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000166
Version
SQL6-D0-004000
Vuln IDs
  • V-213933
  • V-79127
Rule IDs
  • SV-213933r879554_rule
  • SV-93833
Non-repudiation of actions taken is required in order to maintain data integrity. Examples of particular actions taken by individuals include creating information, sending a message, approving information (e.g., indicating concurrence or signing a contract), and receiving a message. Non-repudiation protects against later claims by a user of not having created, modified, or deleted a particular data item or collection of data in the database. In designing a database, the organization must define the types of data and the user actions that must be protected from repudiation. The implementation must then include building audit features into the application data tables and configuring SQL Server's audit tools to capture the necessary audit trail. Design and implementation also must ensure that applications pass individual user identification to SQL Server, even where the application connects to SQL Server with a standard, shared account.
Checks: C-15150r313582_chk

Obtain the list of authorized SQL Server accounts in the system documentation. Determine if any accounts are shared. A shared account is defined as a username and password that are used by multiple individuals to log into SQL Server. An example of a shared account is the SQL Server installation account. Windows Groups are not shared accounts as the group itself does not have a password. If accounts are determined to be shared, determine if individuals are first individually authenticated. If individuals are not individually authenticated before using the shared account (e.g., by the operating system or possibly by an application making calls to the database), this is a finding. The key is individual accountability. If this can be traced, this is not a finding. If accounts are determined to be shared, determine if they are directly accessible to end users. If so, this is a finding. Review contents of audit logs, traces and data tables to confirm that the identity of the individual user performing the action is captured. If shared identifiers are found, and not accompanied by individual identifiers, this is a finding. Note: Privileged installation accounts may be required to be accessed by the DBA or other administrators for system maintenance. In these cases, each use of the account must be logged in some manner to assign accountability for any actions taken during the use of the account.

Fix: F-15148r313583_fix

Remove user-accessible shared accounts and use individual user IDs. Build/configure applications to ensure successful individual authentication prior to shared account access. Ensure each user's identity is received and used in audit data in all relevant circumstances. Design, develop, and implement a method to log use of any account to which more than one person has access. Restrict interactive access to shared accounts to the fewest persons possible.

c
SQL Server must protect against a user falsely repudiating by ensuring the NT AUTHORITY SYSTEM account is not used for administration.
AU-10 - High - CCI-000166 - V-213934 - SV-213934r879554_rule
RMF Control
AU-10
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000166
Version
SQL6-D0-004100
Vuln IDs
  • V-213934
  • V-79129
Rule IDs
  • SV-213934r879554_rule
  • SV-93835
Non-repudiation of actions taken is required in order to maintain data integrity. Examples of particular actions taken by individuals include creating information, sending a message, approving information (e.g., indicating concurrence or signing a contract), and receiving a message. Non-repudiation protects against later claims by a user of not having created, modified, or deleted a particular data item or collection of data in the database. In designing a database, the organization must define the types of data and the user actions that must be protected from repudiation. The implementation must then include building audit features into the application data tables and configuring the DBMS's audit tools to capture the necessary audit trail. Design and implementation also must ensure that applications pass individual user identification to the DBMS, even where the application connects to the DBMS with a standard, shared account. Any user with enough access to the server can execute a task that will be run as NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM either using task scheduler or other tools. At this point, NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM essentially becomes a shared account because the operating system and SQL Server are unable to determine who created the process. Prior to SQL Server 2012, NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM was a member of the sysadmin role by default. This allowed jobs/tasks to be executed in SQL Server without the approval or knowledge of the DBA because it looked like operating system activity.
Checks: C-15151r313585_chk

Execute the following queries. The first query checks for Clustering and Availability Groups being provisioned in the Database Engine. The second query lists permissions granted to the Local System account. SELECT SERVERPROPERTY('IsClustered') AS [IsClustered], SERVERPROPERTY('IsHadrEnabled') AS [IsHadrEnabled] EXECUTE AS LOGIN = 'NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM' SELECT * FROM fn_my_permissions(NULL, 'server') REVERT GO If IsClustered returns 1, IsHadrEnabled returns 0, and any permissions have been granted to the Local System account beyond "CONNECT SQL", "VIEW SERVER STATE", and "VIEW ANY DATABASE", this is a finding. If IsHadrEnabled returns 1 and any permissions have been granted to the Local System account beyond "CONNECT SQL", "CREATE AVAILABILITY GROUP", "ALTER ANY AVAILABILITY GROUP", "VIEW SERVER STATE", and "VIEW ANY DATABASE", this is a finding. If both IsClustered and IsHadrEnabled return 0 and any permissions have been granted to the Local System account beyond "CONNECT SQL" and "VIEW ANY DATABASE", this is a finding.

Fix: F-15149r313586_fix

Remove permissions that were identified as not allowed in the check content. USE Master; REVOKE <Permission> TO [NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM] GO To grant permissions to services or applications, utilize the Service SID of the service or a domain service account.

b
SQL Server must protect against a user falsely repudiating by ensuring only clearly unique Active Directory user accounts can connect to the instance.
AU-10 - Medium - CCI-000166 - V-213935 - SV-213935r879554_rule
RMF Control
AU-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000166
Version
SQL6-D0-004200
Vuln IDs
  • V-213935
  • V-79131
Rule IDs
  • SV-213935r879554_rule
  • SV-93837
Non-repudiation of actions taken is required in order to maintain data integrity. Examples of particular actions taken by individuals include creating information, sending a message, approving information (e.g., indicating concurrence or signing a contract), and receiving a message. Non-repudiation protects against later claims by a user of not having created, modified, or deleted a particular data item or collection of data in the database. In designing a database, the organization must define the types of data and the user actions that must be protected from repudiation. The implementation must then include building audit features into the application data tables and configuring the DBMS's audit tools to capture the necessary audit trail. Design and implementation also must ensure that applications pass individual user identification to the DBMS, even where the application connects to the DBMS with a standard, shared account. If the computer account of a remote computer is granted access to SQL Server, any service or scheduled task running as NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM or NT AUTHORITY\NETWORK SERVICE can log into the instance and perform actions. These actions cannot be traced back to a specific user or process.
Checks: C-15152r313588_chk

Execute the following query: SELECT name FROM sys.server_principals WHERE type in ('U','G') AND name LIKE '%$' If no logins are returned, this is not a finding. If logins are returned, determine whether each login is a computer account. Launch PowerShell. Execute the following code: Note: &lt;name&gt; represents the username portion of the login. For example, if the login is "CONTOSO\user1$", the username is "user1". ([ADSISearcher]"(&amp;(ObjectCategory=Computer)(Name=&lt;name&gt;))").FindAll() If no account information is returned, this is not a finding. If account information is returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15150r313589_fix

Remove all logins that were returned in the check content.

b
SQL Server must be configured to generate audit records for DoD-defined auditable events within all DBMS/database components.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000169 - V-213936 - SV-213936r879559_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000169
Version
SQL6-D0-004300
Vuln IDs
  • V-213936
  • V-79133
Rule IDs
  • SV-213936r879559_rule
  • SV-93839
Without the capability to generate audit records, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within SQL Server (e.g., process, module). Certain specific application functionalities may be audited as well. The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating audit records. DoD has defined the list of events for which SQL Server will provide an audit record generation capability as the following: (i) Successful and unsuccessful attempts to access, modify, or delete privileges, security objects, security levels, or categories of information (e.g., classification levels); (ii) Access actions, such as successful and unsuccessful logon attempts, privileged activities, or other system-level access, starting and ending time for user access to the system, concurrent logons from different workstations, successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects, all program initiations, and all direct access to the information system; and (iii) All account creation, modification, disabling, and termination actions. Organizations may define additional events requiring continuous or ad hoc auditing.
Checks: C-15153r313591_chk

Review the server documentation to determine if any additional events are required to be audited. If no additional events are required, this is not a finding. Execute the following query to get all of the installed audits: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status All currently defined audits for the SQL server instance will be listed. If no audits are returned, this is a finding. To view the actions being audited by the audits, execute the following query: SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 Compare the documentation to the list of generated audit events. If there are any missing events, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15151r313592_fix

Add all required audit events to the STIG Compliant audit specification server documentation.

b
SQL Server must allow only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be audited.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000171 - V-213937 - SV-213937r879560_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000171
Version
SQL6-D0-004400
Vuln IDs
  • V-213937
  • V-79135
Rule IDs
  • SV-213937r879560_rule
  • SV-93841
Without the capability to restrict which roles and individuals can select which events are audited, unauthorized personnel may be able to prevent or interfere with the auditing of critical events. Suppression of auditing could permit an adversary to evade detection. Misconfigured audits can degrade the system's performance by overwhelming the audit log. Misconfigured audits may also make it more difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one.
Checks: C-15154r313594_chk

Obtain the list of approved audit maintainers from the system documentation. Review the server roles and individual logins that have the following role memberships, all of which enable the ability to create and maintain audit definitions. sysadmin dbcreator Review the server roles and individual logins that have the following permissions, all of which enable the ability to create and maintain audit definitions. ALTER ANY SERVER AUDIT CONTROL SERVER ALTER ANY DATABASE CREATE ANY DATABASE Use the following query to determine the roles and logins that have the listed permissions: SELECT-- DISTINCT CASE WHEN SP.class_desc IS NOT NULL THEN CASE WHEN SP.class_desc = 'SERVER' AND S.is_linked = 0 THEN 'SERVER' WHEN SP.class_desc = 'SERVER' AND S.is_linked = 1 THEN 'SERVER (linked)' ELSE SP.class_desc END WHEN E.name IS NOT NULL THEN 'ENDPOINT' WHEN S.name IS NOT NULL AND S.is_linked = 0 THEN 'SERVER' WHEN S.name IS NOT NULL AND S.is_linked = 1 THEN 'SERVER (linked)' WHEN P.name IS NOT NULL THEN 'SERVER_PRINCIPAL' ELSE '???' END AS [Securable Class], CASE WHEN E.name IS NOT NULL THEN E.name WHEN S.name IS NOT NULL THEN S.name WHEN P.name IS NOT NULL THEN P.name ELSE '???' END AS [Securable], P1.name AS [Grantee], P1.type_desc AS [Grantee Type], sp.permission_name AS [Permission], sp.state_desc AS [State], P2.name AS [Grantor], P2.type_desc AS [Grantor Type], R.name AS [Role Name] FROM sys.server_permissions SP INNER JOIN sys.server_principals P1 ON P1.principal_id = SP.grantee_principal_id INNER JOIN sys.server_principals P2 ON P2.principal_id = SP.grantor_principal_id FULL OUTER JOIN sys.servers S ON SP.class_desc = 'SERVER' AND S.server_id = SP.major_id FULL OUTER JOIN sys.endpoints E ON SP.class_desc = 'ENDPOINT' AND E.endpoint_id = SP.major_id FULL OUTER JOIN sys.server_principals P ON SP.class_desc = 'SERVER_PRINCIPAL' AND P.principal_id = SP.major_id FULL OUTER JOIN sys.server_role_members SRM ON P.principal_id = SRM.member_principal_id LEFT OUTER JOIN sys.server_principals R ON SRM.role_principal_id = R.principal_id WHERE sp.permission_name IN ('ALTER ANY SERVER AUDIT','CONTROL SERVER','ALTER ANY DATABASE','CREATE ANY DATABASE') OR R.name IN ('sysadmin','dbcreator') If any of the logins, roles, or role memberships returned have permissions that are not documented, or the documented audit maintainers do not have permissions, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15152r313595_fix

Create a server role specifically for audit maintainers and give it permission to maintain audits without granting it unnecessary permissions (the role name used here is an example; other names may be used): CREATE SERVER ROLE SERVER_AUDIT_MAINTAINERS; GO GRANT ALTER ANY SERVER AUDIT TO SERVER_AUDIT_MAINTAINERS; GO Use REVOKE and/or DENY and/or ALTER SERVER ROLE ... DROP MEMBER ... statements to remove the ALTER ANY SERVER AUDIT permission from all logins. Then, for each authorized login, run the statement: ALTER SERVER ROLE SERVER_AUDIT_MAINTAINERS ADD MEMBER; GO Use REVOKE and/or DENY and/or ALTER SERVER ROLE ... DROP MEMBER ... statements to remove CONTROL SERVER, ALTER ANY DATABASE and CREATE ANY DATABASE permissions from logins that do not need them.

b
SQL Server must generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to retrieve privileges/permissions occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-213939 - SV-213939r902984_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-004600
Vuln IDs
  • V-213939
  • V-79139
Rule IDs
  • SV-213939r902984_rule
  • SV-93845
Under some circumstances, it may be useful to monitor who/what is reading privilege/permission/role information. Therefore, monitoring must be possible. DBMSs typically make such information available through views or functions. This requirement addresses explicit requests for privilege/permission/role membership information. It does not refer to the implicit retrieval of privileges/permissions/role memberships that SQL Server continually performs to determine if any and every action on the database is permitted. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. Satisfies: SRG-APP-000091-DB-000066
Checks: C-15156r313600_chk

Review the system documentation to determine if SQL Server is required to audit the retrieval of privilege/permission/role membership information. If SQL Server is not required to audit the retrieval of privilege/permission/role membership information, this is not a finding. If the documentation does not exist, this is a finding. Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query. If no records are returned, this is a finding. SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status If the auditing the retrieval of privilege/permission/role membership information is required, execute the following query to verify the SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP is included in the server audit specification. SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name = 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP' If the SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP is not returned in an active audit, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15154r313601_fix

Deploy an audit to audit the retrieval of privilege/permission/role membership information. See the supplemental file "SQL 2016 Audit.sql".

b
SQL Server must initiate session auditing upon startup.
AU-14 - Medium - CCI-001464 - V-213940 - SV-213940r879562_rule
RMF Control
AU-14
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001464
Version
SQL6-D0-004700
Vuln IDs
  • V-213940
  • V-79141
Rule IDs
  • SV-213940r879562_rule
  • SV-93847
Session auditing is for use when a user's activities are under investigation. To be sure of capturing all activity during those periods when session auditing is in use, it needs to be in operation for the whole time SQL Server is running.
Checks: C-15157r313603_chk

When Audits are enabled, they start up when the instance starts. https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc280386.aspx#Anchor_2 Check if an audit is configured and enabled. Execute the following query: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status WHERE status_desc = 'STARTED' All currently defined audits for the SQL server instance will be listed. If no audits are returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15155r313604_fix

Configure the SQL Audit(s) to automatically start during system start-up. ALTER SERVER AUDIT [<Server Audit Name>] WITH STATE = ON Execute the following query: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status WHERE status_desc = 'STARTED' Ensure the SQL STIG Audit is configured to initiate session auditing upon startup.

b
SQL Server must include additional, more detailed, organization-defined information in the audit records for audit events identified by type, location, or subject.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000135 - V-213941 - SV-213941r879569_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000135
Version
SQL6-D0-005500
Vuln IDs
  • V-213941
  • V-79145
Rule IDs
  • SV-213941r879569_rule
  • SV-93851
Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Reconstruction of harmful events or forensic analysis is not possible if audit records do not contain enough information. To support analysis, some types of events will need information to be logged that exceeds the basic requirements of event type, time stamps, location, source, outcome, and user identity. If additional information is not available, it could negatively impact forensic investigations into user actions or other malicious events. The organization must determine what additional information is required for complete analysis of the audited events. The additional information required is dependent on the type of information (e.g., sensitivity of the data and the environment within which it resides). At a minimum, the organization must employ either full-text recording of privileged commands or the individual identities of users of shared accounts, or both. The organization must maintain audit trails in sufficient detail to reconstruct events to determine the cause and impact of compromise. Examples of detailed information the organization may require in audit records are full-text recording of privileged commands or the individual identities of shared account users.
Checks: C-15158r313606_chk

If a SQL Server Audit is not in use for audit purposes, this is a finding unless a third-party product is being used that can perform detailed auditing for SQL Server. Review system documentation to determine whether SQL Server is required to audit any events, and any fields, in addition to those in the standard audit. If there are none specified, this is not a finding. If SQL Server Audit is in use, compare the audit specification(s) with the documented requirements. If any such requirement is not satisfied by the audit specification(s) (or by supplemental, locally-deployed mechanisms), this is a finding.

Fix: F-15156r313607_fix

Design and deploy an Audit that captures all auditable events and data items. In the event a third-party tool is used for auditing it must contain all the required information including but not limited to events, type, location, subject, date and time and by whom the change occurred. Implement additional custom audits to capture the additional organizational required information.

b
SQL Server must by default shut down upon audit failure, to include the unavailability of space for more audit log records; or must be configurable to shut down upon audit failure.
AU-5 - Medium - CCI-000140 - V-213942 - SV-213942r879571_rule
RMF Control
AU-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000140
Version
SQL6-D0-005600
Vuln IDs
  • V-213942
  • V-79147
Rule IDs
  • SV-213942r879571_rule
  • SV-93853
It is critical that when SQL Server is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required, it takes action to mitigate the failure. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors; failures in the audit capturing mechanisms; and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded. Responses to audit failure depend upon the nature of the failure mode. When the need for system availability does not outweigh the need for a complete audit trail, SQL Server should shut down immediately, rolling back all in-flight transactions. Systems where audit trail completeness is paramount will most likely be at a lower MAC level than MAC I; the final determination is the prerogative of the application owner, subject to Authorizing Official concurrence. In any case, sufficient auditing resources must be allocated to avoid a shutdown in all but the most extreme situations.
Checks: C-15159r313609_chk

If the system documentation indicates that availability takes precedence over audit trail completeness, this is not applicable (NA). If SQL Server Audit is in use, review the defined server audits by running the statement: SELECT * FROM sys.server_audits; By observing the [name] and [is_state_enabled] columns, identify the row or rows in use. If the [on_failure_desc] is "SHUTDOWN SERVER INSTANCE" on this/these row(s), this is not a finding. Otherwise, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15157r313610_fix

If SQL Server Audit is in use, configure SQL Server Audit to shut SQL Server down upon audit failure, to include running out of space for audit logs. Run this T-SQL script for each identified audit: ALTER SERVER AUDIT [AuditNameHere] WITH (STATE = OFF); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT [AuditNameHere] WITH (ON_FAILURE = SHUTDOWN); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT [AuditNameHere] WITH (STATE = ON); GO

b
SQL Server must be configurable to overwrite audit log records, oldest first (First-In-First-Out - FIFO), in the event of unavailability of space for more audit log records.
AU-5 - Medium - CCI-000140 - V-213943 - SV-213943r879571_rule
RMF Control
AU-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000140
Version
SQL6-D0-005700
Vuln IDs
  • V-213943
  • V-79149
Rule IDs
  • SV-213943r879571_rule
  • SV-93855
It is critical that when SQL Server is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required, it take action to mitigate the failure. Audit processing failures include; software/hardware errors; failures in the audit capturing mechanisms; and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded. Responses to audit failure depend upon the nature of the failure mode. When availability is an overriding concern, approved actions in response to an audit failure are as follows: (i) If the failure was caused by the lack of audit record storage capacity, SQL Server must continue generating audit records, if possible (automatically restarting the audit service if necessary), overwriting the oldest audit records in a first-in-first-out manner. (ii) If audit records are sent to a centralized collection server and communication with this server is lost or the server fails, SQL Server must queue audit records locally until communication is restored or until the audit records are retrieved manually. Upon restoration of the connection to the centralized collection server, action should be taken to synchronize the local audit data with the collection server. Systems where availability is paramount will most likely be MAC I; the final determination is the prerogative of the application owner, subject to Authorizing Official concurrence. In any case, sufficient auditing resources must be allocated to avoid audit data loss in all but the most extreme situations.
Checks: C-15160r754586_chk

If the system documentation indicates that availability does not take precedence over audit trail completeness, this is not applicable (NA). Execute the following query: SELECT a.name 'audit_name', a.type_desc 'storage_type', f.max_rollover_files FROM sys.server_audits a LEFT JOIN sys.server_file_audits f ON a.audit_id = f.audit_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 If no records are returned, this is a finding. If the "storage_type" is "APPLICATION LOG" or "SECURITY LOG", this is not a finding. If the "storage_type" is "FILE" and "max_rollover_files" is greater than zero, this is not a finding. Otherwise, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15158r313613_fix

If SQL Server Audit is in use, configure SQL Server Audit to continue to generate audit records, overwriting the oldest existing records, in the case of an auditing failure. Run this T-SQL script for each identified audit: ALTER SERVER AUDIT [AuditName] WITH (STATE = OFF); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT [AuditName] to file (max_rollover_files = IntegerValue); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT [AuditName] WITH (STATE = ON); GO

b
The audit information produced by SQL Server must be protected from unauthorized access, modification, and deletion.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000162 - V-213944 - SV-213944r879576_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000162
Version
SQL6-D0-005900
Vuln IDs
  • V-213944
  • V-79151
Rule IDs
  • SV-213944r879576_rule
  • SV-93857
If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In addition, access to audit records provides information an attacker could potentially use to his or her advantage. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the information system and/or the application must protect audit information from any and all unauthorized access. This includes read, write, copy, etc. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include ensuring log files enjoy the proper file system permissions utilizing file system protections and limiting log data location. Additionally, applications with user interfaces to audit records should not allow for the unfettered manipulation of or access to those records via the application. If the application provides access to the audit data, the application becomes accountable for ensuring that audit information is protected from unauthorized access. SQL Server is an application that is able to view and manipulate audit file data. Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity. Satisfies: SRG-APP-000118-DB-000059, SRG-APP-000119-DB-000060, SRG-APP-000120-DB-000061
Checks: C-15161r754588_chk

If the database is setup to write audit logs using APPLICATION or SECURITY event logs rather than writing to a file, this is N/A. Obtain the SQL Server audit file location(s) by running the following SQL script: SELECT log_file_path AS "Audit Path" FROM sys.server_file_audits For each audit, the path column will give the location of the file. Verify that all audit files have the correct permissions by doing the following for each audit file: Navigate to audit folder location(s) using a command prompt or Windows Explorer. Right-click the file/folder and click "Properties". On the "Security" tab, verify that at most the following permissions are applied: Administrator (read) Users (none) Audit Administrator (Full Control) Auditors group (Read) SQL Server Service SID OR Service Account (Full Control) SQL Server SQL Agent Service SID OR Service Account, if SQL Server Agent is in use. (Read, Execute, Write) If any less restrictive permissions are present (and not specifically justified and approved), this is a finding.

Fix: F-15159r754589_fix

Modify audit file permissions to meet the requirement to protect against unauthorized access. Application event log and security log permissions are covered in the Windows Server STIGs. Be sure to reference these depending on the OS in use. Navigate to audit folder location(s) using a command prompt or Windows Explorer. Right-click the file and click "Properties". On the Security tab, modify the security permissions to: Administrator (read) Users (none) Audit Administrator(Full Control) Auditors group (Read) SQL Server Service SID OR Service Account (Full Control) [Notes 1, 2] SQL Server SQL Agent Service SID OR Service Account, if SQL Server Agent is in use. (Read, Execute, Write) [Notes 1, 2] ----- Note 1: It is highly advisable to use a separate account for each service. When installing SQL Server in single-server mode, you can opt to have these provisioned for you. These automatically-generated accounts are referred to as virtual accounts. Each virtual account has an equivalent Service SID, with the same name. The installer also creates an equivalent SQL Server login, also with the same name. Applying folder and file permissions to Service SIDs, rather than to domain accounts or local computer accounts, provides tighter control, because these permissions are available only to the specific service when it is running, and not in any other context. (However, when using failover clustering, a domain account must be specified at installation, rather than a virtual account.) For more on this topic, see http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms143504(v=sql.130).aspx. Note 2: Tips for adding a service SID/virtual account to a folder's permission list. 1) In Windows Explorer, right-click the folder and select "Properties". 2) Select the "Security" tab. 3) Click "Edit". 4) Click "Add". 5) Click "Locations". 6) Select the computer name. 7) Search for the name. 7.a) SQL Server Service 7.a.i) Type "NT SERVICE\MSSQL" and click "Check Names". (What you have just typed in is the first 16 characters of the name. At least one character must follow "NT SERVICE\"; you will be presented with a list of all matches. If you have typed in the full, correct name, step 7.a.ii is bypassed.) 7.a.ii) Select the "MSSQL$" user and click "OK". 7.b) SQL Agent Service 7.b.i) Type "NT SERVICE\SQL" and click "Check Names". 7.b.ii) Select the "SQLAgent$" user and click "OK". 8) Click "OK". 9) Permission like a normal user from here.

b
SQL Server must protect its audit configuration from authorized and unauthorized access and modification.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-001494 - V-213948 - SV-213948r902986_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001494
Version
SQL6-D0-006300
Vuln IDs
  • V-213948
  • V-79159
Rule IDs
  • SV-213948r902986_rule
  • SV-93865
Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Therefore, protecting audit tools is necessary to prevent unauthorized operation on audit data. Applications providing tools to interface with audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the tools and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order make access decisions regarding the modification of audit tools. SQL Server is an application that does provide access to audit data. Audit tools include, but are not limited to, vendor-provided and open source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records. Audit tools include custom queries and report generators. If an attacker were to gain access to audit tools, they could analyze audit logs for system weaknesses or weaknesses in the auditing itself. An attacker could also manipulate logs to hide evidence of malicious activity. Satisfies: SRG-APP-000121-DB-000202, SRG-APP-000123-DB-000204
Checks: C-15165r902985_chk

Check the server documentation for a list of approved users with access to SQL Server Audits. To create, alter, or drop a server audit, principals require the ALTER ANY SERVER AUDIT or the CONTROL SERVER permission. Review the SQL Server permissions granted to principals. Look for permissions ALTER ANY SERVER AUDIT, ALTER ANY DATABASE AUDIT, CONTROL SERVER: SELECT login.name, perm.permission_name, perm.state_desc FROM sys.server_permissions perm JOIN sys.server_principals login ON perm.grantee_principal_id = login.principal_id WHERE permission_name in ('ALTER ANY DATABASE AUDIT', 'ALTER ANY SERVER AUDIT', 'CONTROL SERVER') and login.name not like '##MS_%'; If unauthorized accounts have these privileges, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15163r313628_fix

Remove audit-related permissions from individuals and roles not authorized to have them. USE master; DENY [ALTER ANY SERVER AUDIT] TO [User]; GO

b
SQL Server must limit privileges to change software modules and links to software external to SQL Server.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-213950 - SV-213950r879586_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
SQL6-D0-006500
Vuln IDs
  • V-213950
  • V-79163
Rule IDs
  • SV-213950r879586_rule
  • SV-93869
If the system were to allow any user to make changes to software libraries, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process. Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals must be allowed to obtain access to information system components for purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications. Unmanaged changes that occur to the database software libraries or configuration can lead to unauthorized or compromised installations.
Checks: C-15167r313633_chk

Review Server documentation to determine the authorized owner and users or groups with modify rights for this SQL instance's binary files. Additionally check the owner and users or groups with modify rights for shared software library paths on disk. If any unauthorized users are granted modify rights or the owner is incorrect, this is a finding. To determine the location for these instance-specific binaries, Launch SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) &gt;&gt; Connect to the instance to be reviewed &gt;&gt; Right-click server name in Object Explorer &gt;&gt; Click Facets &gt;&gt; Select the Server facet &gt;&gt; Record the value for the "RootDirectory" facet property. Navigate to the folder above, and review the "Binn" subdirectory.

Fix: F-15165r313634_fix

Change the ownership of all shared software libraries on disk to the authorized account. Remove any modify permissions granted to unauthorized users or groups.

b
SQL Server must limit privileges to change software modules, to include stored procedures, functions and triggers, and links to software external to SQL Server.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-213951 - SV-213951r879586_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
SQL6-D0-006600
Vuln IDs
  • V-213951
  • V-79165
Rule IDs
  • SV-213951r879586_rule
  • SV-93871
If the system were to allow any user to make changes to software libraries, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process. Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals must be allowed to obtain access to information system components for purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications. Unmanaged changes that occur to the database software libraries or configuration can lead to unauthorized or compromised installations.
Checks: C-15168r313636_chk

Review server documentation to determine the process by which shared software libraries are monitored for change. Ensure the process alerts for changes in a file's ownership, modification dates, and hash value at a minimum. If alerts do not at least hash their value, this is a finding. To determine the location for these instance-specific binaries: Launch SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) &gt;&gt; Connect to the instance to be reviewed &gt;&gt; Right-click server name in Object Explorer &gt;&gt; Click Facets &gt;&gt; Select the Server facet &gt;&gt; Record the value for the "RootDirectory" facet property TIP: Use the Get-FileHash cmdlet shipped with PowerShell 5.0 to get the SHA-2 hash of one or more files.

Fix: F-15166r313637_fix

Implement and document a process by which changes made to software libraries are monitored and alerted. A PowerShell based hashing solution is one such process. The Get-FileHash command (https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/reference/5.1/microsoft.powershell.utility/get-filehash) can be used to compute the SHA-2 hash of one or more files. Using the Export-Clixml command (https://msdn.microsoft.com/powershell/reference/5.1/microsoft.powershell.utility/Export-Clixml), a baseline can be established and exported to a file. Using the Compare-Object command (https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee156812.aspx), a comparison of the latest baseline versus the original baseline can be used to expose the differences.

c
SQL Server software installation account must be restricted to authorized users.
CM-5 - High - CCI-001499 - V-213952 - SV-213952r879586_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
SQL6-D0-006700
Vuln IDs
  • V-213952
  • V-79167
Rule IDs
  • SV-213952r879586_rule
  • SV-93873
When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can have significant effects on the overall security of the system. If the system were to allow any user to make changes to software libraries, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process. Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals must be allowed access to information system components for purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications. DBA and other privileged administrative or application owner accounts are granted privileges that allow actions that can have a great impact on SQL Server security and operation. It is especially important to grant privileged access to only those persons who are qualified and authorized to use them.
Checks: C-15169r822455_chk

From the system documentation, obtain the list of accounts authorized to install/update SQL Server. Run the following PowerShell command to list all users who have installed/modified SQL Server 2016 software and compare the list against those persons who are qualified and authorized to use the software. sl "C:\program files\microsoft sql server\130\setup bootstrap\Log" Get-ChildItem -Recurse | Select-String -Pattern "LogonUser = " If any accounts are shown that are not authorized in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15167r822456_fix

From a command prompt, open lusrmgr.msc. Navigate to Users and right-click Individual User. Select Properties >> Member Of. Configure SQL Server and OS settings and access controls to restrict user access to objects and data that the user is authorized to view/use.

b
Database software, including DBMS configuration files, must be stored in dedicated directories, separate from the host OS and other applications.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-213953 - SV-213953r879586_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
SQL6-D0-006800
Vuln IDs
  • V-213953
  • V-79169
Rule IDs
  • SV-213953r879586_rule
  • SV-93875
When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. Multiple applications can provide a cumulative negative effect. A vulnerability and subsequent exploit to one application can lead to an exploit of other applications sharing the same security context. For example, an exploit to a web server process that leads to unauthorized administrative access to host system directories can most likely lead to a compromise of all applications hosted by the same system. Database software not installed using dedicated directories both threatens and is threatened by other hosted applications. Access controls defined for one application may by default provide access to the other application's database objects or directories. Any method that provides any level of separation of security context assists in the protection between applications.
Checks: C-15170r313642_chk

Determine the directory in which SQL Server has been installed: Using SQL Server Management Studio's Object Explorer: - Right-click [SQL Server Instance] - Select "Facets" - Record the value of RootDirectory Determine the Operating System directory: - Click "Start" - Type "Run" - Press "Enter" - Type "%windir%" - Click "Ok" - Record the value in the address bar Verify the SQL Server RootDirectory is not in the Operating System directory. Compare the SQL RootDirectory and the Operating System directory. If the SQL RootDirectory is in the same directory as the Operating System, this is a finding. Verify the SQL Server RootDirectory is not in another application's directory. Navigate to the SQL RootDirectory using Windows Explorer. Examine each directory for evidence another application is stored in it. If evidence exists the SQL RootDirectory is in another application's directory, this is a finding. If the SQL RootDirectory is not in the Operating System directory or another application's directory. This is not a finding. Examples: 1) The Operating System directory is "C:\Windows". The SQL RootDirectory is "D:\Program Files\MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL". The MSSQLSERVER directory is not living in the Operating System directory or the directory of another application. This is not a finding. 2) The Operating System directory is "C:\Windows". The SQL RootDirectory is "C:\Windows\MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL". This is a finding. 3) The Operating System directory is "C:\Windows". The SQL RootDirectory is "D:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL". The MSSQLSERVER directory is in the Microsoft Office directory, which indicates Microsoft Office is installed here. This is a finding.

Fix: F-15168r313643_fix

Re-install SQL Server application components using dedicated directories that are separate from the operating system. Relocate or reinstall other application software that currently shares directories with SQL Server components. Separate from the operating system and/or temporary storage.

b
Default demonstration and sample databases, database objects, and applications must be removed.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-213954 - SV-213954r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-006900
Vuln IDs
  • V-213954
  • V-79171
Rule IDs
  • SV-213954r879587_rule
  • SV-93877
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for software products to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Examples include, but are not limited to, installing advertising software, demonstrations, or browser plugins not related to requirements or providing a wide array of functionality, not required for every mission, that cannot be disabled. DBMSs must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. Demonstration and sample database objects and applications present publicly known attack points for malicious users. These demonstration and sample objects are meant to provide simple examples of coding specific functions and are not developed to prevent vulnerabilities from being introduced to SQL Server and host system.
Checks: C-15171r313645_chk

Review the server documentation, if this system is identified as a development or test system, this check is Not Applicable. If this system is identified as production, gather a listing of databases from the server and look for any matching the following general demonstration database names: pubs Northwind AdventureWorks WorldwideImporters If any of these databases exist, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15169r313646_fix

Remove all demonstration or sample databases from production instances.

b
Unused database components, DBMS software, and database objects must be removed.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-213955 - SV-213955r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-007000
Vuln IDs
  • V-213955
  • V-79173
Rule IDs
  • SV-213955r879587_rule
  • SV-93879
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for software products to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. DBMSs must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities.
Checks: C-15172r313648_chk

From the server documentation, obtain a listing of required components. Generate a listing of components installed on the server. Click Start &gt;&gt; Type "SQL Server 2016 Installation Center" &gt;&gt; Launch the program &gt;&gt; Click Tools &gt;&gt; Click "Installed SQL Server features discovery report" Compare the feature listing against the required components listing. If any features are installed, but are not required, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15170r313649_fix

Remove all features that are not required.

b
Unused database components that are integrated in SQL Server and cannot be uninstalled must be disabled.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-213956 - SV-213956r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-007100
Vuln IDs
  • V-213956
  • V-79175
Rule IDs
  • SV-213956r879587_rule
  • SV-93881
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for software products to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. DBMSs must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. Unused, unnecessary DBMS components increase the attack vector for SQL Server by introducing additional targets for attack. By minimizing the services and applications installed on the system, the number of potential vulnerabilities is reduced. Components of the system that are unused and cannot be uninstalled must be disabled. The techniques available for disabling components will vary by DBMS product, OS, and the nature of the component and may include DBMS configuration settings, OS service settings, OS file access security, and DBMS user/role permissions.
Checks: C-15173r313651_chk

From the server documentation, obtain a listing of required components. Generate a listing of components installed on the server. Click Start &gt;&gt; Type "SQL Server 2016 Installation Center" &gt;&gt; Launch the program &gt;&gt; Click Tools &gt;&gt; Click "Installed SQL Server features discovery report" Compare the feature listing against the required components listing. Note any components that are installed, but not required. Launch SQL Server Configuration Manager. If any components that are installed but are not required are not disabled, this is a finding. If any required components are not installed, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15171r313652_fix

Disable any unused components or features that cannot be uninstalled.

b
Access to xp_cmdshell must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-213957 - SV-213957r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-007200
Vuln IDs
  • V-213957
  • V-79177
Rule IDs
  • SV-213957r879587_rule
  • SV-93883
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. SQL Server may spawn additional external processes to execute procedures that are defined in the SQL Server but stored in external host files (external procedures). The spawned process used to execute the external procedure may operate within a different OS security context than SQL Server and provide unauthorized access to the host system. The xp_cmdshell extended stored procedure allows execution of host executables outside the controls of database access permissions. This access may be exploited by malicious users who have compromised the integrity of the SQL Server database process to control the host operating system to perpetrate additional malicious activity.
Checks: C-15174r313654_chk

The xp_cmdshell extended stored procedure allows execution of host executables outside the controls of database access permissions. This access may be exploited by malicious users who have compromised the integrity of the SQL Server database process to control the host operating system to perpetrate additional malicious activity. To determine if xp_cmdshell is enabled, execute the following commands: EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'show advanced options', '1'; RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE; EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'xp_cmdshell'; If the value of "config_value" is "0", this is not a finding. Review the system documentation to determine whether the use of "xp_cmdshell" is required and approved. If it is not approved, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15172r313655_fix

Disable use of or remove any external application executable object definitions that are not authorized. To disable the use of xp_cmdshell, from the query prompt:  EXEC sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1;  GO  RECONFIGURE;  GO  EXEC sp_configure 'xp_cmdshell', 0;  GO  RECONFIGURE;  GO??

b
Access to CLR code must be disabled or restricted, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-213958 - SV-213958r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-007300
Vuln IDs
  • V-213958
  • V-79179
Rule IDs
  • SV-213958r879587_rule
  • SV-93885
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. SQL Server may spawn additional external processes to execute procedures that are defined in the SQL Server but stored in external host files (external procedures). The spawned process used to execute the external procedure may operate within a different OS security context than SQL Server and provide unauthorized access to the host system. The common language runtime (CLR) component of the .NET Framework for Microsoft Windows in SQL Server allows you to write stored procedures, triggers, user-defined types, user-defined functions, user-defined aggregates, and streaming table-valued functions, using any .NET Framework language, including Microsoft Visual Basic .NET and Microsoft Visual C#. CLR packing assemblies can access resources protected by .NET Code Access Security when it runs managed code. Specifying UNSAFE enables the code in the assembly complete freedom to perform operations in the SQL Server process space that can potentially compromise the robustness of SQL Server. UNSAFE assemblies can also potentially subvert the security system of either SQL Server or the common language runtime.
Checks: C-15175r313657_chk

The common language runtime (CLR) component of the .NET Framework for Microsoft Windows in SQL Server allows you to write stored procedures, triggers, user-defined types, user-defined functions, user-defined aggregates, and streaming table-valued functions, using any .NET Framework language, including Microsoft Visual Basic .NET and Microsoft Visual C#. CLR packing assemblies can access resources protected by .NET Code Access Security when it runs managed code. Specifying UNSAFE enables the code in the assembly complete freedom to perform operations in the SQL Server process space that can potentially compromise the robustness of SQL Server. UNSAFE assemblies can also potentially subvert the security system of either SQL Server or the common language runtime. To determine if CLR is enabled, execute the following commands: EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'show advanced options', '1'; RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE; EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'clr enabled'; If the value of "config_value" is "0", this is not a finding. If the value of "config_value" is "1", review the system documentation to determine whether the use of CLR code is approved. If it is not approved, this is a finding. If CLR code is approved, check the database for UNSAFE assembly permission using the following script: USE [master] SELECT * FROM sys.assemblies WHERE permission_set_desc != 'SAFE' AND is_user_defined = 1; If any records are returned, review the system documentation to determine if the use of UNSAFE assemblies is approved. If it is not approved, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15173r313658_fix

Disable use of or remove any CLR code that is not authorized. To disable the use of CLR, from the query prompt: sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1; GO RECONFIGURE; GO sp_configure 'clr enabled', 0; GO RECONFIGURE; GO For any approved CLR code with Unsafe or External permissions, use the ALTER ASSEMBLY to change the Permission set for the Assembly and ensure a certificate is configured.

b
Access to Non-Standard extended stored procedures must be disabled or restricted, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-213959 - SV-213959r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-007400
Vuln IDs
  • V-213959
  • V-79181
Rule IDs
  • SV-213959r879587_rule
  • SV-93887
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. SQL Server may spawn additional external processes to execute procedures that are defined in the SQL Server but stored in external host files (external procedures). The spawned process used to execute the external procedure may operate within a different OS security context than SQL Server and provide unauthorized access to the host system. Extended stored procedures are DLLs that an instance of SQL Server can dynamically load and run. Extended stored procedures run directly in the address space of an instance of SQL Server and are programmed by using the SQL Server Extended Stored Procedure API. Non-Standard extended stored procedures can compromise the integrity of the SQL Server process. This feature will be removed in a future version of Microsoft SQL Server. Do not use this feature in new development work, and modify applications that currently use this feature as soon as possible.
Checks: C-15176r313660_chk

Extended stored procedures are DLLs that an instance of SQL Server can dynamically load and run. Extended stored procedures run directly in the address space of an instance of SQL Server and are programmed by using the SQL Server Extended Stored Procedure API. Non-Standard extended stored procedures can compromise the integrity of the SQL Server process. This feature will be removed in a future version of Microsoft SQL Server. Do not use this feature in new development work, and modify applications that currently use this feature as soon as possible. To determine if non-standard extended stored procedures exist, run the following: ------------------------------------------------------------------------ USE [master] GO DECLARE @xplist AS TABLE ( xp_name sysname, source_dll nvarchar(255) ) INSERT INTO @xplist EXEC sp_helpextendedproc SELECT X.xp_name, X.source_dll, O.is_ms_shipped FROM @xplist X JOIN sys.all_objects O ON X.xp_name = O.name WHERE O.is_ms_shipped = 0 ORDER BY X.xp_name ------------------------------------------------------------------------ If any records are returned, review the system documentation to determine whether the use of Non-Standard extended stored procedures are required and approved. If it is not approved, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15174r313661_fix

Remove any Non-Standard extended stored procedures that are not documented and approved. sp_dropextendedproc 'proc name'

b
Access to linked servers must be disabled or restricted, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-213960 - SV-213960r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-007500
Vuln IDs
  • V-213960
  • V-79183
Rule IDs
  • SV-213960r879587_rule
  • SV-93889
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. SQL Server may spawn additional external processes to execute procedures that are defined in the SQL Server but stored in external host files (external procedures). The spawned process used to execute the external procedure may operate within a different OS security context than SQL Server and provide unauthorized access to the host system. A linked server allows for access to distributed, heterogeneous queries against OLE DB data sources. After a linked server is created, distributed queries can be run against this server, and queries can join tables from more than one data source. If the linked server is defined as an instance of SQL Server, remote stored procedures can be executed. This access may be exploited by malicious users who have compromised the integrity of the SQL Server.
Checks: C-15177r313663_chk

A linked server allows for access to distributed, heterogeneous queries against OLE DB data sources. After a linked server is created, distributed queries can be run against this server, and queries can join tables from more than one data source. If the linked server is defined as an instance of SQL Server, remote stored procedures can be executed. To obtain a list of linked servers, execute the following command: EXEC sp_linkedservers; Review the system documentation to determine whether the linked servers listed are required and approved. If it is not approved, this is a finding. Run the following to get a linked server login mapping: SELECT s.name, p.principal_id, l.remote_name FROM sys.servers s JOIN sys.linked_logins l ON s.server_id = l.server_id LEFT JOIN sys.server_principals p ON l.local_principal_id = p.principal_id WHERE s.is_linked = 1 Review the linked login mapping and check the remote name as it can impersonate sysadmin. If a login in the list is impersonating sysadmin and system documentation does not require this, it is a finding.

Fix: F-15175r313664_fix

Disable use of or remove any linked servers that are not authorized. To remove a linked server and all associated logins run the following: sp_dropserver 'LinkedServerName', 'droplogins'; To remove a login from a linked server run the following: EXEC sp_droplinkedsrvlogin 'LoginName', NULL;

b
SQL Server must be configured to prohibit or restrict the use of organization-defined protocols as defined in the PPSM CAL and vulnerability assessments.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000382 - V-213961 - SV-213961r879588_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000382
Version
SQL6-D0-007600
Vuln IDs
  • V-213961
  • V-79185
Rule IDs
  • SV-213961r879588_rule
  • SV-93891
In order to prevent unauthorized connection of devices, unauthorized transfer of information, or unauthorized tunneling (i.e., embedding of data types within data types), organizations must disable or restrict unused or unnecessary protocols on information systems. Applications are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services provided by default may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations. Additionally, it is sometimes convenient to provide multiple services from a single component (e.g., email and web services); however, doing so increases risk over limiting the services provided by any one component. To support the requirements and principles of least functionality, the application must support the organizational requirements providing only essential capabilities and limiting the use of protocols to only those required, authorized, and approved to conduct official business or to address authorized quality of life issues. SQL Server using protocols deemed unsafe is open to attack through those protocols. This can allow unauthorized access to the database and through the database to other components of the information system.
Checks: C-15178r313666_chk

To determine the protocol(s) enabled for SQL Server, open SQL Server Configuration Manager. In the left-hand pane, expand SQL Server Network Configuration. Click on the entry for the SQL Server instance under review: "Protocols for ". The right-hand pane displays the protocols enabled for the instance. If Named Pipes is enabled and not specifically required and authorized, this is a finding. If any listed protocol is enabled but not authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15176r313667_fix

In SQL Server Configuration Manager >> SQL Server Network Configuration >> Protocols, right-click on each listed protocol that is enabled but not authorized and Select "Disable".

b
SQL Server must be configured to prohibit or restrict the use of organization-defined ports, as defined in the PPSM CAL and vulnerability assessments.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000382 - V-213962 - SV-213962r879588_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000382
Version
SQL6-D0-007700
Vuln IDs
  • V-213962
  • V-79187
Rule IDs
  • SV-213962r879588_rule
  • SV-93893
In order to prevent unauthorized connection of devices, unauthorized transfer of information, or unauthorized tunneling (i.e., embedding of data types within data types), organizations must disable or restrict unused or unnecessary physical and logical ports on information systems. Applications are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services provided by default may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations. Additionally, it is sometimes convenient to provide multiple services from a single component (e.g., email and web services); however, doing so increases risk over limiting the services provided by any one component. To support the requirements and principles of least functionality, the application must support the organizational requirements providing only essential capabilities and limiting the use of ports to only those required, authorized, and approved to conduct official business or to address authorized quality of life issues. SQL Server using ports deemed unsafe is open to attack through those ports. This can allow unauthorized access to the database and through the database to other components of the information system.
Checks: C-15179r313669_chk

Review SQL Server Configuration for the ports used by SQL Server. To determine whether SQL Server is configured to use a fixed port or dynamic ports, in the right-hand pane double-click on the TCP/IP entry, to open the Properties dialog. (The default fixed port is 1433.) If these are in conflict with PPSM guidance, and not explained and approved in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15177r313670_fix

Use SQL Server Configuration to change the ports used by SQL Server to comply with PPSM guidance, or document the need for other ports, and obtain written approval. Close ports no longer needed.

b
SQL Server must uniquely identify and authenticate organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of organizational users).
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000764 - V-213963 - SV-213963r879589_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000764
Version
SQL6-D0-007800
Vuln IDs
  • V-213963
  • V-79189
Rule IDs
  • SV-213963r879589_rule
  • SV-93895
To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, organizational users must be identified and authenticated to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system. Organizational users include organizational employees or individuals the organization deems to have equivalent status of employees (e.g., contractors). Organizational users (and any processes acting on behalf of users) must be uniquely identified and authenticated for all accesses, except the following: (i) Accesses explicitly identified and documented by the organization. Organizations document specific user actions that can be performed on the information system without identification or authentication; and (ii) Accesses that occur through authorized use of group authenticators without individual authentication. Organizations may require unique identification of individuals using shared accounts, for detailed accountability of individual activity.
Checks: C-15180r313672_chk

Review SQL Server users to determine whether shared accounts exist. (This does not include the case where SQL Server has a guest or public account that is providing access to publicly available information.) If accounts are determined to be shared, determine if individuals are first individually authenticated. Where an application connects to SQL Server using a standard, shared account, ensure that it also captures the individual user identification and passes it to SQL Server. If individuals are not individually authenticated before using the shared account (e.g., by the operating system or possibly by an application making calls to the database), this is a finding. If accounts are determined to be shared, determine if they are directly accessible to end users. If so, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15178r313673_fix

Remove user-accessible shared accounts and use individual userIDs. Configure applications to ensure successful individual authentication prior to shared account access. Ensure each user's identity is received and used in audit data in all relevant circumstances.

c
If DBMS authentication using passwords is employed, SQL Server must enforce the DoD standards for password complexity and lifetime.
IA-5 - High - CCI-000192 - V-213964 - SV-213964r879601_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000192
Version
SQL6-D0-007900
Vuln IDs
  • V-213964
  • V-79191
Rule IDs
  • SV-213964r879601_rule
  • SV-93897
OS/enterprise authentication and identification must be used (SRG-APP-000023-DB-000001). Native DBMS authentication may be used only when circumstances make it unavoidable; and must be documented and AO-approved. The DoD standard for authentication is DoD-approved PKI certificates. Authentication based on User ID and Password may be used only when it is not possible to employ a PKI certificate, and requires AO approval. In such cases, the DoD standards for password complexity and lifetime must be implemented. DBMS products that can inherit the rules for these from the operating system or access control program (e.g., Microsoft Active Directory) must be configured to do so. For other DBMSs, the rules must be enforced using available configuration parameters or custom code.
Checks: C-15181r822458_chk

Check for use of SQL Server Authentication: SELECT CASE SERVERPROPERTY('IsIntegratedSecurityOnly') WHEN 1 THEN 'Windows Authentication' WHEN 0 THEN 'SQL Server Authentication' END as [Authentication Mode] If the returned value in the "[Authentication Mode]" column is "Windows Authentication", this is not a finding. SQL Server should be configured to inherit password complexity and password lifetime rules from the operating system. Review SQL Server to ensure logons are created with respect to the complexity settings and password lifetime rules by running the statement: SELECT [name], is_expiration_checked, is_policy_checked FROM sys.sql_logins Review any accounts returned by the query other than the disabled SA account, ##MS_PolicyTsqlExecutionLogin##, and ##MS_PolicyEventProcessingLogin##. If any account does not have both "is_expiration_checked" and "is_policy_checked" equal to “1”, this is a finding. Review the Operating System settings relating to password complexity. Determine whether the following rules are enforced. If any are not, this is a finding. Check the server operating system for password complexity: Navigate to Start &gt;&gt; All Programs &gt;&gt; Administrative Tools &gt;&gt; Local Security Policy, and to review the local policies on the machine, go to Account Policy &gt;&gt; Password Policy:. Ensure the DISA Windows Password Policy is set on the SQL Server member server.

Fix: F-15179r313676_fix

Configure the SQL Server operating system and SQL Server logins for compliance. 1. Ensure the password complexity requirements for the corresponding DISA Windows Server Security Technical Implementation Guide are met on the server where the SQL Server Instance is installed. 2. Ensure SQL Server is configured to inherit password complexity rules from the operating system for SQL logins. Ensure check of policy and expiration are enforced when SQL logins are created. CREATE LOGIN <login_name> WITH PASSWORD= <enterStrongPasswordHere>, CHECK_EXPIRATION = ON, CHECK_POLICY = ON;

b
Contained databases must use Windows principals.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000192 - V-213965 - SV-213965r879601_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000192
Version
SQL6-D0-008000
Vuln IDs
  • V-213965
  • V-79193
Rule IDs
  • SV-213965r879601_rule
  • SV-93899
OS/enterprise authentication and identification must be used (SRG-APP-000023-DB-000001). Native DBMS authentication may be used only when circumstances make it unavoidable; and must be documented and AO-approved. The DoD standard for authentication is DoD-approved PKI certificates. Authentication based on User ID and Password may be used only when it is not possible to employ a PKI certificate, and requires AO approval. In such cases, the DoD standards for password complexity and lifetime must be implemented. DBMS products that can inherit the rules for these from the operating system or access control program (e.g., Microsoft Active Directory) must be configured to do so. For other DBMSs, the rules must be enforced using available configuration parameters or custom code.
Checks: C-15182r313678_chk

Execute the following query to determine if Contained Databases are used: SELECT * FROM sys.databases WHERE containment = 1 If any records are returned. Check the server documentation for a list of authorized contained database users. Ensure contained database users are not using SQL Authentication. EXEC sp_MSforeachdb 'USE [?]; SELECT DB_NAME() AS DatabaseName, * FROM sys.database_principals WHERE authentication_type = 2' If any records are returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15180r313679_fix

Configure the SQL Server contained databases to have users originating from Windows principals. Remove any users not created from Windows principals.

c
If passwords are used for authentication, SQL Server must transmit only encrypted representations of passwords.
IA-5 - High - CCI-000197 - V-213966 - SV-213966r879609_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000197
Version
SQL6-D0-008200
Vuln IDs
  • V-213966
  • V-79195
Rule IDs
  • SV-213966r879609_rule
  • SV-93901
The DoD standard for authentication is DoD-approved PKI certificates. Authentication based on User ID and Password may be used only when it is not possible to employ a PKI certificate, and requires AO approval. In such cases, passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords during transmission. SQL Server passwords sent in clear text format across the network are vulnerable to discovery by unauthorized users. Disclosure of passwords may easily lead to unauthorized access to the database.
Checks: C-15183r754610_chk

From a command prompt, open SQL Server Configuration Manager by typing "sqlservermanager13.msc", and pressing "ENTER". Navigate to SQL Server Configuration Manager &gt;&gt; SQL Server Network Configuration. Right-click on Protocols, where there is a placeholder for the SQL Server instance name, and click on “Properties”. On the "Flags" tab, if "Force Encryption" is set to “NO", this is a finding. On the "Flags" tab, if "Force Encryption" is set to "YES", examine the certificate used on the "Certificate" tab. If it is not a DoD approved certificate, or if no certificate is listed, this is a finding. For clustered instances, the Certificate will NOT be shown in the SQL Server Configuration Manager. 1. From a command prompt navigate to the certificate store where the Full Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) certificate is stored, by typing "certlm.msc", and pressing "ENTER". 2. In the left side of the window, expand the "Personal" folder, and click "Certificates" 3. Verify that the Certificate with the FQDN name is issued by the DOD. Double click the certificate, click the "Details" tab and note the value for the Thumbprint. 4. The value for the "Thumbprint" field should match the value in the registry by running regedit and look at "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\&lt;instance&gt;\MSSQLServer\SuperSocketNetLib\Certificate". 5. This check needs to be run on each node of the cluster. If any nodes have a certificate in use by SQL that is not issued or approved by DoD, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15181r313682_fix

Configure SQL Server to encrypt authentication data for remote connections using DoD-approved cryptography. Deploy encryption to the SQL Server Network Connections. From a command prompt, open SQL Server Configuration Manager by typing "sqlservermanager13.msc", and pressing "ENTER". Navigate to SQL Server Configuration Manager >> SQL Server Network Configuration. Right-click on Protocols for, where is a placeholder for the SQL Server instance name, and click on "Properties". In the "Protocols for Properties" dialog box, on the "Certificate" tab, select the DOD certificate from the drop down for the Certificate box, and then click "OK". On the "Flags" tab, in the "ForceEncryption" box, select "Yes", and then click "OK" to close the dialog box. Then Restart the SQL Server service. For clustered instances install the certificate after setting "Force Encryption" to "Yes" in SQL Server Configuration Manger. 1. Navigate to the certificate store where the FQDN certificate is stored, by typing "certlm.msc" and pressing "ENTER". 2. On the "Properties" page for the certificate, go to the "Details" tab and copy the "thumbprint" value of the certificate to a "Notepad" window. 3. Remove the spaces between the hex characters in the "thumbprint" value in Notepad. 4. Start regedit, navigate to the following registry key, and copy the value from step 2: HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\<instance>\MSSQLServer\SuperSocketNetLib\Certificate 5. If the SQL virtual server is currently on this node, failover to another node in your cluster, and then reboot the node where the registry change occurred. 6. Repeat this procedure on all the nodes.

c
Confidentiality of information during transmission is controlled through the use of an approved TLS version.
IA-5 - High - CCI-000197 - V-213967 - SV-213967r879609_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000197
Version
SQL6-D0-008300
Vuln IDs
  • V-213967
  • V-97521
Rule IDs
  • SV-213967r879609_rule
  • SV-106625
Transport Layer Security (TLS) encryption is a required security setting as a number of known vulnerabilities have been reported against Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and earlier versions of TLS. Encryption of private information is essential to ensuring data confidentiality. If private information is not encrypted, it can be intercepted and easily read by an unauthorized party. SQL Server must use a FIPS-approved minimum TLS version 1.2, and all non-FIPS-approved SSL and TLS versions must be disabled. NIST SP 800-52 Rev.2 specifies the preferred configurations for government systems. References: TLS Support 1.2 for SQL Server: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/3135244 TLS Registry Settings: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/security/tls/tls-registry-settings
Checks: C-15184r822460_chk

Access the SQL Server. Access an administrator command prompt. Type "regedit" to launch the Registry Editor. Navigate to: HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.2 If this key does not exist, this is a finding. Verify a REG_DWORD value of "0" for "DisabledByDefault" and a value of "1" for "Enabled" for both Client and Server. Navigate to: HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.0 HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.1 HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\SSL 2.0 HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\SSL 3.0 Under each key, verify a REG_DWORD value of "1" for "DisabledByDefault" and a value of "0" for "Enabled" for both Client and Server subkeys. If any of the respective registry paths are non-existent or contain values other than specified above, this is a finding. If Vendor documentation supporting the configuration is provided, reduce this finding to a CAT 3.

Fix: F-15182r822461_fix

Important Note: Incorrectly modifying the Windows Registry can result in serious system errors. Before making any modifications, ensure you have a recent backup of the system and registry settings. Access the SQL Server. Access an administrator command prompt. Type "regedit" to launch the Registry Editor. Enable TLS 1.2: 1.Navigate to the path HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols. a.If the "TLS 1.2" key does not exist, right-click "Protocols". b.Click "New". c.Click "Key". d.Type the name "TLS 1.2". 2.Navigate to the "TLS 1.2" subkey. a.If the subkey "Client" does not exist, right-click "TLS 1.2" b.Click "New". c.Click "Key". d.Type the name "Client". e.Repeat steps A – D for the "Server" subkey. 3.Navigate to the "Client" subkey. a.If the value "Enabled" does not exist, right-click on "Client". b.Click "New". c.Click "DWORD". d.Enter "Enabled" as the name. e.Repeat steps A-D for the value "DisabledByDefault". 4.Double-click "Enabled". 5.In Value Data, enter "1". 6.Click "OK". 7.Double-click "DisabledByDefault". 8.In Value Data, enter "0". 9.Click "OK". 10.Repeat steps 3 – 9 for the "Server" subkey. Disable unwanted SSL/TLS protocol versions: 1.Navigate to the path HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols. a.If the "TLS 1.0" key does not exist, right-click "Protocols". b.Click "New". c.Click "Key". d.Type the name "TLS 1.0". 2.Navigate to the "TLS 1.0" subkey. a.If the subkey "Client" does not exist, right-click "TLS 1.0". b.Click "New". c.Click "Key". d.Type the name "Client". e.Repeat steps A – D for the "Server" subkey. 3.Navigate to the "Client" subkey. a.If the value "Enabled" does not exist, right-click on "Client". b.Click "New". c.Click "DWORD". d.Enter "Enabled" as the name. e.Repeat steps A-D for the value "DisabledByDefault". 4.Double-click "Enabled". 5.In Value Data, enter "0". 6.Click "OK". 7.Double-click "DisabledByDefault". 8.In Value Data, enter "1". 9.Click "OK". 10.Repeat steps 3 – 9 for the "Server" subkey. 11.Repeat steps 1 – 10 for "TLS 1.1", "SSL 2.0", and "SSL 3.0".

c
SQL Server must enforce authorized access to all PKI private keys stored/utilized by SQL Server.
IA-5 - High - CCI-000186 - V-213968 - SV-213968r879613_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000186
Version
SQL6-D0-008400
Vuln IDs
  • V-213968
  • V-79197
Rule IDs
  • SV-213968r879613_rule
  • SV-93903
The DoD standard for authentication is DoD-approved PKI certificates. PKI certificate-based authentication is performed by requiring the certificate holder to cryptographically prove possession of the corresponding private key. If the private key is stolen, an attacker can use the private key(s) to impersonate the certificate holder. In cases where SQL Server-stored private keys are used to authenticate SQL Server to the system’s clients, loss of the corresponding private keys would allow an attacker to successfully perform undetected man in the middle attacks against SQL Server system and its clients. Both the holder of a digital certificate and the issuing authority must take careful measures to protect the corresponding private key. Private keys should always be generated and protected in FIPS 140-2 or FIPS 140-3 validated cryptographic modules. All access to the private key(s) of SQL Server must be restricted to authorized and authenticated users. If unauthorized users have access to one or more of SQL Server's private keys, an attacker could gain access to the key(s) and use them to impersonate the database on the network or otherwise perform unauthorized actions.
Checks: C-15185r863335_chk

Review system configuration to determine whether FIPS compliant support has been enabled. Start &gt;&gt; Control Panel &gt;&gt; Administrative Tools &gt;&gt; Local Security Policy &gt;&gt; Local Policies &gt;&gt; Security Options Ensure that "System cryptography: Use FIPS-compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing" is enabled. If "System cryptography: Use FIPS-compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing" is not enabled, this is a finding. For more information, see https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/3141890.

Fix: F-15183r863336_fix

Enable use of FIPS-compliant algorithms. Start >> Control Panel >> Administrative Tools >> Local Security Policy >> Local Policies >> Security Options Double-click "System cryptography: Use FIPS-compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing." Click Enabled >> Apply.

c
SQL Server must use NIST FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 validated cryptographic modules for cryptographic operations.
IA-7 - High - CCI-000803 - V-213969 - SV-213969r879616_rule
RMF Control
IA-7
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000803
Version
SQL6-D0-008700
Vuln IDs
  • V-213969
  • V-79199
Rule IDs
  • SV-213969r879616_rule
  • SV-93905
Use of weak or not validated cryptographic algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption and digital signatures to protect data. Weak algorithms can be easily broken, and not validated cryptographic modules may not implement algorithms correctly. Unapproved cryptographic modules or algorithms should not be relied on for authentication, confidentiality, or integrity. Weak cryptography could allow an attacker to gain access to, and modify data stored in, the database as well as the administration settings of SQL Server. Applications, including DBMSs, utilizing cryptography are required to use approved NIST FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 validated cryptographic modules that meet the requirements of applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. NSA Type- (where =1, 2, 3, 4) products are NSA-certified, hardware-based encryption modules. The standard for validating cryptographic modules will transition to the NIST FIPS 140-3 publication. FIPS 140-2 modules can remain active for up to five years after validation or until September 21, 2026, when the FIPS 140-2 validations will be moved to the historical list. Even on the historical list, CMVP supports the purchase and use of these modules for existing systems. While Federal Agencies decide when they move to FIPS 140-3 only modules, purchasers are reminded that for several years there may be a limited selection of FIPS 140-3 modules from which to choose. CMVP recommends purchasers consider all modules that appear on the Validated Modules Search Page: https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/cryptographic-module-validation-program/validated-modules More information on the FIPS 140-3 transition can be found here: https://csrc.nist.gov/Projects/fips-140-3-transition-effort/
Checks: C-15186r822463_chk

In Windows, open Administrative Tools &gt;&gt; Local Security Policy. Expand Local Policies &gt;&gt; Security Options. In the right-side pane, find "System cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing". If, in the "Security Setting" column, the value is "Disabled," this is a finding. https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/955720

Fix: F-15184r822464_fix

In Windows, open Administrative Tools >> Local Security Policy. Expand Local Policies >> Security Options. In the right-side pane, double-click on "System cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing". In the dialog box that appears, if the radio buttons are active, click "Enabled", and then click "Apply". If the radio buttons are grayed out, use Group Policy Management (on the appropriate server for this domain) to enforce the Enabled policy, and deploy it to the server(s) running SQL Server.

b
SQL Server must uniquely identify and authenticate non-organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of non-organizational users).
IA-8 - Medium - CCI-000804 - V-213970 - SV-213970r879617_rule
RMF Control
IA-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000804
Version
SQL6-D0-008800
Vuln IDs
  • V-213970
  • V-79201
Rule IDs
  • SV-213970r879617_rule
  • SV-93907
Non-organizational users include all information system users other than organizational users, which include organizational employees or individuals the organization deems to have equivalent status of employees (e.g., contractors, guest researchers, individuals from allied nations). Non-organizational users must be uniquely identified and authenticated for all accesses other than those accesses explicitly identified and documented by the organization when related to the use of anonymous access, such as accessing a web server. Accordingly, a risk assessment is used in determining the authentication needs of the organization. Scalability, practicality, and security are simultaneously considered in balancing the need to ensure ease of use for access to federal information and information systems with the need to protect and adequately mitigate risk to organizational operations, organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation.
Checks: C-15187r313693_chk

Review documentation, SQL Server settings, and authentication system settings to determine if non-organizational users are individually identified and authenticated when logging onto the system. Execute the following query to obtain a list of logins on the SQL Server and ensure all accounts are uniquely identifiable: SELECT name, type_desc FROM sys.server_principals WHERE type in ('S','U') If accounts are determined to be shared, determine if individuals are first individually authenticated. Where an application connects to SQL Server using a standard, shared account, ensure that it also captures the individual user identification and passes it to SQL Server. If the documentation indicates that this is a public-facing, read-only (from the point of view of public users) database that does not require individual authentication, this is not a finding. If non-organizational users are not uniquely identified and authenticated, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15185r313694_fix

Ensure all logins are uniquely identifiable and authenticate all non-organizational users who log onto the system. This likely would be done via a combination of the operating system with unique accounts and the SQL Server by ensuring mapping to individual accounts. Verify server documentation to ensure accounts are documented and unique.

b
SQL Server must maintain the authenticity of communications sessions by guarding against man-in-the-middle attacks that guess at Session ID values.
SC-23 - Medium - CCI-001188 - V-213971 - SV-213971r879639_rule
RMF Control
SC-23
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001188
Version
SQL6-D0-009200
Vuln IDs
  • V-213971
  • V-79203
Rule IDs
  • SV-213971r879639_rule
  • SV-93909
One class of man-in-the-middle, or session hijacking, attack involves the adversary guessing at valid session identifiers based on patterns in identifiers already known. The preferred technique for thwarting guesses at Session IDs is the generation of unique session identifiers using a FIPS 140-2 or FIPS 140-3 approved random number generator. However, it is recognized that available DBMS products do not all implement the preferred technique yet may have other protections against session hijacking. Therefore, other techniques are acceptable, provided they are demonstrated to be effective.
Checks: C-15188r313696_chk

Verify that Windows is configured to require the use of FIPS compliant algorithms. Click Start &gt;&gt; Type "Local Security Policy" &gt;&gt; Press Enter &gt;&gt; Expand "Local Policies" &gt;&gt; Select "Security Options" &gt;&gt; Locate "System Cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing." If the Security Setting for this option is "Disabled", this is a finding.

Fix: F-15186r313697_fix

Configure Windows to require the use of FIPS compliant algorithms. Click Start >> Type "Local Security Policy" >> Press Enter >> Expand "Local Policies" >> Select "Security Options" >> Locate "System Cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing." >> Change the Setting option to "Enabled" >> Restart Windows

c
SQL Server must protect the confidentiality and integrity of all information at rest.
SC-28 - High - CCI-001199 - V-213972 - SV-213972r879642_rule
RMF Control
SC-28
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001199
Version
SQL6-D0-009500
Vuln IDs
  • V-213972
  • V-79205
Rule IDs
  • SV-213972r879642_rule
  • SV-93911
This control is intended to address the confidentiality and integrity of information at rest in non-mobile devices and covers user information and system information. Information at rest refers to the state of information when it is located on a secondary storage device (e.g., disk drive, tape drive) within an organizational information system. Applications and application users generate information throughout the course of their application use. User data generated, as well as application-specific configuration data, needs to be protected. Organizations may choose to employ different mechanisms to achieve confidentiality and integrity protections, as appropriate. If the confidentiality and integrity of SQL Server data is not protected, the data will be open to compromise and unauthorized modification.
Checks: C-15189r313699_chk

Review system documentation to determine whether the system handles classified information. If the system does not handle classified information, the severity of this check should be downgraded to Category II. If the application owner and Authorizing Official have determined that encryption of data at rest is required, ensure the data on secondary devices is encrypted. If full-disk encryption is being used, this is not a finding. If data encryption is required, ensure the data is encrypted before being put on the secondary device by executing: SELECT d.name AS [Database Name], CASE e.encryption_state WHEN 0 THEN 'No database encryption key present, no encryption' WHEN 1 THEN 'Unencrypted' WHEN 2 THEN 'Encryption in progress' WHEN 3 THEN 'Encrypted' WHEN 4 THEN 'Key change in progress' WHEN 5 THEN 'Decryption in progress' WHEN 6 THEN 'Protection change in progress' END AS [Encryption State] FROM sys.dm_database_encryption_keys e RIGHT JOIN sys.databases d ON DB_NAME(e.database_id) = d.name WHERE d.name NOT IN ('master','model','msdb') ORDER BY [Database Name] ; For each user database where encryption is required, verify that encryption is in effect. If not, this is a finding. Verify that there are physical security measures, operating system access control lists and organizational controls appropriate to the sensitivity level of the data in the database(s). If not, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15187r313700_fix

Apply appropriate controls to protect the confidentiality and integrity of data on a secondary device. Where encryption is required, this can be done by full-disk encryption or by database encryption. To enable database encryption, create a master key, create a database encryption key, and protect it by using mechanisms tied to the master key, and then set encryption on. Implement physical security measures, operating system access control lists and organizational controls appropriate to the sensitivity level of the data in the database(s).

b
The Service Master Key must be backed up, stored offline and off-site.
SC-28 - Medium - CCI-001199 - V-213973 - SV-213973r879642_rule
RMF Control
SC-28
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001199
Version
SQL6-D0-009600
Vuln IDs
  • V-213973
  • V-79207
Rule IDs
  • SV-213973r879642_rule
  • SV-93913
Backup and recovery of the Service Master Key may be critical to the complete recovery of the database. Creating this backup should be one of the first administrative actions performed on the server. Not having this key can lead to loss of data during recovery.
Checks: C-15190r313702_chk

Review procedures for, and evidence of backup of, the Server Service Master Key in the System Security Plan. If the procedures or evidence does not exist, this is a finding. If the procedures do not indicate offline and off-site storage of the Service Master Key, this is a finding. If procedures do not indicate access restrictions to the Service Master Key backup, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15188r313703_fix

Document and implement procedures to safely back up and store the Service Master Key. Include in the procedures methods to establish evidence of backup and storage, and careful, restricted access and restoration of the Service Master Key. Also, include provisions to store the key off-site. BACKUP SERVICE MASTER KEY TO FILE = 'path_to_file' ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'password'; As this requires a password, take care to ensure it is not exposed to unauthorized persons or stored as plain text.

b
The Master Key must be backed up, stored offline and off-site.
SC-28 - Medium - CCI-001199 - V-213974 - SV-213974r879642_rule
RMF Control
SC-28
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001199
Version
SQL6-D0-009700
Vuln IDs
  • V-213974
  • V-79209
Rule IDs
  • SV-213974r879642_rule
  • SV-93915
Backup and recovery of the Master Key may be critical to the complete recovery of the database. Not having this key can lead to loss of data during recovery.
Checks: C-15191r313705_chk

If the application owner and Authorizing Official have determined that encryption of data at rest is not required, this is not a finding. Review procedures for, and evidence of backup of, the Master Key in the System Security Plan. If the procedures or evidence does not exist, this is a finding. If the procedures do not indicate offline and off-site storage of the Master Key, this is a finding. If procedures do not indicate access restrictions to the Master Key backup, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15189r313706_fix

Document and implement procedures to safely back up and store the Master Key. Include in the procedures methods to establish evidence of backup and storage, and careful, restricted access and restoration of the Master Key. Also, include provisions to store the key off-site. BACKUP MASTER KEY TO FILE = 'path_to_file' ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'password'; As this requires a password, take care to ensure it is not exposed to unauthorized persons or stored as plain text.

b
SQL Server must prevent unauthorized and unintended information transfer via shared system resources.
SC-4 - Medium - CCI-001090 - V-213975 - SV-213975r879649_rule
RMF Control
SC-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001090
Version
SQL6-D0-009800
Vuln IDs
  • V-213975
  • V-79211
Rule IDs
  • SV-213975r879649_rule
  • SV-93917
The purpose of this control is to prevent information, including encrypted representations of information, produced by the actions of a prior user/role (or the actions of a process acting on behalf of a prior user/role) from being available to any current user/role (or current process) that obtains access to a shared system resource (e.g., registers, main memory, secondary storage) after the resource has been released back to the information system. Control of information in shared resources is also referred to as object reuse.
Checks: C-15192r313708_chk

Review system documentation to determine if Common Criteria Compliance is not required due to potential impact on system performance. SQL Server Residual Information Protection (RIP) requires a memory allocation to be overwritten with a known pattern of bits before memory is reallocated to a new resource. Meeting the RIP standard can contribute to improved security; however, overwriting the memory allocation can slow performance. After the common criteria compliance enabled option is enabled, the overwriting occurs. Review the Instance configuration: SELECT value_in_use FROM sys.configurations WHERE name = 'common criteria compliance enabled' If "value_in_use" is set to "1" this is not a finding. If "value_in_use" is set to "0" this is a finding. NOTE: Enabling this feature may impact performance on highly active SQL Server instances. If an exception justifying setting SQL Server Residual Information Protection (RIP) to disabled (value_in_use set to "0") has been documented and approved, then this may be downgraded to a CAT III finding.

Fix: F-15190r313709_fix

Configure SQL Server to effectively protect the private resources of one process or user from unauthorized access by another user or process. sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1; GO RECONFIGURE; GO sp_configure 'common criteria compliance enabled', 1; GO RECONFIGURE GO

b
SQL Server must prevent unauthorized and unintended information transfer via Instant File Initialization (IFI).
SC-4 - Medium - CCI-001090 - V-213976 - SV-213976r917655_rule
RMF Control
SC-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001090
Version
SQL6-D0-009900
Vuln IDs
  • V-213976
  • V-79213
Rule IDs
  • SV-213976r917655_rule
  • SV-93919
The purpose of this control is to prevent information, including encrypted representations of information, produced by the actions of a prior user/role (or the actions of a process acting on behalf of a prior user/role) from being available to any current user/role (or current process) that obtains access to a shared system resource (e.g., registers, main memory, secondary storage) after the resource has been released back to the information system. Control of information in shared resources is also referred to as object reuse.
Checks: C-15193r313711_chk

Review the system documentation to determine if Instant File Initialization (IFI) is required. If IFI is documented as required, this is not a finding. Review system configuration to determine whether IFI support has been enabled (by default in SQL Server 2016). Start &gt;&gt; Control Panel &gt;&gt; Administrative Tools &gt;&gt; Local Security Policy &gt;&gt; Local Policies &gt;&gt; User Rights Assignment If the SQL Service SID (Default instance: NT SERVICE\MSSQLSERVER. Named instance: NT SERVICE\MSSQL$InstanceName) has been granted "Perform volume maintenance tasks" Local Rights Assignment and if it is not documented in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15191r313712_fix

If IFI is not documented as being required, disable instant file initialization for the instance of SQL Server by removing the SQL Service SID and/or service account from the "Perform volume maintenance tasks" Local Rights Assignment.

b
Access to database files must be limited to relevant processes and to authorized, administrative users.
SC-4 - Medium - CCI-001090 - V-213977 - SV-213977r879649_rule
RMF Control
SC-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001090
Version
SQL6-D0-010000
Vuln IDs
  • V-213977
  • V-79215
Rule IDs
  • SV-213977r879649_rule
  • SV-93921
SQL Server must prevent unauthorized and unintended information transfer via shared system resources. Permitting only SQL Server processes and authorized, administrative users to have access to the files where the database resides helps ensure that those files are not shared inappropriately and are not open to backdoor access and manipulation.
Checks: C-15194r313714_chk

Review the permissions granted to users by the operating system/file system on the database files, database log files, and database backup files. To obtain the location of SQL Server data, transaction log, and backup files, open and execute the supplemental file "Get SQL Data and Backup Directories.sql". For each of the directories returned by the above script, verify whether the correct permissions have been applied. 1) Launch Windows Explorer. 2) Navigate to the folder. 3) Right-click the folder and click "Properties". 4) Navigate to the "Security" tab. 5) Review the listing of principals and permissions. Account Type Directory Type Permission ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Database Administrators ALL Full Control SQL Server Service SID Data; Log; Backup; Full Control SQL Server Agent Service SID Backup Full Control SYSTEM ALL Full Control CREATOR OWNER ALL Full Control For information on how to determine a "Service SID", go to: https://aka.ms/sql-service-sids Additional permission requirements, including full directory permissions and operating system rights for SQL Server, are documented at: https://aka.ms/sqlservicepermissions If any additional permissions are granted but not documented as authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15192r313715_fix

Remove any unauthorized permission grants from SQL Server data, log, and backup directories. 1) On the "Security" tab, highlight the user entry. 2) Click "Remove".

b
SQL Server must reveal detailed error messages only to the ISSO, ISSM, SA, and DBA.
SI-11 - Medium - CCI-001314 - V-213978 - SV-213978r879656_rule
RMF Control
SI-11
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001314
Version
SQL6-D0-010100
Vuln IDs
  • V-213978
  • V-79217
Rule IDs
  • SV-213978r879656_rule
  • SV-93923
If SQL Server provides too much information in error logs and administrative messages to the screen, this could lead to compromise. The structure and content of error messages need to be carefully considered by the organization and development team. The extent to which the information system is able to identify and handle error conditions is guided by organizational policy and operational requirements. Some default DBMS error messages can contain information that could aid an attacker in, among others things, identifying the database type, host address, or state of the database. Custom errors may contain sensitive customer information. It is important that detailed error messages be visible only to those who are authorized to view them; that general users receive only generalized acknowledgment that errors have occurred; and that these generalized messages appear only when relevant to the user's task. For example, a message along the lines of, "An error has occurred. Unable to save your changes. If this problem persists, please contact your help desk." would be relevant. A message such as "Warning: your transaction generated a large number of page splits" would likely not be relevant. "ABGQ is not a valid widget code." would be appropriate; but "The INSERT statement conflicted with the FOREIGN KEY constraint "WidgetTransactionFK". The conflict occurred in database "DB7", table "dbo.WidgetMaster", column 'WidgetCode'" would not, as it reveals too much about the database structure.
Checks: C-15195r313717_chk

Error messages within applications, custom database code (stored procedures, triggers) must be enforced by guidelines and code reviews practices. SQL Server generates certain system events and user-defined events to the SQL Server error log. The SQL Server error log can be viewed using SQL Server Management Studio GUI. All users granted the security admin or sysadmin level of permission are able to view the logs. Review the users returned in the following script: USE master GO SELECT Name FROM syslogins WHERE (sysadmin = 1 or securityadmin = 1) and hasaccess = 1; If any non-authorized users have access to the SQL Server Error Log located at Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL.n\MSSQL\LOG, this is a finding. In addition, the SQL Server Error Log is also located at Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL.n\MSSQL\LOG\. Review the permissions on this folder to ensure that only authorized users are listed. If any non-authorized users have access to the SQL Server Error Log in SQL Server Management Studio, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15193r313718_fix

Configure audit logging, tracing and/or custom code in the database or application to record detailed error messages generated by SQL Server, for review by authorized personnel. If any non-authorized users have access to the SQL Server Error Log in SQL Server Management Studio. Use the REVOKE or DENY commands to remove them from the security admin or sysadmin roles. If any non-authorized users have access to the SQL Server Error Log located at Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL.n\MSSQL\LOG, remove their permissions. Consider enabling trace flag 3625 to mask certain system-level error information returned to non-administrative users. Launch SQL Server Configuration Manager >> Click SQL Services >> Open the instance properties >> Click the Service Parameters tab >> Enter "-T3625" >> Click Add >> Click OK >> Restart SQL instance.

b
SQL Server must prevent non-privileged users from executing privileged functions, to include disabling, circumventing, or altering implemented security safeguards/countermeasures.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-002235 - V-213979 - SV-213979r879717_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002235
Version
SQL6-D0-010400
Vuln IDs
  • V-213979
  • V-79219
Rule IDs
  • SV-213979r879717_rule
  • SV-93925
Preventing non-privileged users from executing privileged functions mitigates the risk that unauthorized individuals or processes may gain unnecessary access to information or privileges. System documentation should include a definition of the functionality considered privileged. Depending on circumstances, privileged functions can include, for example, establishing accounts, performing system integrity checks, or administering cryptographic key management activities. Non-privileged users are individuals that do not possess appropriate authorizations. Circumventing intrusion detection and prevention mechanisms or malicious code protection mechanisms are examples of privileged functions that require protection from non-privileged users. A privileged function in SQL Server/database context is any operation that modifies the structure of the database, its built-in logic, or its security settings. This would include all Data Definition Language (DDL) statements and all security-related statements. In an SQL environment, it encompasses, but is not necessarily limited to: CREATE ALTER DROP GRANT REVOKE DENY There may also be Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements that, subject to context, should be regarded as privileged. Possible examples include: TRUNCATE TABLE; DELETE, or DELETE affecting more than n rows, for some n, or DELETE without a WHERE clause; UPDATE or UPDATE affecting more than n rows, for some n, or UPDATE without a WHERE clause; Any SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE to an application-defined security table executed by other than a security principal. Depending on the capabilities of SQL Server and the design of the database and associated applications, the prevention of unauthorized use of privileged functions may be achieved by means of DBMS security features, database triggers, other mechanisms, or a combination of these.
Checks: C-15196r313720_chk

Review server-level securables and built-in role membership to ensure only authorized users have privileged access and the ability to create server-level objects and grant permissions to themselves or others. Review the system documentation to determine the required levels of protection for DBMS server securables, by type of login. Review the permissions in place on the server. If the actual permissions do not match the documented requirements, this is a finding. Get all permission assignments to logins and roles: SELECT DISTINCT CASE WHEN SP.class_desc IS NOT NULL THEN CASE WHEN SP.class_desc = 'SERVER' AND S.is_linked = 0 THEN 'SERVER' WHEN SP.class_desc = 'SERVER' AND S.is_linked = 1 THEN 'SERVER (linked)' ELSE SP.class_desc END WHEN E.name IS NOT NULL THEN 'ENDPOINT' WHEN S.name IS NOT NULL AND S.is_linked = 0 THEN 'SERVER' WHEN S.name IS NOT NULL AND S.is_linked = 1 THEN 'SERVER (linked)' WHEN P.name IS NOT NULL THEN 'SERVER_PRINCIPAL' ELSE '???' END AS [Securable Class], CASE WHEN E.name IS NOT NULL THEN E.name WHEN S.name IS NOT NULL THEN S.name WHEN P.name IS NOT NULL THEN P.name ELSE '???' END AS [Securable], P1.name AS [Grantee], P1.type_desc AS [Grantee Type], sp.permission_name AS [Permission], sp.state_desc AS [State], P2.name AS [Grantor], P2.type_desc AS [Grantor Type] FROM sys.server_permissions SP INNER JOIN sys.server_principals P1 ON P1.principal_id = SP.grantee_principal_id INNER JOIN sys.server_principals P2 ON P2.principal_id = SP.grantor_principal_id FULL OUTER JOIN sys.servers S ON SP.class_desc = 'SERVER' AND S.server_id = SP.major_id FULL OUTER JOIN sys.endpoints E ON SP.class_desc = 'ENDPOINT' AND E.endpoint_id = SP.major_id FULL OUTER JOIN sys.server_principals P ON SP.class_desc = 'SERVER_PRINCIPAL' AND P.principal_id = SP.major_id Get all server role memberships: SELECT R.name AS [Role], M.name AS [Member] FROM sys.server_role_members X INNER JOIN sys.server_principals R ON R.principal_id = X.role_principal_id INNER JOIN sys.server_principals M ON M.principal_id = X.member_principal_id The CONTROL SERVER permission is similar but not identical to the sysadmin fixed server role. Permissions do not imply role memberships and role memberships do not grant permissions. (e.g., CONTROL SERVER does not imply membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.) Ensure only the documented and approved logins have privileged functions in SQL Server. If the current configuration does not match the documented baseline, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15194r313721_fix

Restrict the granting of permissions to server-level securables to only those authorized. Most notably, members of sysadmin and securityadmin built-in instance-level roles, CONTROL SERVER permission, and use of the GRANT with GRANT permission.

b
Use of credentials and proxies must be restricted to necessary cases only.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-002233 - V-213980 - SV-213980r879719_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002233
Version
SQL6-D0-010500
Vuln IDs
  • V-213980
  • V-79221
Rule IDs
  • SV-213980r879719_rule
  • SV-93927
In certain situations, to provide required functionality, a DBMS needs to execute internal logic (stored procedures, functions, triggers, etc.) and/or external code modules with elevated privileges. However, if the privileges required for execution are at a higher level than the privileges assigned to organizational users invoking the functionality applications/programs, those users are indirectly provided with greater privileges than assigned by organizations. Privilege elevation must be utilized only where necessary and protected from misuse.
Checks: C-15197r313723_chk

Review the server documentation to obtain a listing of accounts used for executing external processes. Execute the following query to obtain a listing of accounts currently configured for use by external processes. SELECT C.name AS credential_name, C.credential_identity FROM sys.credentials C GO SELECT P.name AS proxy_name, C.name AS credential_name, C.credential_identity FROM sys.credentials C JOIN msdb.dbo.sysproxies P ON C.credential_id = P.credential_id WHERE P.enabled = 1 GO If any Credentials or SQL Agent Proxy accounts are returned that are not documented and authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15195r313724_fix

Remove any SQL Agent Proxy accounts and credentials that are not authorized. DROP CREDENTIAL <Credential Name> GO USE [msdb] EXEC sp_delete_proxy @proxy_name = '<Proxy Name>' GO

b
SQL Server must utilize centralized management of the content captured in audit records generated by all components of SQL Server.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-001844 - V-213981 - SV-213981r879729_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001844
Version
SQL6-D0-010700
Vuln IDs
  • V-213981
  • V-79223
Rule IDs
  • SV-213981r879729_rule
  • SV-93929
Without the ability to centrally manage the content captured in the audit records, identification, troubleshooting, and correlation of suspicious behavior would be difficult and could lead to a delayed or incomplete analysis of an ongoing attack. The content captured in audit records must be managed from a central location (necessitating automation). Centralized management of audit records and logs provides for efficiency in maintenance and management of records, as well as the backup and archiving of those records. SQL Server may write audit records to database tables, to files in the file system, to other kinds of local repository, or directly to a centralized log management system. Whatever the method used, it must be compatible with off-loading the records to the centralized system.
Checks: C-15198r313726_chk

Review the system documentation for a description of how audit records are off-loaded and how local audit log space is managed. If the SQL Server audit records are not written directly to or systematically transferred to a centralized log management system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15196r313727_fix

Configure and/or deploy software tools to ensure that SQL Server audit records are written directly to or systematically transferred to a centralized log management system.

b
SQL Server must provide centralized configuration of the content to be captured in audit records generated by all components of SQL Server.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-001844 - V-213982 - SV-213982r879729_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001844
Version
SQL6-D0-010800
Vuln IDs
  • V-213982
  • V-79225
Rule IDs
  • SV-213982r879729_rule
  • SV-93931
If the configuration of SQL Server's auditing is spread across multiple locations in the database management software, or across multiple commands, only loosely related, it is harder to use and takes longer to reconfigure in response to events. SQL Server must provide a unified tool for audit configuration.
Checks: C-15199r313729_chk

Review the system documentation for a description of how audit records are off-loaded and how local audit log space is managed. If the SQL Server audit records (to include traces used for audit purposes) are not written directly to or systematically transferred to a centralized log management system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15197r313730_fix

Configure and/or deploy software tools to ensure that SQL Server audit records (to include traces used for audit purposes) are written directly to or systematically transferred to a centralized log management system.

b
SQL Server must allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements.
AU-4 - Medium - CCI-001849 - V-213983 - SV-213983r879730_rule
RMF Control
AU-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001849
Version
SQL6-D0-010900
Vuln IDs
  • V-213983
  • V-79227
Rule IDs
  • SV-213983r879730_rule
  • SV-93933
In order to ensure sufficient storage capacity for the audit logs, SQL Server must be able to allocate audit record storage capacity. Although another requirement (SRG-APP-000515-DB-000318) mandates that audit data be off-loaded to a centralized log management system, it remains necessary to provide space on the database server to serve as a buffer against outages and capacity limits of the off-loading mechanism. The task of allocating audit record storage capacity is usually performed during initial installation of SQL Server and is closely associated with the DBA and system administrator roles. The DBA or system administrator will usually coordinate the allocation of physical drive space with the application owner/installer and the application will prompt the installer to provide the capacity information, the physical location of the disk, or both. In determining the capacity requirements, consider such factors as: total number of users; expected number of concurrent users during busy periods; number and type of events being monitored; types and amounts of data being captured; the frequency/speed with which audit records are off-loaded to the central log management system; and any limitations that exist on SQL Server's ability to reuse the space formerly occupied by off-loaded records.
Checks: C-15200r799962_chk

If the database is setup to write audit logs using APPLICATION or SECURITY event logs rather than writing to a file, this is N/A. Check the server documentation for the SQL Audit file size configurations. Locate the Audit file path and drive. SELECT max_file_size, max_rollover_files, log_file_path AS "Audit Path" FROM sys.server_file_audits Calculate the space needed as the maximum file size and number of files from the SQL Audit File properties. If the calculated product of the "max_file_size" times the "max_rollover_files" exceeds the size of the storage location or if "max_file_size" or "max_rollover_files" are set to "0" (UNLIMITED), this is a finding.

Fix: F-15198r799963_fix

Review the SQL Audit file location; ensure the destination has enough space available to accommodate the maximum total size of all files that could be written. Configure the maximum number of audit log files that are to be generated, staying within the number of logs the system was sized to support. Update the "max_files" parameter of the audits to ensure the correct number of files is defined. If writing to application event logs or security logs, space considerations are covered in the Windows Server STIGs. Be sure to reference these depending on the OS in use.

b
SQL Server must provide a warning to appropriate support staff when allocated audit record storage volume reaches 75% of maximum audit record storage capacity.
AU-5 - Medium - CCI-001855 - V-213984 - SV-213984r879732_rule
RMF Control
AU-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001855
Version
SQL6-D0-011000
Vuln IDs
  • V-213984
  • V-79229
Rule IDs
  • SV-213984r879732_rule
  • SV-93935
Organizations are required to use a central log management system, so, under normal conditions, the audit space allocated to SQL Server on its own server will not be an issue. However, space will still be required on the server for SQL Server audit records in transit, and, under abnormal conditions, this could fill up. Since a requirement exists to halt processing upon audit failure, a service outage would result. If support personnel are not notified immediately upon storage volume utilization reaching 75%, they are unable to plan for storage capacity expansion. The appropriate support staff include, at a minimum, the ISSO and the DBA/SA. Monitoring of free space can be accomplished using Microsoft System Center or a third-party monitoring tool.
Checks: C-15201r313735_chk

The operating system and SQL Server offer a number of methods for checking the drive or volume free space. Locate the destination drive where SQL Audits are stored and review system configuration. If no alert exist to notify support staff in the event the SQL Audit drive reaches 75%, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15199r313736_fix

Utilize operating system alerting mechanisms, SQL Agent, Operations Management tools, and/or third-party tools to configure the system to notify appropriate support staff immediately upon storage volume utilization reaching 75%.

b
SQL Server must provide an immediate real-time alert to appropriate support staff of all audit log failures.
AU-5 - Medium - CCI-001858 - V-213985 - SV-213985r879733_rule
RMF Control
AU-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001858
Version
SQL6-D0-011100
Vuln IDs
  • V-213985
  • V-79231
Rule IDs
  • SV-213985r879733_rule
  • SV-93937
It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without a real-time alert, security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability, and system operation may be adversely affected. The appropriate support staff include, at a minimum, the ISSO and the DBA/SA. A failure of database auditing will result in either the database continuing to function without auditing or in a complete halt to database operations. When audit processing fails, appropriate personnel must be alerted immediately to avoid further downtime or unaudited transactions Alerts provide organizations with urgent messages. Real-time alerts provide these messages immediately (i.e., the time from event detection to alert occurs in seconds or less). Alerts can be generated using tools like the SQL Server Agent Alerts and Database Mail.
Checks: C-15202r754630_chk

Review SQL Server settings, OS, or third-party logging software settings to determine whether a real-time alert will be sent to the appropriate personnel when auditing fails for any reason. If real-time alerts are not sent upon auditing failure, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15200r495408_fix

Configure the system to provide immediate real-time alerts to appropriate support staff when an audit log failure occurs.

b
SQL Server must record time stamps in audit records and application data that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, formerly GMT).
AU-8 - Medium - CCI-001890 - V-213986 - SV-213986r879747_rule
RMF Control
AU-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001890
Version
SQL6-D0-011200
Vuln IDs
  • V-213986
  • V-79233
Rule IDs
  • SV-213986r879747_rule
  • SV-93939
If time stamps are not consistently applied and there is no common time reference, it is difficult to perform forensic analysis. Time stamps generated by SQL Server must include date and time. Time is commonly expressed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), a modern continuation of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), or local time with an offset from UTC.
Checks: C-15203r313741_chk

SQL Server audits store the timestamp in UTC time. Determine if the computer is joined to a domain. SELECT DEFAULT_DOMAIN()[DomainName] If this is not NULL, this is not a finding. If the computer is not joined to a domain, determine what the time source is. (Run the following command in an elevated PowerShell session.) w32tm /query /source If the results of the command return "Local CMOS Clock" and is not documented with justification and AO authorization, this is a finding. If the OS does not synchronize with a time server, review the procedure for maintaining accurate time on the system. If such a procedure does not exist, this is a finding. If the procedure exists, review evidence that the correct time is actually maintained. If the evidence indicates otherwise, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15201r313742_fix

Where possible, configure the operating system to automatic synchronize with an official time server, using NTP. Where there is reason not to implement automatic synchronization with an official time server, using NTP, document the reason, and the procedure for maintaining the correct time, and obtain AO approval. Enforce the procedure.

b
SQL Server must enforce access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of the instance.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001813 - V-213987 - SV-213987r879753_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001813
Version
SQL6-D0-011400
Vuln IDs
  • V-213987
  • V-79235
Rule IDs
  • SV-213987r879753_rule
  • SV-93941
Failure to provide logical access restrictions associated with changes to configuration may have significant effects on the overall security of the system. When dealing with access restrictions pertaining to change control, it should be noted that any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed to obtain access to system components for the purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications.
Checks: C-15204r313744_chk

Obtain a list of logins who have privileged permissions and role memberships in SQL. Execute the following query to obtain a list of logins and roles and their respective permissions assignment: SELECT p.name AS Principal, p.type_desc AS Type, sp.permission_name AS Permission, sp.state_desc AS State FROM sys.server_principals p INNER JOIN sys.server_permissions sp ON p.principal_id = sp.grantee_principal_id WHERE sp.permission_name = 'CONTROL SERVER' OR sp.state = 'W' Execute the following query to obtain a list of logins and their role memberships. SELECT m.name AS Member, m.type_desc AS Type, r.name AS Role FROM sys.server_principals m INNER JOIN sys.server_role_members rm ON m.principal_id = rm.member_principal_id INNER JOIN sys.server_principals r ON rm.role_principal_id = r.principal_id WHERE r.name IN ('sysadmin','securityadmin','serveradmin') Check the server documentation to verify the logins and roles returned are authorized. If the logins and/or roles are not documented and authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15202r313745_fix

Revoke unauthorized permissions from principals. https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms186308.aspx Remove unauthorized logins from roles. ALTER SERVER ROLE DROP MEMBER login; https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee677634.aspx

b
Windows must enforce access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of the SQL Server instance.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001813 - V-213988 - SV-213988r879753_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001813
Version
SQL6-D0-011500
Vuln IDs
  • V-213988
  • V-79237
Rule IDs
  • SV-213988r879753_rule
  • SV-93943
Failure to provide logical access restrictions associated with changes to configuration may have significant effects on the overall security of the system. When dealing with access restrictions pertaining to change control, it should be noted that any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed to obtain access to system components for the purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications.
Checks: C-15205r313747_chk

Obtain a list of users who have privileged access to the server via the local Administrators group. Launch lusrmgr.msc Select Groups Double-click Administrators Alternatively, execute the following command in PowerShell: net localgroup administrators Check the server documentation to verify the users returned are authorized. If the users are not documented and authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15203r313748_fix

Remove users from the local Administrators group who are not authorized.

b
SQL Server must produce audit records of its enforcement of access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of SQL Server or database(s).
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001814 - V-213989 - SV-213989r879754_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001814
Version
SQL6-D0-011800
Vuln IDs
  • V-213989
  • V-79239
Rule IDs
  • SV-213989r879754_rule
  • SV-93945
Without auditing the enforcement of access restrictions against changes to configuration, it would be difficult to identify attempted attacks and an audit trail would not be available for forensic investigation for after-the-fact actions. Enforcement actions are the methods or mechanisms used to prevent unauthorized changes to configuration settings. Enforcement action methods may be as simple as denying access to a file based on the application of file permissions (access restriction). Audit items may consist of lists of actions blocked by access restrictions or changes identified after the fact.
Checks: C-15206r754635_chk

Determine if an audit is configured to capture denied actions and started by executing the following query: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status If no records are returned, this is a finding. Execute the following query to verify the following events are included in the server audit specification: APPLICATION_ROLE_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP, AUDIT_CHANGE_GROUP, BACKUP_RESTORE_GROUP, DATABASE_CHANGE_GROUP, DATABASE_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP, DATABASE_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP, DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP, DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP, DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP, DATABASE_OPERATION_GROUP, DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP, DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP, DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP, DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP, DBCC_GROUP, LOGIN_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP, SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP, SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP, SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP, SERVER_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP, SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP, SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP, SERVER_OPERATION_GROUP, SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP, SERVER_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP, SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP, SERVER_STATE_CHANGE_GROUP, TRACE_CHANGE_GROUP SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name IN ( 'APPLICATION_ROLE_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP', 'AUDIT_CHANGE_GROUP', 'BACKUP_RESTORE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OPERATION_GROUP', 'DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP', 'DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DBCC_GROUP', 'LOGIN_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP', 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_OPERATION_GROUP', 'SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP', 'SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_STATE_CHANGE_GROUP', 'TRACE_CHANGE_GROUP' ) Order by d.audit_action_name If the identified groups are not returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15204r313751_fix

Add the required events to the server audit specification to audit denied actions. USE [master]; GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = OFF); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (APPLICATION_ROLE_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (AUDIT_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (BACKUP_RESTORE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OPERATION_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DBCC_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (LOGIN_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_OPERATION_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_STATE_CHANGE_GROUP ); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (TRACE_CHANGE_GROUP ); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = ON); GO

b
SQL Server must disable network functions, ports, protocols, and services deemed by the organization to be nonsecure, in accord with the Ports, Protocols, and Services Management (PPSM) guidance.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-001762 - V-213990 - SV-213990r879756_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001762
Version
SQL6-D0-011900
Vuln IDs
  • V-213990
  • V-79241
Rule IDs
  • SV-213990r879756_rule
  • SV-93947
Use of nonsecure network functions, ports, protocols, and services exposes the system to avoidable threats.
Checks: C-15207r313753_chk

SQL Server must only use approved network communication libraries, ports, and protocols. Obtain a list of all approved network libraries, communication ports, and protocols from the server documentation. Verify that the protocols are enabled for the instance. If any ports or protocols are used that are not specifically approved in the server documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15205r313754_fix

Assign the approved TCP/IP port number to the SQL Server Database Engine. 1. In SQL Server Configuration Manager, in the console pane, expand SQL Server Network Configuration, expand Protocols for <instance name>, and then double-click "TCP/IP". 2. In the "TCP/IP Properties" dialog box, on the "IP Addresses" tab, several IP addresses appear in the format IP1, IP2, up to IPAll. One of these is for the IP address of the loopback adapter, 127.0.0.1. Additional IP addresses appear for each IP Address on the computer. (You will probably see both IP version 4 and IP version 6 addresses.) Right-click each address, and then click "Properties" to identify the IP address that you want to configure. 3. If the "TCP Dynamic Ports" dialog box contains "0", indicating the Database Engine is listening on dynamic ports, delete the "0". 4. In the "IPn Properties area" box, in the "TCP Port" box, type the port number you want this IP address to listen on, and then click "OK". 5. In the console pane, click "SQL Server Services". 6. In the details pane, right-click "SQL Server (<instance name>)" and then click "Restart", to stop and restart SQL Server. To disable a server network protocol for an instance: 1. In SQL Server Configuration Manager, in the console pane, expand SQL Server Network Configuration. 2. In the console pane, click "Protocols" for <instance name>. 3. In the details pane, right-click the protocol you want to change, and then click "Enable" or "Disable". 4. In the console pane, click "SQL Server Services". 5. In the details pane, right-click "SQL Server (<instance name>)", and then click "Restart", to stop and restart the SQL Server service.

b
SQL Server must maintain a separate execution domain for each executing process.
SC-39 - Medium - CCI-002530 - V-213991 - SV-213991r879802_rule
RMF Control
SC-39
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002530
Version
SQL6-D0-012300
Vuln IDs
  • V-213991
  • V-79243
Rule IDs
  • SV-213991r879802_rule
  • SV-93949
Database management systems can maintain separate execution domains for each executing process by assigning each process a separate address space. Each process has a distinct address space so that communication between processes is controlled through the security functions, and one process cannot modify the executing code of another process. Maintaining separate execution domains for executing processes can be achieved, for example, by implementing separate address spaces.
Checks: C-15208r313756_chk

Review the server documentation to determine whether use of CLR assemblies is required. Run the following query to determine whether CLR is enabled for the instance: SELECT name, value, value_in_use FROM sys.configurations WHERE name = 'clr enabled' If "value_in_use" is a "1" and CLR is not required, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15206r313757_fix

Disable CLR support in SQL Server by executing the following query: EXEC sp_configure 'clr enabled', 0 GO RECONFIGURE GO

b
SQL Server services must be configured to run under unique dedicated user accounts.
SC-39 - Medium - CCI-002530 - V-213992 - SV-213992r879802_rule
RMF Control
SC-39
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002530
Version
SQL6-D0-012400
Vuln IDs
  • V-213992
  • V-79245
Rule IDs
  • SV-213992r879802_rule
  • SV-93951
Database management systems can maintain separate execution domains for each executing process by assigning each process a separate address space. Each process has a distinct address space so that communication between processes is controlled through the security functions, and one process cannot modify the executing code of another process. Maintaining separate execution domains for executing processes can be achieved, for example, by implementing separate address spaces.
Checks: C-15209r313759_chk

Review the server documentation to obtain a listing of required service accounts. Review the accounts configured for all SQL Server services installed on the server. Click Start &gt;&gt; Type "SQL Server Configuration Manager" &gt;&gt; Launch the program &gt;&gt; Click SQL Server Services tree node. Review the "Log On As" column for each service. If any services are configured with the same service account or are configured with an account that is not documented and authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15207r313760_fix

Configure SQL Server services to have a documented, dedicated account. For non-domain servers, consider using virtual service accounts (VSA). See https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms143504.aspx#VA_Desc for more information. For standalone, domain-joined servers, consider using managed service accounts. See https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms143504.aspx#MSA for more information. For clustered instances, consider using group managed service accounts. See https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms143504.aspx#GMSA or https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/markweberblog/2016/05/25/group-managed-service-accounts-gmsa-and-sql-server-2016/ for more information.

b
When updates are applied to SQL Server software, any software components that have been replaced or made unnecessary must be removed.
SI-2 - Medium - CCI-002617 - V-213993 - SV-213993r879825_rule
RMF Control
SI-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002617
Version
SQL6-D0-012700
Vuln IDs
  • V-213993
  • V-79247
Rule IDs
  • SV-213993r879825_rule
  • SV-93953
Previous versions of DBMS components that are not removed from the information system after updates have been installed may be exploited by adversaries. Some DBMSs' installation tools may remove older versions of software automatically from the information system. In other cases, manual review and removal will be required. In planning installations and upgrades, organizations must include steps (automated, manual, or both) to identify and remove the outdated modules. A transition period may be necessary when both the old and the new software are required. This should be taken into account in the planning.
Checks: C-15210r313762_chk

From the server documentation, obtain a listing of required components. Generate a listing of components installed on the server. Click Start &gt;&gt; Type "SQL Server 2016 Installation Center" &gt;&gt; Launch the program &gt;&gt; Click Tools &gt;&gt; Click "Installed SQL Server features discovery report" Compare the feature listing against the required components listing. If any features are installed, but are not required, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15208r313763_fix

Remove all features that are not required.

b
Security-relevant software updates to SQL Server must be installed within the time period directed by an authoritative source (e.g. IAVM, CTOs, DTMs, and STIGs).
SI-2 - Medium - CCI-002605 - V-213994 - SV-213994r917657_rule
RMF Control
SI-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002605
Version
SQL6-D0-012800
Vuln IDs
  • V-213994
  • V-79249
Rule IDs
  • SV-213994r917657_rule
  • SV-93955
Security flaws with software applications, including database management systems, are discovered daily. Vendors are constantly updating and patching their products to address newly discovered security vulnerabilities. Organizations (including any contractor to the organization) are required to promptly install security-relevant software updates (e.g., patches, service packs, and hot fixes). Flaws discovered during security assessments, continuous monitoring, incident response activities, or information system error handling must also be addressed expeditiously. Organization-defined time periods for updating security-relevant software may vary based on a variety of factors including, for example, the security category of the information system or the criticality of the update (i.e., severity of the vulnerability related to the discovered flaw). This requirement will apply to software patch management solutions that are used to install patches across the enclave and also to applications themselves that are not part of that patch management solution. For example, many browsers today provide the capability to install their own patch software. Patch criticality, as well as system criticality, will vary. Therefore, the tactical situations regarding the patch management process will also vary. This means that the time period utilized must be a configurable parameter. Time frames for application of security-relevant software updates may be dependent upon the Information Assurance Vulnerability Management (IAVM) process. SQL Server will be configured to check for and install security-relevant software updates within an identified time period from the availability of the update. The specific time period will be defined by an authoritative source (e.g. IAVM, CTOs, DTMs, and STIGs).
Checks: C-15211r917656_chk

Obtain evidence that software patches are consistently applied to SQL Server within the time frame defined for each patch. To be considered supported, Microsoft must report that the version is supported by security patches to known vulnerability. Review the Support dates at: https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/troubleshoot/sql/releases/download-and-install-latest-updates Check the SQL Server version by running the following script: Print @@version If the SQL Server version is not shown as supported, this is a finding. If such evidence cannot be obtained, or the evidence that is obtained indicates a pattern of noncompliance, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15209r313766_fix

Upgrade SQL Server to the Microsoft-supported version. Institute and adhere to policies and procedures to ensure that patches are consistently applied to SQL Server within the time allowed.

b
SQL Server must be able to generate audit records when successful and unsuccessful attempts to access security objects occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-213995 - SV-213995r879863_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-012900
Vuln IDs
  • V-213995
  • V-79251
Rule IDs
  • SV-213995r879863_rule
  • SV-93957
Changes to the security configuration must be tracked. This requirement applies to situations where security data is retrieved or modified via data manipulation operations, as opposed to via specialized security functionality. In an SQL environment, types of access include, but are not necessarily limited to: SELECT INSERT UPDATE DELETE EXECUTE To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. Satisfies: SRG-APP-000492-DB-000332, SRG-APP-000492-DB-000333
Checks: C-15212r810826_chk

Review the system documentation to determine if SQL Server is required to audit the retrieval of when security objects are accessed. If this is not required, this is not a finding. If the documentation does not exist, this is a finding. Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query. SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status If no records are returned, this is a finding. Execute the following query to verify the SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP is included in the server audit specification. SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name = 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP' If the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP" is not returned in an active audit, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15210r754694_fix

Deploy an audit to audit the retrieval of privilege/permission/role membership information when successful and unsuccessful attempts to access security objects occur. See the supplemental file "SQL 2016 Audit.sql".

b
SQL Server must generate audit records when successful and unsuccessful attempts to access categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-213998 - SV-213998r902989_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-013200
Vuln IDs
  • V-213998
  • V-79257
Rule IDs
  • SV-213998r902989_rule
  • SV-93963
Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, and FIPS Publication 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. Satisfies: SRG-APP-000494-DB-000344
Checks: C-15215r902987_chk

Review the system documentation to determine if SQL Server is required to audit when data classifications are both successfully and unsuccessfully retrieved. If this is not required, this is not a finding. If the documentation does not exist, this is a finding. Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query. SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status If no records are returned, this is a finding. If the auditing the retrieval of privilege/permission/role membership information is required, execute the following query to verify the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP" is included in the server audit specification. SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name = 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP' If the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP" is not returned in an active audit, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15213r902988_fix

Deploy an audit to audit when data classifications are both successfully and unsuccessfully retrieved. See the supplemental file "SQL 2016 Audit.sql".

b
SQL Server must generate audit records when successful and unsuccessful attempts to add privileges/permissions occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214000 - SV-214000r902991_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-013400
Vuln IDs
  • V-214000
  • V-79261
Rule IDs
  • SV-214000r902991_rule
  • SV-93967
Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functionality that they should not have; restricted privileges wrongly deny access to authorized users. In an SQL environment, adding permissions is typically done via the GRANT command, or, in the negative, the DENY command. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. Satisfies: SRG-APP-000495-DB-000326
Checks: C-15217r902990_chk

Check that SQL Server Audit is being used for the STIG compliant audit. Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status Execute the following query to verify the required audit actions are included in the server audit specification: SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name IN ('DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP') If the any of the following audit actions are not returned in an active audit, this is a finding. DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP If no records are returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15215r313784_fix

Add the following events to the SQL Server Audit that is being used for the STIG compliant audit. DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP See the supplemental file "SQL 2016 Audit.sql". Reference: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc280663.aspx

b
SQL Server must generate audit records when successful and unsuccessful attempts to modify privileges/permissions occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214002 - SV-214002r902993_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-013600
Vuln IDs
  • V-214002
  • V-79265
Rule IDs
  • SV-214002r902993_rule
  • SV-93971
Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functionality that they should not have; restricted privileges wrongly deny access to authorized users. In an SQL environment, modifying permissions is typically done via the GRANT, REVOKE, and DENY commands. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. Satisfies: SRG-APP-000495-DB-000328
Checks: C-15219r902992_chk

Check that SQL Server Audit is being used for the STIG compliant audit. Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status Execute the following query to verify the required audit actions are included in the server audit specification: SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name IN ('DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP') If the any of the following audit actions are not returned in an active audit, this is a finding. DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP If no records are returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15217r313790_fix

Add the following events to the SQL Server Audit that is being used for the STIG compliant audit. DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP See the supplemental file "SQL 2016 Audit.sql". Reference: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc280663.aspx

b
SQL Server must generate audit records when successful and unsuccessful attempts to modify security objects occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214004 - SV-214004r902994_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-013800
Vuln IDs
  • V-214004
  • V-79269
Rule IDs
  • SV-214004r902994_rule
  • SV-93975
Changes in the database objects (tables, views, procedures, functions) that record and control permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized changes to the security subsystem could go undetected. The database could be severely compromised or rendered inoperative. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. Satisfies: SRG-APP-000496-DB-000334
Checks: C-15221r313795_chk

Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status If no records are returned, this is a finding. Execute the following query to verify the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP" is included in the server audit specification. SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name = 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP' If the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP" is not returned in an active audit, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15219r313796_fix

Add the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP" to the server audit specification USE [master]; GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = OFF); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = ON); GO See supplemental script "SQL 2016 Audit.sql".

b
SQL Server must generate audit records when successful and unsuccessful attempts to modify categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214006 - SV-214006r902996_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-014000
Vuln IDs
  • V-214006
  • V-79273
Rule IDs
  • SV-214006r902996_rule
  • SV-93979
Changes in categories of information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, and FIPS Publication 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems. Satisfies: SRG-APP-000498-DB-000346
Checks: C-15223r902995_chk

Review the system documentation to determine if SQL Server is required to audit when data classifications are successfully and unsuccessfully modified. If this is not required, this is not a finding. If the documentation does not exist, this is a finding. Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status If no records are returned, this is a finding. If the auditing the retrieval of privilege/permission/role membership information is required, execute the following query to verify the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP" is included in the server audit specification. SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name = 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP' If the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP" is not returned in an active audit, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15221r313802_fix

Deploy an audit to audit when data classifications are unsuccessfully modified. See the supplemental file "SQL 2016 Audit.sql".

b
SQL Server must generate audit records when successful and unsuccessful attempts to delete privileges/permissions occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214008 - SV-214008r879870_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-014200
Vuln IDs
  • V-214008
  • V-79277
Rule IDs
  • SV-214008r879870_rule
  • SV-93983
Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functionality that they should not have; restricted privileges wrongly deny access to authorized users. In an SQL environment, deleting permissions is typically done via the REVOKE or DENY command. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones.
Checks: C-15225r799965_chk

Check that SQL Server Audit is being used for the STIG compliant audit. Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query. If no records are returned, this is a finding. SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status Execute the following query to verify the required audit actions are included in the server audit specification: SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name IN ('DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP' ,'SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP') If the any of the following audit actions are not returned in an active audit, this is a finding. DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP Reference: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc280663.aspx

Fix: F-15223r313808_fix

Add the following events to the SQL Server Audit that is being used for the STIG compliant audit. DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP See the supplemental file "SQL 2016 Audit.sql". Reference: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc280663.aspx

b
SQL Server must generate audit records when successful and unsuccessful attempts to delete security objects occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214010 - SV-214010r902998_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-014400
Vuln IDs
  • V-214010
  • V-79281
Rule IDs
  • SV-214010r902998_rule
  • SV-93987
The removal of security objects from the database/DBMS would seriously degrade a system's information assurance posture. If such an action is attempted, it must be logged. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. Satisfies: SRG-APP-000501-DB-000336
Checks: C-15227r902997_chk

Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status If no records are returned, this is a finding. Execute the following query to verify the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP" is included in the server audit specification. SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name = 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP' If the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP" is not returned in an active audit, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15225r313814_fix

Add the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP" to the server audit specification USE [master]; GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = OFF); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = ON); GO See the supplemental script "SQL 2016 Audit.sql" for complete script.

b
SQL Server must generate audit records when successful and unsuccessful attempts to delete categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214012 - SV-214012r903000_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-014600
Vuln IDs
  • V-214012
  • V-79285
Rule IDs
  • SV-214012r903000_rule
  • SV-93991
Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, and FIPS Publication 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems. Satisfies: SRG-APP-000502-DB-000348
Checks: C-15229r902999_chk

Review the system documentation to determine if SQL Server is required to audit when data classifications are successfully andn unsuccessfully deleted. If this is not required, this is not a finding. If the documentation does not exist, this is a finding. Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status If no records are returned, this is a finding. If the auditing the retrieval of privilege/permission/role membership information is required, execute the following query to verify the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP" is included in the server audit specification. SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name = 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP' If the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP" is not returned in an active audit, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15227r313820_fix

Deploy an audit to audit when data classifications are unsuccessfully deleted. See the supplemental file "SQL 2016 Audit.sql".

b
SQL Server must generate audit records when successful and unsuccessful logons or connection attempts occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214014 - SV-214014r903003_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-014800
Vuln IDs
  • V-214014
  • V-79289
Rule IDs
  • SV-214014r903003_rule
  • SV-93995
For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track who/what (a user or other principal) logs on to SQL Server. It is also necessary to track failed attempts to log on to SQL Server. While positive identification may not be possible in a case of failed authentication, as much information as possible about the incident must be captured. Satisfies: SRG-APP-000503-DB-000350
Checks: C-15231r903001_chk

Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status Execute the following query to verify the SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP and FAILED_LOGIN_GROUP are included in the server audit specification. SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name IN ('SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP', 'FAILED_LOGIN_GROUP') If both "SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP" and "FAILED_LOGIN_GROUP" are returned in an active audit, this is not a finding. If both "SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP" and "FAILED_LOGIN_GROUP" are not in the active audit, determine whether "Both failed and successful logins" is enabled. In SQL Management Studio Right-click on the instance &gt;&gt; Select "Properties" &gt;&gt; Select "Security" on the left hand side &gt;&gt; Check the setting for "Login auditing" If "Both failed and successful logins" is not selected, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15229r903002_fix

Add both "SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP" and "FAILED_LOGIN_GROUP" to the server audit specification. USE [master]; GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = OFF); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (FAILED_LOGIN_GROUP); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = ON); GO Alternatively, enable "Both failed and successful logins". In SQL Management Studio: Right-click on the instance. - Select "Properties". - Select "Security" on the left-hand side. - Select "Both failed and successful logins". - Click "OK".

b
SQL Server must generate audit records for all privileged activities or other system-level access.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214015 - SV-214015r879875_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-014900
Vuln IDs
  • V-214015
  • V-79291
Rule IDs
  • SV-214015r879875_rule
  • SV-93997
Without tracking privileged activity, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. System documentation should include a definition of the functionality considered privileged. A privileged function in this context is any operation that modifies the structure of the database, its built-in logic, or its security settings. This would include all Data Definition Language (DDL) statements and all security-related statements. In an SQL environment, it encompasses, but is not necessarily limited to: CREATE ALTER DROP GRANT REVOKE DENY There may also be Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements that, subject to context, should be regarded as privileged. Possible examples in SQL include: TRUNCATE TABLE; DELETE, or DELETE affecting more than n rows, for some n, or DELETE without a WHERE clause; UPDATE or UPDATE affecting more than n rows, for some n, or UPDATE without a WHERE clause; any SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE to an application-defined security table executed by other than a security principal. Depending on the capabilities of SQL Server and the design of the database and associated applications, audit logging may be achieved by means of DBMS auditing features, database triggers, other mechanisms, or a combination of these. Note that it is particularly important to audit, and tightly control, any action that weakens the implementation of this requirement itself, since the objective is to have a complete audit trail of all administrative activity.
Checks: C-15232r313828_chk

Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status If no records are returned, this is a finding. Execute the following query to verify the following events are included in the server audit specification: APPLICATION_ROLE_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP AUDIT_CHANGE_GROUP BACKUP_RESTORE_GROUP DATABASE_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OPERATION_GROUP DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP DBCC_GROUP LOGIN_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OPERATION_GROUP SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_STATE_CHANGE_GROUP TRACE_CHANGE_GROUP USER_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name IN ('APPLICATION_ROLE_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP','AUDIT_CHANGE_GROUP','BACKUP_RESTORE_GROUP','DATABASE_CHANGE_GROUP','DATABASE_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP','DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP','DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP','DATABASE_OPERATION_GROUP','DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP','DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP','DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP','DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP','DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP','DBCC_GROUP','LOGIN_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP','SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP','SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP','SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP','SERVER_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP','SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP','SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP','SERVER_OPERATION_GROUP','SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP','SERVER_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP','SERVER_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP','SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP','SERVER_STATE_CHANGE_GROUP','TRACE_CHANGE_GROUP','USER_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP') If the identified groups are not returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15230r313829_fix

Add the required events to the server audit specification USE [master]; GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = OFF); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (APPLICATION_ROLE_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (AUDIT_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (BACKUP_RESTORE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OPERATION_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DBCC_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (LOGIN_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_OPERATION_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_STATE_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (TRACE_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (USER_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = ON); GO

b
SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to execute privileged activities or other system-level access occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214016 - SV-214016r879875_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-015000
Vuln IDs
  • V-214016
  • V-79293
Rule IDs
  • SV-214016r879875_rule
  • SV-93999
Without tracking privileged activity, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. System documentation should include a definition of the functionality considered privileged. A privileged function in this context is any operation that modifies the structure of the database, its built-in logic, or its security settings. This would include all Data Definition Language (DDL) statements and all security-related statements. In an SQL environment, it encompasses, but is not necessarily limited to: CREATE ALTER DROP GRANT REVOKE DENY Note that it is particularly important to audit, and tightly control, any action that weakens the implementation of this requirement itself, since the objective is to have a complete audit trail of all administrative activity. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones.
Checks: C-15233r313831_chk

Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query. SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status If no records are returned, this is a finding. Execute the following query to verify the following events are included in the server audit specification: APPLICATION_ROLE_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP AUDIT_CHANGE_GROUP BACKUP_RESTORE_GROUP DATABASE_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OPERATION_GROUP DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP DBCC_GROUP LOGIN_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP LOGOUT_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OPERATION_GROUP SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_STATE_CHANGE_GROUP TRACE_CHANGE_GROUP USER_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name IN ('APPLICATION_ROLE_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP', 'AUDIT_CHANGE_GROUP', 'BACKUP_RESTORE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OPERATION_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP', 'DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DBCC_GROUP', 'LOGIN_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP', 'LOGOUT_GROUP', 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_OPERATION_GROUP', 'SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP', 'SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_STATE_CHANGE_GROUP', 'TRACE_CHANGE_GROUP', 'USER_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP' ) Order by d.audit_action_name If the identified groups are not returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15231r313832_fix

Add the required events to the server audit specification USE [master]; GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = OFF); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (APPLICATION_ROLE_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (AUDIT_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (BACKUP_RESTORE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OPERATION_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (DBCC_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (LOGIN_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (LOGOUT_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_OPERATION_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SERVER_STATE_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (TRACE_CHANGE_GROUP); ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (USER_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = ON); GO

b
SQL Server must generate audit records showing starting and ending time for user access to the database(s).
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214017 - SV-214017r879876_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-015100
Vuln IDs
  • V-214017
  • V-79295
Rule IDs
  • SV-214017r879876_rule
  • SV-94001
For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to know how long a user's (or other principal's) connection to SQL Server lasts. This can be achieved by recording disconnections, in addition to logons/connections, in the audit logs. Disconnection may be initiated by the user or forced by the system (as in a timeout) or result from a system or network failure. To the greatest extent possible, all disconnections must be logged.
Checks: C-15234r313834_chk

Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status If no records are returned, this is a finding. Execute the following query to verify the following events are included in the server audit specification: APPLICATION_ROLE_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP AUDIT_CHANGE_GROUP BACKUP_RESTORE_GROUP DATABASE_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OPERATION_GROUP DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP DBCC_GROUP LOGIN_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP LOGOUT_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_OPERATION_GROUP SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_STATE_CHANGE_GROUP TRACE_CHANGE_GROUP USER_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name IN ('APPLICATION_ROLE_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP', 'AUDIT_CHANGE_GROUP', 'BACKUP_RESTORE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OPERATION_GROUP', 'DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP', 'DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP', 'DBCC_GROUP', 'LOGIN_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP', 'LOGOUT_GROUP', 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_OPERATION_GROUP', 'SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP', 'SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP', 'SERVER_STATE_CHANGE_GROUP', 'TRACE_CHANGE_GROUP', 'USER_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP' ) Order by d.audit_action_name If the identified groups are not returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15232r313835_fix

Add the "LOGOUT_GROUP" to the server audit specification USE [master]; GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = OFF); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (LOGOUT_GROUP); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = ON); GO

b
SQL Server must generate audit records when concurrent logons/connections by the same user from different workstations occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214018 - SV-214018r879877_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-015200
Vuln IDs
  • V-214018
  • V-79297
Rule IDs
  • SV-214018r879877_rule
  • SV-94003
For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track who logs on to SQL Server. Concurrent connections by the same user from multiple workstations may be valid use of the system; or such connections may be due to improper circumvention of the requirement to use the CAC for authentication; or they may indicate unauthorized account sharing; or they may be because an account has been compromised. (If the fact of multiple, concurrent logons by a given user can be reliably reconstructed from the log entries for other events (logons/connections; voluntary and involuntary disconnections), then it is not mandatory to create additional log entries specifically for this.)
Checks: C-15235r313837_chk

Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query. SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status If no records are returned, this is a finding. Execute the following query to verify the "SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP" is included in the server audit specification. SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name = 'SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP' If the "SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP" is returned in an active audit, this is not a finding. If "SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP" is not in the active audit, determine whether "Both failed and successful logins" is enabled. In SQL Management Studio: Right-click on the instance &gt;&gt; Select "Properties" &gt;&gt; Select "Security" on the left hand side &gt;&gt; Check the setting for "Login auditing" If "Both failed and successful logins" is not selected, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15233r313838_fix

Add the "SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP" to the server audit specification. USE [master]; GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = OFF); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION ADD (SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP); GO ALTER SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION STIG_AUDIT_SERVER_SPECIFICATION WITH (STATE = ON); GO Alternatively, enable "Both failed and successful logins" In SQL Management Studio: Right-click on the instance >> Select "Properties" >> Select "Security" on the left hand side >> Select "Both failed and successful logins" >> Click "OK"

b
SQL Server must generate audit records when successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214020 - SV-214020r903006_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-015400
Vuln IDs
  • V-214020
  • V-79301
Rule IDs
  • SV-214020r903006_rule
  • SV-94007
Without tracking all or selected types of access to all or selected objects (tables, views, procedures, functions, etc.), it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident, or identify those responsible for one. In an SQL environment, types of access include, but are not necessarily limited to: SELECT INSERT UPDATE DELETE EXECUTE To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. Satisfies: SRG-APP-000507-DB-000356
Checks: C-15237r903004_chk

Review the system documentation to determine if SQL Server is required to audit when successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects occur. If this is not required, this is not a finding. If the documentation does not exist, this is a finding. Determine if an audit is configured and started by executing the following query: SELECT name AS 'Audit Name', status_desc AS 'Audit Status', audit_file_path AS 'Current Audit File' FROM sys.dm_server_audit_status If no records are returned, this is a finding. If the auditing the retrieval of privilege/permission/role membership information is required, execute the following query to verify the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP" is included in the server audit specification. SELECT a.name AS 'AuditName', s.name AS 'SpecName', d.audit_action_name AS 'ActionName', d.audited_result AS 'Result' FROM sys.server_audit_specifications s JOIN sys.server_audits a ON s.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.server_audit_specification_details d ON s.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id WHERE a.is_state_enabled = 1 AND d.audit_action_name = 'SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP' If the "SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP" is not returned in an active audit, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15235r903005_fix

Deploy an audit to audit when successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects occur. See the supplemental file "SQL 2016 Audit.sql".

b
SQL Server must generate audit records for all direct access to the database(s).
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-214021 - SV-214021r879879_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
SQL6-D0-015500
Vuln IDs
  • V-214021
  • V-79303
Rule IDs
  • SV-214021r879879_rule
  • SV-94009
In this context, direct access is any query, command, or call to SQL Server that comes from any source other than the application(s) that it supports. Examples would be the command line or a database management utility program. The intent is to capture all activity from administrative and non-standard sources.
Checks: C-15238r313846_chk

Determine whether any Server Audits are configured to filter records. From SQL Server Management Studio execute the following query: SELECT name AS AuditName, predicate AS AuditFilter FROM sys.server_audits WHERE predicate IS NOT NULL If any audits are returned, review the associated filters to determine whether administrative activities are being excluded. If any audits are configured to exclude administrative activities, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15236r313847_fix

Check the system documentation for required SQL Server Audits. Remove any Audit filters that exclude or reduce required auditing. Update filters to ensure administrative activity is not excluded.

c
SQL Server must implement NIST FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 validated cryptographic modules to provision digital signatures.
SC-13 - High - CCI-002450 - V-214022 - SV-214022r879885_rule
RMF Control
SC-13
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-002450
Version
SQL6-D0-015600
Vuln IDs
  • V-214022
  • V-79305
Rule IDs
  • SV-214022r879885_rule
  • SV-94011
Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides assurance they have been tested and validated. For detailed information, refer to NIST FIPS Publication 140-2 or Publication 140-3, Security Requirements For Cryptographic Modules. Note that the product's cryptographic modules must be validated and certified by NIST as FIPS-compliant.
Checks: C-15239r313849_chk

Verify that Windows is configured to require the use of FIPS compliant algorithms. Click Start &gt;&gt; Type "Local Security Policy" &gt;&gt; Press Enter &gt;&gt; Expand "Local Policies" &gt;&gt; Select "Security Options" &gt;&gt; Locate "System Cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing." If the Security Setting for this option is "Disabled" this is a finding.

Fix: F-15237r313850_fix

In Windows, open Administrative Tools >> Local Security Policy. Expand Local Policies >> Security Options. In the right-side pane, double-click on "System cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing."

c
SQL Server must implement NIST FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 validated cryptographic modules to generate and validate cryptographic hashes.
SC-13 - High - CCI-002450 - V-214023 - SV-214023r879885_rule
RMF Control
SC-13
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-002450
Version
SQL6-D0-015700
Vuln IDs
  • V-214023
  • V-79307
Rule IDs
  • SV-214023r879885_rule
  • SV-94013
Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides assurance they have been tested and validated. For detailed information, refer to NIST FIPS Publication 140-2 or Publication 140-3, Security Requirements For Cryptographic Modules. Note that the product's cryptographic modules must be validated and certified by NIST as FIPS-compliant.
Checks: C-15240r863341_chk

Verify that Windows is configured to require the use of FIPS-compliant algorithms. Click Start &gt;&gt; Type "Local Security Policy" &gt;&gt; Press Enter &gt;&gt; Expand "Local Policies" &gt;&gt; Select "Security Options" &gt;&gt; Locate "System Cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing." If "System Cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing" is not enabled, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15238r313853_fix

Configure Windows to require the use of FIPS compliant algorithms. Click Start >> Type "Local Security Policy" >> Press Enter >> Expand "Local Policies" >> Select "Security Options" >> Locate "System Cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing." >> Change the Setting option to "Enabled" >> Restart Windows

b
SQL Server must implement NIST FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 validated cryptographic modules to protect unclassified information requiring confidentiality and cryptographic protection, in accordance with the data owners requirements.
SC-13 - Medium - CCI-002450 - V-214024 - SV-214024r879885_rule
RMF Control
SC-13
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002450
Version
SQL6-D0-015800
Vuln IDs
  • V-214024
  • V-79309
Rule IDs
  • SV-214024r879885_rule
  • SV-94015
Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides assurance they have been tested and validated. It is the responsibility of the data owner to assess the cryptography requirements in light of applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, and standards. For detailed information, refer to NIST FIPS Publication 140-2 or Publication 140-3, Security Requirements For Cryptographic Modules. Note that the product's cryptographic modules must be validated and certified by NIST as FIPS-compliant.
Checks: C-15241r863343_chk

Review the server documentation, if this system does not contain data that must be encrypted, this finding is NA. Verify that Windows is configured to require the use of FIPS compliant algorithms for the unclassified information that requires it. Click Start &gt;&gt; Type "Local Security Policy" &gt;&gt; Press Enter &gt;&gt; Expand "Local Policies" &gt;&gt; Select "Security Options" &gt;&gt; Locate "System Cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing." If "System Cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing" is not enabled, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15239r313856_fix

Configure Windows to require the use of FIPS compliant algorithms for the unclassified information that requires it. Click Start >> Type "Local Security Policy" >> Press Enter >> Expand "Local Policies" >> Select "Security Options" >> Locate "System Cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing." >> Change the Setting option to "Enabled" >> Restart Windows

b
The system SQL Server must off-load audit data to a separate log management facility; this must be continuous and in near real time for systems with a network connection to the storage facility and weekly or more often for stand-alone systems.
AU-4 - Medium - CCI-001851 - V-214025 - SV-214025r879886_rule
RMF Control
AU-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001851
Version
SQL6-D0-015900
Vuln IDs
  • V-214025
  • V-79311
Rule IDs
  • SV-214025r879886_rule
  • SV-94017
Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration. Off-loading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity. The system SQL Server may write audit records to database tables, to files in the file system, to other kinds of local repository, or directly to a centralized log management system. Whatever the method used, it must be compatible with off-loading the records to the centralized system.
Checks: C-15242r313858_chk

Review the system documentation for a description of how audit records are off-loaded. If the system has a continuous network connection to the centralized log management system, but the DBMS audit records are not written directly to the centralized log management system or transferred in near-real-time, this is a finding. If the system does not have a continuous network connection to the centralized log management system, and the DBMS audit records are not transferred to the centralized log management system weekly or more often, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15240r313859_fix

Configure the system or deploy and configure software tools to transfer audit records to a centralized log management system, continuously and in near-real time where a continuous network connection to the log management system exists, or at least weekly in the absence of such a connection.

b
SQL Server must configure Customer Feedback and Error Reporting.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-214026 - SV-214026r879887_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
SQL6-D0-016000
Vuln IDs
  • V-214026
  • V-79313
Rule IDs
  • SV-214026r879887_rule
  • SV-94019
By default, Microsoft SQL Server enables participation in the customer experience improvement program (CEIP). This program collects information about how its customers are using the product. Specifically, SQL Server collects information about the installation experience, feature usage, and performance. This information helps Microsoft improve the product to better meet customer needs.
Checks: C-15243r313861_chk

Launch "Registry Editor" Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\[InstanceId]\CPE Review the following values: CustomerFeedback, EnableErrorReporting Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\130 Review the following values: CustomerFeedback, EnableErrorReporting If this is a classified system, and any of the above values are not zero (0), this is a finding. If this is an unclassified system, review the server documentation to determine whether CEIP participation is authorized. If CEIP participation is not authorized, and any of the above values are one (1), this is a finding.

Fix: F-15241r313862_fix

To disable participation in the CEIP program, change the value of the following registry keys to zero (0). To enable participation in the CEIP program, change the value of the following registry keys to one (1). HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\[InstanceId]\CPE\CustomerFeedback HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\[InstanceId]\CPE\EnableErrorReporting HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\130\CustomerFeedback HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\130\EnableErrorReporting

b
SQL Server must configure SQL Server Usage and Error Reporting Auditing.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-214027 - SV-214027r879887_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
SQL6-D0-016100
Vuln IDs
  • V-214027
  • V-79315
Rule IDs
  • SV-214027r879887_rule
  • SV-94021
By default, Microsoft SQL Server enables participation in the customer experience improvement program (CEIP). This program collects information about how its customers are using the product. Specifically, SQL Server collects information about the installation experience, feature usage, and performance. This information helps Microsoft improve the product to better meet customer needs. The Local Audit component of SQL Server Usage Feedback collection writes data collected by the service to a designated folder, representing the data (logs) that will be sent to Microsoft. The purpose of the Local Audit is to allow customers to see all data Microsoft collects with this feature, for compliance, regulatory or privacy validation reasons.
Checks: C-15244r313864_chk

Review the server documentation to determine if auditing of the telemetry data is required. If auditing of telemetry data is not required, this is not a finding. If auditing of telemetry data is required, determine the telemetry service user name by executing the following query: SELECT name FROM sys.server_principals WHERE name LIKE '%SQLTELEMETRY%' Review the values of the following registry key: Note: InstanceId refers to the type and instance of the feature. (e.g., MSSQL13.SqlInstance, MSAS13.SSASInstance, MSRS13.SSRSInstance) HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\[InstanceId]\CPE\UserRequestedLocalAuditDirectory If the registry key do not exist or the value is blank, this is a finding. Navigate the path defined in the "UserRequestedLocalAuditDirectory" registry key in file explorer. Right-click on the folder and choose "Properties". Open the "Security" tab. Verify the SQLTELEMETRY account has the following permissions: - List folder contents - Read - Write If the permissions are not set properly on the folder, this is a finding. Open services.msc and find the telemetry service. - For Database Engine, use SQL Server CEIP service (&lt;INSTANCENAME&gt;). - For Analysis Services, use SQL Server Analysis Services CEIP (&lt;INSTANCENAME&gt;). Right-click on the service and choose "Properties". Verify the "Startup type" is "Automatic." If the service is not configured to automatically start, this is a finding. Review the processes and procedures for reviewing the telemetry data. If there is evidence that the telemetry data is periodically reviewed in accordance with the processes and procedures, this is not a finding. If no processes and procedures exist for reviewing telemetry data, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15242r313865_fix

Configure the instance to audit telemetry data. More information about auditing telemetry data can be found at https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/mt743085.aspx. Create a folder to store the telemetry audit data in. Grant the SQLTELEMETRY service the following permissions on the folder: - List folder contents - Read - Write Create and configure the following registry key: Note: InstanceId refers to the type and instance of the feature. (e.g., MSSQL13.SqlInstance, MSAS13.SSASInstance, MSRS13.SSRSInstance) HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\[InstanceId]\CPE\UserRequestedLocalAuditDirectory [string] Set the "UserRequestedLocalAuditDirectory" key value to the path of the telemetry audit folder. Set the telemetry service to start automatically. Restart the service. - For Database Engine, use SQL Server CEIP service (<INSTANCENAME>). - For Analysis Services, use SQL Server Analysis Services CEIP (<INSTANCENAME>).

c
The SQL Server default account [sa] must be disabled.
AC-3 - High - CCI-000213 - V-214028 - SV-214028r879530_rule
RMF Control
AC-3
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000213
Version
SQL6-D0-016200
Vuln IDs
  • V-214028
  • V-79317
Rule IDs
  • SV-214028r879530_rule
  • SV-94023
SQL Server's [sa] account has special privileges required to administer the database. The [sa] account is a well-known SQL Server account and is likely to be targeted by attackers and thus more prone to providing unauthorized access to the database. This [sa] default account is administrative and could lead to catastrophic consequences, including the complete loss of control over SQL Server. If the [sa] default account is not disabled, an attacker might be able to gain access through the account. SQL Server by default disables the [sa] account at installation. Some applications that run on SQL Server require the [sa] account to be enabled for the application to function properly. These applications that require the [sa] account to be enabled are usually legacy systems.
Checks: C-15245r822466_chk

Check SQL Server settings to determine if the [sa] (system administrator) account has been disabled by executing the following query: USE master; GO SELECT name, is_disabled FROM sys.sql_logins WHERE principal_id = 1; GO Verify that the "name" column contains the current name of the [sa] database server account. If the "is_disabled" column is not set to "1", this is a finding.

Fix: F-15243r313868_fix

Modify the enabled flag of SQL Server's [sa] (system administrator) account by running the following script. USE master; GO ALTER LOGIN [sa] DISABLE; GO

b
SQL Server default account [sa] must have its name changed.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-214029 - SV-214029r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-016300
Vuln IDs
  • V-214029
  • V-79319
Rule IDs
  • SV-214029r879587_rule
  • SV-94025
SQL Server's [sa] account has special privileges required to administer the database. The [sa] account is a well-known SQL Server account name and is likely to be targeted by attackers, and is thus more prone to providing unauthorized access to the database. Since the SQL Server [sa] is administrative in nature, the compromise of a default account can have catastrophic consequences, including the complete loss of control over SQL Server. Since SQL Server needs for this account to exist and it should not be removed, one way to mitigate this risk is to change the [sa] account name.
Checks: C-15246r313870_chk

Verify the SQL Server default [sa] (system administrator) account name has been changed by executing the following query: USE master; GO SELECT * FROM sys.sql_logins WHERE [name] = 'sa' OR [principal_id] = 1; GO If the login account name "SA" or "sa" appears in the query output, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15244r313871_fix

Modify the SQL Server's [sa] (system administrator) account by running the following script: USE master; GO ALTER LOGIN [sa] WITH NAME = <new name> GO

b
Execution of startup stored procedures must be restricted to necessary cases only.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-002233 - V-214030 - SV-214030r879719_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002233
Version
SQL6-D0-016400
Vuln IDs
  • V-214030
  • V-79321
Rule IDs
  • SV-214030r879719_rule
  • SV-94027
In certain situations, to provide required functionality, a DBMS needs to execute internal logic (stored procedures, functions, triggers, etc.) and/or external code modules with elevated privileges. However, if the privileges required for execution are at a higher level than the privileges assigned to organizational users invoking the functionality applications/programs, those users are indirectly provided with greater privileges than assigned by organizations. When 'Scan for startup procs' is enabled, SQL Server scans for and runs all automatically run stored procedures defined on the server. The execution of start-up stored procedures will be done under a high privileged context, therefore it is a commonly used post-exploitation vector.
Checks: C-15247r313873_chk

Review the system documentation to obtain a listing of documented stored procedures used by SQL Server during start up. Execute the following query: Select [name] as StoredProc From sys.procedures Where OBJECTPROPERTY(OBJECT_ID, 'ExecIsStartup') = 1 If any stored procedures are returned that are not documented, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15245r313874_fix

To disable start up stored procedure(s), run the following in Master for each undocumented procedure: sp_procoption @procname = '<procedure name>', @OptionName = 'Startup', @optionValue = 'Off'

b
SQL Server Mirroring endpoint must utilize AES encryption.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-214031 - SV-214031r879887_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
SQL6-D0-016500
Vuln IDs
  • V-214031
  • V-79323
Rule IDs
  • SV-214031r879887_rule
  • SV-94029
Information can be either unintentionally or maliciously disclosed or modified during preparation for transmission, including, for example, during aggregation, at protocol transformation points, and during packing/unpacking. These unauthorized disclosures or modifications compromise the confidentiality or integrity of the information. Use of this requirement will be limited to situations where the data owner has a strict requirement for ensuring data integrity and confidentiality is maintained at every step of the data transfer and handling process. SQL Mirroring endpoints support different encryption algorithms, including no-encryption. Using a weak encryption algorithm or plaintext in communication protocols can lead to data loss, data manipulation and/or connection hijacking.
Checks: C-15248r313876_chk

If the data owner does not have a strict requirement for ensuring data integrity and confidentiality is maintained at every step of the data transfer and handling process, and the requirement is documented and authorized, this is not a finding. If Database Mirroring is in use, run the following to check for encrypted transmissions:   SELECT name, type_desc, encryption_algorithm_desc FROM sys.database_mirroring_endpoints WHERE encryption_algorithm != 2 If any records are returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15246r313877_fix

Run the following to enable encryption on the mirroring endpoint: ALTER ENDPOINT <Endpoint Name> FOR DATABASE_MIRRORING (ENCRYPTION = REQUIRED ALGORITHM AES)

b
SQL Server Service Broker endpoint must utilize AES encryption.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-214032 - SV-214032r879887_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
SQL6-D0-016600
Vuln IDs
  • V-214032
  • V-79325
Rule IDs
  • SV-214032r879887_rule
  • SV-94031
Information can be either unintentionally or maliciously disclosed or modified during preparation for transmission, including, for example, during aggregation, at protocol transformation points, and during packing/unpacking. These unauthorized disclosures or modifications compromise the confidentiality or integrity of the information. Use of this requirement will be limited to situations where the data owner has a strict requirement for ensuring data integrity and confidentiality is maintained at every step of the data transfer and handling process. SQL Server Service Broker endpoints support different encryption algorithms, including no-encryption. Using a weak encryption algorithm or plaintext in communication protocols can lead to data loss, data manipulation and/or connection hijacking.
Checks: C-15249r313879_chk

If the data owner does not have a strict requirement for ensuring data integrity and confidentiality is maintained at every step of the data transfer and handling process, and the requirement is documented and authorized, this is not a finding. If SQL Service Broker is in use, run the following to check for encrypted transmissions:   SELECT name, type_desc, encryption_algorithm_desc FROM sys.service_broker_endpoints WHERE encryption_algorithm != 2 If any records are returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15247r313880_fix

Run the following to enable encryption on the Service Broker endpoint: ALTER ENDPOINT <EndpointName> FOR SERVICE_BROKER (ENCRYPTION = REQUIRED ALGORITHM AES)

b
SQL Server execute permissions to access the registry must be revoked, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-214033 - SV-214033r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-016700
Vuln IDs
  • V-214033
  • V-79327
Rule IDs
  • SV-214033r879587_rule
  • SV-94033
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. SQL Server may spawn additional external processes to execute procedures that are defined in the SQL Server but stored in external host files (external procedures). The spawned process used to execute the external procedure may operate within a different OS security context than SQL Server and provide unauthorized access to the host system. The registry contains sensitive information, including password hashes as well as clear text passwords. Registry extended stored procedures allow Microsoft SQL Server to access the machine's registry. The sensitivity of these procedures are exacerbated if Microsoft SQL Server is run under the Windows account LocalSystem. LocalSystem can read and write nearly all values in the registry, even those not accessible by the Administrator. Unlike the xp_cmdshell extended stored procedure, which runs under a separate context if executed by a login not in the sysadmin role, the registry extended stored procedures always execute under the security context of the MSSQLServer service. Because the sensitive information is stored in the registry, it is essential that access to that information be properly guarded.
Checks: C-15250r313882_chk

To determine if permissions to execute registry extended stored procedures have been revoked from all users (other than dbo), execute the following command: SELECT OBJECT_NAME(major_id) AS [Stored Procedure] ,dpr.NAME AS [Principal] FROM sys.database_permissions AS dp INNER JOIN sys.database_principals AS dpr ON dp.grantee_principal_id = dpr.principal_id WHERE major_id IN ( OBJECT_ID('xp_regaddmultistring') ,OBJECT_ID('xp_regdeletekey') ,OBJECT_ID('xp_regdeletevalue') ,OBJECT_ID('xp_regenumvalues') ,OBJECT_ID('xp_regenumkeys') ,OBJECT_ID('xp_regremovemultistring') ,OBJECT_ID('xp_regwrite') ,OBJECT_ID('xp_instance_regaddmultistring') ,OBJECT_ID('xp_instance_regdeletekey') ,OBJECT_ID('xp_instance_regdeletevalue') ,OBJECT_ID('xp_instance_regenumkeys') ,OBJECT_ID('xp_instance_regenumvalues') ,OBJECT_ID('xp_instance_regremovemultistring') ,OBJECT_ID('xp_instance_regwrite') ) AND dp.[type] = 'EX' ORDER BY dpr.NAME; If any records are returned, review the system documentation to determine whether the accessing of the registry via extended stored procedures are required and authorized. If it is not authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15248r313883_fix

Remove execute permissions to any registry extended stored procedure from all users (other than dbo). USE master GO REVOKE EXECUTE ON [<procedureName>] FROM [<principal>] GO

b
Filestream must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-214034 - SV-214034r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-016800
Vuln IDs
  • V-214034
  • V-79329
Rule IDs
  • SV-214034r879587_rule
  • SV-94035
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. The most significant potential for attacking an instance is through the use of features that expose an external interface or ad hoc execution capability. FILESTREAM integrates the SQL Server Database Engine with an NTFS file system by storing varbinary(max) binary large object (BLOB) data as files on the file system. Transact-SQL statements can insert, update, query, search, and back up FILESTREAM data.
Checks: C-15251r313885_chk

Review the system documentation to see if FileStream is in use. If in use authorized, this is not a finding. If FileStream is not documented as being authorized, execute the following query. EXEC sp_configure 'filestream access level' If "run_value" is greater than "0", this is a finding. This rule checks that Filestream SQL specific option is disabled. SELECT CASE WHEN EXISTS (SELECT * FROM sys.configurations WHERE Name = 'filestream access level' AND Cast(value AS INT) = 0) THEN 'No' ELSE 'Yes' END AS TSQLFileStreamAccess; If the above query returns "Yes" in the "FileStreamEnabled" field, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15249r313886_fix

Disable the use of Filestream. 1. Delete all FILESTREAM columns from all tables. ALTER TABLE <name> DROP COLUMN <column name> 2. Disassociate tables from the FILESTREAM filegroups. ALTER TABLE <name> SET (FILESTREAM_ON = 'NULL' 3. Remove all FILESTREAM data containers. ALTER DATABASE <name> REMOVE FILE <file name> 4. Remove all FILESTREAM filegroups. ALTER DATABASE <name> REMOVE FILEGROUP <file name>. 5. Disable FILESTREAM. EXEC sp_configure filestream_access_level, 0 RECONFIGURE 6. Restart the SQL Service

b
Ole Automation Procedures feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-214035 - SV-214035r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-017000
Vuln IDs
  • V-214035
  • V-79333
Rule IDs
  • SV-214035r879587_rule
  • SV-94039
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. SQL Server may spawn additional external processes to execute procedures that are defined in the SQL Server but stored in external host files (external procedures). The spawned process used to execute the external procedure may operate within a different OS security context than SQL Server and provide unauthorized access to the host system. SQL Server is capable of providing a wide range of features and services. Some of the features and services, provided by default, may not be necessary, and enabling them could adversely affect the security of the system. The Ole Automation Procedures option controls whether OLE Automation objects can be instantiated within Transact-SQL batches. These are extended stored procedures that allow SQL Server users to execute functions external to SQL Server in the security context of SQL Server. The Ole Automation Procedures extended stored procedure allows execution of host executables outside the controls of database access permissions. This access may be exploited by malicious users who have compromised the integrity of the SQL Server database process to control the host operating system to perpetrate additional malicious activity.
Checks: C-15252r313888_chk

To determine if "Ole Automation Procedures" option is enabled, execute the following query: EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'show advanced options', '1'; RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE; EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'Ole Automation Procedures'; If the value of "config_value" is "0", this is not a finding. If the value of "config_value" is "1", review the system documentation to determine whether the use of "Ole Automation Procedures" is required and authorized. If it is not authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15250r313889_fix

Disable use of or remove any external application executable object definitions that are not authorized. To disable the use of "Ole Automation Procedures" option, from the query prompt:  sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1; GO RECONFIGURE; GO sp_configure 'Ole Automation Procedures', 0; GO RECONFIGURE; GO

b
SQL Server User Options feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-214036 - SV-214036r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-017100
Vuln IDs
  • V-214036
  • V-79335
Rule IDs
  • SV-214036r879587_rule
  • SV-94041
SQL Server is capable of providing a wide range of features and services. Some of the features and services, provided by default, may not be necessary, and enabling them could adversely affect the security of the system. The user options option specifies global defaults for all users. A list of default query processing options is established for the duration of a user's work session. The user options option allows you to change the default values of the SET options (if the server's default settings are not appropriate).
Checks: C-15253r313891_chk

To determine if "User Options" option is enabled, execute the following query: EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'show advanced options', '1'; RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE; EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'user options'; If the value of "config_value" is "0", this is not a finding. If the value of "config_value" is "1", review the system documentation to determine whether the use of "user options" is required and authorized. If it is not authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15251r313892_fix

Disable use of or remove any external application executable object definitions that are not authorized. To disable the use of "User Options" option, from the query prompt:  sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1; GO RECONFIGURE; GO sp_configure 'user options', 0; GO RECONFIGURE; GO

b
Remote Access feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-214037 - SV-214037r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-017200
Vuln IDs
  • V-214037
  • V-79337
Rule IDs
  • SV-214037r879587_rule
  • SV-94043
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. SQL Server may spawn additional external processes to execute procedures that are defined in the SQL Server but stored in external host files (external procedures). The spawned process used to execute the external procedure may operate within a different OS security context than SQL Server and provide unauthorized access to the host system. SQL Server is capable of providing a wide range of features and services. Some of the features and services, provided by default, may not be necessary, and enabling them could adversely affect the security of the system. The Remote Access option controls the execution of local stored procedures on remote servers or remote stored procedures on local server.  'Remote access' functionality can be abused to launch a Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack on remote servers by off-loading query processing to a target.
Checks: C-15254r313894_chk

To determine if "Remote Access" option is enabled, execute the following query: EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'show advanced options', '1'; RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE; EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'remote access'; If the value of "config_value" is "0", this is not a finding. If the value of "config_value" is "1", review the system documentation to determine whether the use of "Remote Access" is required (linked servers) and authorized. If it is not authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15252r313895_fix

Disable use of or remove any external application executable object definitions that are not authorized. To disable the use of "Remote Access" option, from the query prompt:  sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1; GO RECONFIGURE; GO sp_configure 'remote access', 0; GO RECONFIGURE; GO

b
Hadoop Connectivity feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-214038 - SV-214038r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-017400
Vuln IDs
  • V-214038
  • V-79341
Rule IDs
  • SV-214038r879587_rule
  • SV-94047
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. SQL Server may spawn additional external processes to execute procedures that are defined in the SQL Server but stored in external host files (external procedures). The spawned process used to execute the external procedure may operate within a different OS security context than SQL Server and provide unauthorized access to the host system. SQL Server is capable of providing a wide range of features and services. Some of the features and services, provided by default, may not be necessary, and enabling them could adversely affect the security of the system. The Hadoop Connectivity feature allows multiple types of external data sources to be created and used across all sessions on the server.  An exploit to the SQL Server instance could result in a compromise of the host system and external SQL Server resources.
Checks: C-15255r313897_chk

To determine if "Hadoop Connectivity" option is enabled, execute the following query: EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'show advanced options', '1'; RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE; EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'hadoop connectivity'; If the value of "config_value" is "0", this is not a finding. If the value of "config_value" is "1", review the system documentation to determine whether the use of "Hadoop Connectivity" option is required and authorized. If it is not authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15253r313898_fix

Disable use of or remove any external application executable object definitions that are not authorized. To disable the use of "Hadoop Connectivity" option, from the query prompt:  sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1; GO RECONFIGURE; GO sp_configure 'hadoop connectivity', 0; GO RECONFIGURE; GO

b
Allow Polybase Export feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-214039 - SV-214039r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-017500
Vuln IDs
  • V-214039
  • V-79343
Rule IDs
  • SV-214039r879587_rule
  • SV-94049
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. SQL Server may spawn additional external processes to execute procedures that are defined in the SQL Server but stored in external host files (external procedures). The spawned process used to execute the external procedure may operate within a different OS security context than SQL Server and provide unauthorized access to the host system. SQL Server is capable of providing a wide range of features and services. Some of the features and services, provided by default, may not be necessary, and enabling them could adversely affect the security of the system. The Allow Polybase Export feature allows an export of data to an external data source such as Hadoop File System or Azure Data Lake. An exploit to the SQL Server instance could result in a compromise of the host system and external SQL Server resources.
Checks: C-15256r313900_chk

To determine if "Allow Polybase Export" option is enabled, execute the following query: EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'show advanced options', '1'; RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE; EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'allow polybase export'; If the value of "config_value" is "0", this is not a finding. If the value of "config_value" is "1", review the system documentation to determine whether the use of "Allow Polybase Export" is required and authorized. If it is not authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15254r313901_fix

Disable use of or remove any external application executable object definitions that are not authorized. To disable the use of "Allow Polybase Export" option, from the query prompt:  sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1; GO RECONFIGURE; GO sp_configure 'allow polybase export', 0; GO RECONFIGURE; GO

b
Remote Data Archive feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-214040 - SV-214040r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-017600
Vuln IDs
  • V-214040
  • V-79345
Rule IDs
  • SV-214040r879587_rule
  • SV-94051
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. SQL Server may spawn additional external processes to execute procedures that are defined in the SQL Server but stored in external host files (external procedures). The spawned process used to execute the external procedure may operate within a different OS security context than SQL Server and provide unauthorized access to the host system. SQL Server is capable of providing a wide range of features and services. Some of the features and services, provided by default, may not be necessary, and enabling them could adversely affect the security of the system. The Remote Data Archive feature allows an export of local SQL Server data to an Azure SQL Database. An exploit to the SQL Server instance could result in a compromise of the host system and external SQL Server resources.
Checks: C-15257r313903_chk

To determine if "Remote Data Archive" option is enabled, execute the following query: EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'show advanced options', '1'; RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE; EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'remote data archive'; If the value of "config_value" is "0", this is not a finding. If the value of "config_value" is "1", review the system documentation to determine whether the use of "Remote Data Archive" is required and authorized. If it is not authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15255r313904_fix

Disable use of or remove any external application executable object definitions that are not authorized. To disable the use of "Remote Data Archive" option, from the query prompt:  sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1; GO RECONFIGURE; GO sp_configure 'remote data archive', 0; GO RECONFIGURE; GO

b
SQL Server External Scripts Enabled feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-214041 - SV-214041r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-017700
Vuln IDs
  • V-214041
  • V-79347
Rule IDs
  • SV-214041r879587_rule
  • SV-94053
SQL Server is capable of providing a wide range of features and services. Some of the features and services, provided by default, may not be necessary, and enabling them could adversely affect the security of the system. The External Scripts Enabled feature allows scripts external to SQL such as files located in an R library to be executed.
Checks: C-15258r313906_chk

To determine if "External Scripts Enabled" option is enabled, execute the following query: EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'show advanced options', '1'; RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE; EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'external scripts enabled'; If the value of "config_value" is "0", this is not a finding. If the value of "config_value" is "1", review the system documentation to determine whether the use of "External Scripts Enabled" is required and authorized. If it is not authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15256r313907_fix

Disable use of or remove any external application executable object definitions that are not authorized. To disable the use of "External Scripts Enabled" option, from the query prompt:  sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1; GO RECONFIGURE; GO sp_configure 'external scripts enabled', 0; GO RECONFIGURE; GO

a
The SQL Server Browser service must be disabled unless specifically required and approved.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-214042 - SV-214042r879887_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
SQL6-D0-017800
Vuln IDs
  • V-214042
  • V-79349
Rule IDs
  • SV-214042r879887_rule
  • SV-94055
The SQL Server Browser simplifies the administration of SQL Server, particularly when multiple instances of SQL Server coexist on the same computer. It avoids the need to hard-assign port numbers to the instances and to set and maintain those port numbers in client systems. It enables administrators and authorized users to discover database management system instances, and the databases they support, over the network. SQL Server uses the SQL Server Browser service to enumerate instances of the Database Engine installed on the computer. This enables client applications to browse for a server, and helps clients distinguish between multiple instances of the Database Engine on the same computer. This convenience also presents the possibility of unauthorized individuals gaining knowledge of the available SQL Server resources. Therefore, it is necessary to consider whether the SQL Server Browser is needed. Typically, if only a single instance is installed, using the default name (MSSQLSERVER) and port assignment (1433), the Browser is not adding any value. The more complex the installation, the more likely SQL Server Browser is to be helpful. This requirement is not intended to prohibit use of the Browser service in any circumstances.  It calls for administrators and management to consider whether the benefits of its use outweigh the potential negative consequences of it being used by an attacker to browse the current infrastructure and retrieve a list of running SQL Server instances.
Checks: C-15259r313909_chk

If the need for the SQL Server Browser service is documented and authorized, this is not a finding. Open the Services tool. Either navigate, via the Windows Start Menu and/or Control Panel, to "Administrative Tools", and select "Services"; or at a command prompt, type "services.msc" and press the "Enter" key. Scroll to "SQL Server Browser". If its Startup Type is not shown as "Disabled", this is a finding.

Fix: F-15257r313910_fix

If SQL Server Browser is needed, document the justification and obtain the appropriate authorization. Where SQL Server Browser is judged unnecessary, the Service can be disabled. To disable, in the Services tool, double-click "SQL Server Browser". Set "Startup Type" to "Disabled". If "Service Status" is "Running", click on "Stop". Click on "OK".

b
SQL Server Replication Xps feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-214043 - SV-214043r879587_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
SQL6-D0-017900
Vuln IDs
  • V-214043
  • V-79351
Rule IDs
  • SV-214043r879587_rule
  • SV-94057
SQL Server is capable of providing a wide range of features and services. Some of the features and services, provided by default, may not be necessary, and enabling them could adversely affect the security of the system. Enabling the replication XPs opens a significant attack surface area that can be used by an attacker to gather information about the system and potentially abuse the privileges of SQL Server.
Checks: C-15260r313912_chk

To determine if the "Replication Xps" option is enabled, execute the following query: EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'show advanced options', '1'; RECONFIGURE WITH OVERRIDE; EXEC SP_CONFIGURE 'replication xps'; If the value of "config_value" is "0", this is not a finding. If the value of "config_value" is "1", review the system documentation to determine whether the use of "Replication Xps" is required and authorized. If it is not authorized, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15258r313913_fix

Disable use of or remove any external application executable object definitions that are not authorized. To disable the use of "Replication Xps" option, from the query prompt:  sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1; GO RECONFIGURE; GO sp_configure 'replication xps', 0; GO RECONFIGURE; GO

a
If the SQL Server Browser Service is specifically required and approved, SQL instances must be hidden.
CM-6 - Low - CCI-000366 - V-214044 - SV-214044r879887_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Low
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
SQL6-D0-018000
Vuln IDs
  • V-214044
  • V-79353
Rule IDs
  • SV-214044r879887_rule
  • SV-94059
The SQL Server Browser simplifies the administration of SQL Server, particularly when multiple instances of SQL Server coexist on the same computer. It avoids the need to hard-assign port numbers to the instances and to set and maintain those port numbers in client systems. It enables administrators and authorized users to discover database management system instances, and the databases they support, over the network. SQL Server uses the SQL Server Browser service to enumerate instances of the Database Engine installed on the computer. This enables client applications to browse for a server, and helps clients distinguish between multiple instances of the Database Engine on the same computer. This convenience also presents the possibility of unauthorized individuals gaining knowledge of the available SQL Server resources. Therefore, it is necessary to consider whether the SQL Server Browser is needed. Typically, if only a single instance is installed, using the default name (MSSQLSERVER) and port assignment (1433), the Browser is not adding any value. The more complex the installation, the more likely SQL Server Browser is to be helpful. This requirement is not intended to prohibit use of the Browser service in any circumstances.  It calls for administrators and management to consider whether the benefits of its use outweigh the potential negative consequences of it being used by an attacker to browse the current infrastructure and retrieve a list of running SQL Server instances. In order to prevent this, the SQL instance(s) can be hidden.
Checks: C-15261r754689_chk

If the need for the SQL Server Browser service is documented and authorized, check to make sure the SQL Instances that do not require use of the SQL Browser Service are hidden with the following query: DECLARE @HiddenInstance INT EXEC master.dbo.Xp_instance_regread N'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE', N'Software\Microsoft\MSSQLServer\MSSQLServer\SuperSocketNetLib', N'HideInstance', @HiddenInstance output SELECT CASE WHEN @HiddenInstance = 0 AND Serverproperty('IsClustered') = 0 THEN 'No' ELSE 'Yes' END AS [Hidden] If the value of "Hidden" is "Yes", this is not a finding. If the value of "Hidden" is "No" and the startup type of the "SQL Server Browser" service is not "Disabled", this is a finding.

Fix: F-15259r313916_fix

If SQL Server Browser is needed, document the justification and obtain the appropriate authorization. To hide the SQL instance, in SQL Server Configuration Manager, expand SQL Server Network Configuration, right-click Protocols for <server instance>, select "Properties", on the "Flags" tab, select "Yes" in the "HideInstance" box, then click "OK".  The change takes effect immediately for new connections.

c
When using command-line tools such as SQLCMD in a mixed-mode authentication environment, users must use a logon method that does not expose the password.
IA-6 - High - CCI-000206 - V-214045 - SV-214045r879615_rule
RMF Control
IA-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000206
Version
SQL6-D0-018100
Vuln IDs
  • V-214045
  • V-79355
Rule IDs
  • SV-214045r879615_rule
  • SV-94061
To prevent the compromise of authentication information, such as passwords and PINs, during the authentication process, the feedback from the information system must not provide any information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise the authentication mechanism. Obfuscation of user-provided information when typed into the system is a method used in addressing this risk. For example, displaying asterisks when a user types in a password or PIN, is an example of obscuring feedback of authentication information. This requirement is applicable when mixed-mode authentication is enabled. When this is the case, password-authenticated accounts can be created in and authenticated by SQL Server. Other STIG requirements prohibit the use of mixed-mode authentication except when justified and approved. This deals with the exceptions. SQLCMD and other command-line tools are part of any SQL Server installation. These tools can accept a plain-text password, but do offer alternative techniques. Since the typical user of these tools is a database administrator, the consequences of password compromise are particularly serious. Therefore, the use of plain-text passwords must be prohibited, as a matter of practice and procedure.
Checks: C-15262r313918_chk

Run this query to determine whether SQL Server authentication is enabled: EXEC master.sys.xp_loginconfig 'login mode'; If the config_value returned is "Windows NT Authentication", this is not a finding. For SQLCMD, which cannot be configured not to accept a plain-text password, and any other essential tool with the same limitation, verify that the system documentation explains the need for the tool, who uses it, and any relevant mitigations; and that AO approval has been obtained; if not, this is a finding. Request evidence that all users of the tool are trained in the importance of not using the plain-text password option and in how to keep the password hidden; and that they adhere to this practice; if not, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15260r313919_fix

Where possible, change the login mode to Windows-only: USE [master] GO EXEC xp_instance_regwrite N'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE', N'Software\Microsoft\MSSQLServer\MSSQLServer', N'LoginMode', REG_DWORD, 1; GO If mixed-mode authentication is necessary, then for SQLCMD, which cannot be configured not to accept a plain-text password when mixed-mode authentication is enabled, and any other essential tool with the same limitation: 1) Document the need for it, who uses it, and any relevant mitigations, and obtain AO approval. 2) Train all users of the tool in the importance of not using the plain-text password option and in how to keep the password hidden.

c
Applications must obscure feedback of authentication information during the authentication process to protect the information from possible exploitation/use by unauthorized individuals.
IA-6 - High - CCI-000206 - V-214046 - SV-214046r879615_rule
RMF Control
IA-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000206
Version
SQL6-D0-018200
Vuln IDs
  • V-214046
  • V-79357
Rule IDs
  • SV-214046r879615_rule
  • SV-94063
To prevent the compromise of authentication information, such as passwords and PINs, during the authentication process, the feedback from the information system must not provide any information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise the authentication mechanism. Obfuscation of user-provided information when typed into the system is a method used in addressing this risk. For example, displaying asterisks when a user types in a password or PIN, is an example of obscuring feedback of authentication information. Database applications may allow for entry of the account name and password as a visible parameter of the application execution command. This practice must be prohibited and disabled to prevent shoulder surfing.
Checks: C-15263r313921_chk

Determine whether any applications that access the database allow for entry of the account name and password, or PIN. If any do, determine whether these applications obfuscate authentication data; if they do not, this is a finding.

Fix: F-15261r313922_fix

Configure or modify applications to prohibit display of passwords in clear text.