EnterpriseDB Postgres Advanced Server (EPAS) Security Technical Implementation Guide

  • Version/Release: V1R1
  • Published: 2023-11-20
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This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DOD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: [email protected].
b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must limit the number of concurrent sessions to an organization-defined number per user for all accounts and/or account types.
AC-10 - Medium - CCI-000054 - V-259210 - SV-259210r938683_rule
RMF Control
AC-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000054
Version
EPAS-00-000100
Vuln IDs
  • V-259210
Rule IDs
  • SV-259210r938683_rule
Database management includes the ability to control the number of users and user sessions utilizing a DBMS. Unlimited concurrent connections to the DBMS could allow a successful Denial of Service (DoS) attack by exhausting connection resources; and a system can also fail or be degraded by an overload of legitimate users. Limiting the number of concurrent sessions per user is helpful in reducing these risks. This requirement addresses concurrent session control for a single account. It does not address concurrent sessions by a single user via multiple system accounts; and it does not deal with the total number of sessions across all accounts. The capability to limit the number of concurrent sessions per user must be configured in or added to the DBMS (for example, by use of a logon trigger), when this is technically feasible. Note that it is not sufficient to limit sessions via a web server or application server alone, because legitimate users and adversaries can potentially connect to the DBMS by other means. The organization will need to define the maximum number of concurrent sessions by account type, by account, or a combination thereof. In deciding on the appropriate number, it is important to consider the work requirements of the various types of users. For example, 2 might be an acceptable limit for general users accessing the database via an application; but 10 might be too few for a database administrator using a database management GUI tool, where each query tab and navigation pane may count as a separate session. (Sessions may also be referred to as connections or logons, which for the purposes of this requirement are synonyms.)
Checks: C-62949r938681_chk

Determine whether the system documentation specifies limits on the number of concurrent DBMS sessions per account by type of user. If it does not, assume a limit of 10 for database administrators and 2 for all other users. Execute the following as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "SELECT rolname, rolconnlimit FROM pg_roles where rolname not like 'pg_%' and rolname not like 'aq_%'" If rolconnlimit is -1 or larger than the system documentation limits for any rolname, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62858r938682_fix

For any roles where rolconnlimit is -1 or larger than the system documentation limits, execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER USER <username> WITH CONNECTION LIMIT <limit number> "

c
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must integrate with an organization-level authentication/access mechanism providing account management and automation for all users, groups, roles, and any other principals.
AC-2 - High - CCI-000015 - V-259211 - SV-259211r938686_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000015
Version
EPAS-00-000700
Vuln IDs
  • V-259211
Rule IDs
  • SV-259211r938686_rule
Enterprise environments make account management for applications and databases challenging and complex. A manual process for account management functions adds the risk of a potential oversight or other error. Managing accounts for the same person in multiple places is inefficient and prone to problems with consistency and synchronization. A comprehensive application account management process that includes automation helps to ensure that accounts designated as requiring attention are consistently and promptly addressed. Examples include, but are not limited to, using automation to take action on multiple accounts designated as inactive, suspended, or terminated, or by disabling accounts located in noncentralized account stores, such as multiple servers. Account management functions can also include: assignment of group or role membership; identifying account type; specifying user access authorizations (i.e., privileges); account removal, update, or termination; and administrative alerts. The use of automated mechanisms can include, for example: using email or text messaging to notify account managers when users are terminated or transferred; using the information system to monitor account usage; and using automated telephone notification to report atypical system account usage. The DBMS must be configured to automatically use organization-level account management functions, and these functions must immediately enforce the organization's current account policy. Automation may comprise differing technologies that when placed together contain an overall mechanism supporting an organization's automated account management requirements.
Checks: C-62950r938684_chk

Verify that pg_hba.conf is not using: "trust", "md5", or "password" as allowable access methods. &gt; cat &lt;path-to-PGDATA-directory&gt;/pg_hba.conf | egrep -I "trust|md5|password"| grep -v "^\#" NOTE: A command line text editor such as VIM or EMACS can also be used to search for "MD5". The default path for PGDATA is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data, but this will vary according to local circumstances. If any output is produced, verify the users are documented as being authorized to use one of these access methods. If the users are not authorized to use these access methods, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62859r938685_fix

Identify any user that is using "trust", "md5", or "password" as allowable access methods. > cat <path-to-PGDATA-directory>/pg_hba.conf | egrep -I "trust|md5|password"| grep -v "^\#" NOTE: A command line text editor such as VIM or EMACS can also be used such as VIM or EMACS to search for "MD5". The default path for PGDATA is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data, but this will vary according to local circumstances. Document any rows that have "trust", "md5", or "password" specified for the "METHOD" column and obtain appropriate approval for each user specified in the "USER" column (i.e., all DBMS managed accounts). For any users that are not documented and approved as DBMS managed accounts, change the "METHOD" column to one of the externally managed (not "trust", "md5", or "password") options defined here: https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/auth-methods.html Use a command line text editor such as VIM or EMACS to make changes. Example: > vim <path-to-PGDATA-directory>/pg_hba.conf

c
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must enforce approved authorizations for logical access to information and system resources in accordance with applicable access control policies.
AC-3 - High - CCI-000213 - V-259212 - SV-259212r938689_rule
RMF Control
AC-3
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000213
Version
EPAS-00-000800
Vuln IDs
  • V-259212
Rule IDs
  • SV-259212r938689_rule
Authentication with a DOD-approved PKI certificate does not necessarily imply authorization to access the DBMS. To mitigate the risk of unauthorized access to sensitive information by entities that have been issued certificates by DOD-approved PKIs, all DOD systems, including databases, must be properly configured to implement access control policies. Successful authentication must not automatically give an entity access to an asset or security boundary. Authorization procedures and controls must be implemented to ensure each authenticated entity also has a validated and current authorization. Authorization is the process of determining whether an entity, once authenticated, is permitted to access a specific asset. Information systems use access control policies and enforcement mechanisms to implement this requirement. Access control policies include identity-based policies, role-based policies, and attribute-based policies. Access enforcement mechanisms include access control lists, access control matrices, and cryptography. These policies and mechanisms must be employed by the application to control access between users (or processes acting on behalf of users) and objects (e.g., devices, files, records, processes, programs, and domains) in the information system. This requirement is applicable to access control enforcement applications, a category that includes database management systems. If the DBMS does not follow applicable policy when approving access, it may be in conflict with networks or other applications in the information system. This may result in users either gaining or being denied access inappropriately and in conflict with applicable policy.
Checks: C-62951r938687_chk

Review the system security plan or equivalent documentation to determine the allowed permissions on database objects for each database role or user as well as the database authentication methods that are allowed for each role or user. If this documentation is missing, this is a finding. Review the permissions in place for the EDB Postgres Advanced Server. First, check the privileges of all users and roles in the database by running the following command as the "enterprisedb" user: &gt; psql edb -c "\du" If any users or roles have privileges that exceed those that are documented, this is a finding. Next check the privileges that have been granted on the tables, views, and sequences in the database by running the following command as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "\dp" If the privileges assigned to these objects for any users or roles exceeds those that have been documented, this is a finding. Next, as the "enterprisedb" operating system user, run the following command to view the location of the pg_hba.conf file and review the authentication settings that are configured in that file. &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW hba_file" &gt; cat &lt;output-path-to-file-from above&gt; If any entries do not match the documented authentication requirements, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62860r938688_fix

To determine current user access to database objects, run the following as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "SELECT grantee, privilege_type, table_name FROM information_schema.role_table_grants WHERE grantee='<username>'" Use GRANT, REVOKE, and ALTER statements to add and/or remove permissions on server-level securables, bringing them in line with the documented requirements.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must protect against a user falsely repudiating having performed organization-defined actions.
AU-10 - Medium - CCI-000166 - V-259213 - SV-259213r938692_rule
RMF Control
AU-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000166
Version
EPAS-00-000900
Vuln IDs
  • V-259213
Rule IDs
  • SV-259213r938692_rule
Nonrepudiation of actions taken is required in order to maintain data integrity. Examples of particular actions taken by individuals include creating information, sending a message, approving information (e.g., indicating concurrence or signing a contract), and receiving a message. Nonrepudiation protects against later claims by a user of not having created, modified, or deleted a particular data item or collection of data in the database. In designing a database, the organization must define the types of data and the user actions that must be protected from repudiation. The implementation must then include building audit features into the application data tables, and configuring the DBMS' audit tools to capture the necessary audit trail. Design and implementation also must ensure that applications pass individual user identification to the DBMS, even where the application connects to the DBMS with a standard, group account.
Checks: C-62952r938690_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit" If the result is not "csv" or "xml", this is a finding.

Fix: F-62861r938691_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit = csv" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit = xml" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()"

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must provide audit record generation capability for DOD-defined auditable events within all EDB Postgres Advanced Server/database components.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000169 - V-259214 - SV-259214r938695_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000169
Version
EPAS-00-001000
Vuln IDs
  • V-259214
Rule IDs
  • SV-259214r938695_rule
Without the capability to generate audit records, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the DBMS (e.g., process, module). Certain specific application functionalities may be audited as well. The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating audit records. DOD has defined the list of events for which the DBMS will provide an audit record generation capability as the following: (i) Successful and unsuccessful attempts to access, modify, or delete privileges, security objects, security levels, or categories of information (e.g., classification levels); (ii) Access actions, such as successful and unsuccessful logon attempts, privileged activities, or other system-level access, starting and ending time for user access to the system, concurrent logons from different workstations, successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects, all program initiations, and all direct access to the information system; and (iii) All account creation, modification, disabling, and termination actions. Organizations may define additional events requiring continuous or ad hoc auditing.
Checks: C-62953r938693_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit" If the result is not "csv" or "xml", this is a finding.

Fix: F-62862r938694_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit = csv" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit = xml" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()"

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must allow only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be audited.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000171 - V-259215 - SV-259215r938698_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000171
Version
EPAS-00-001100
Vuln IDs
  • V-259215
Rule IDs
  • SV-259215r938698_rule
Without the capability to restrict which roles and individuals can select which events are audited, unauthorized personnel may be able to prevent or interfere with the auditing of critical events. Suppression of auditing could permit an adversary to evade detection. Misconfigured audits can degrade the system's performance by overwhelming the audit log. Misconfigured audits may also make it more difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one.
Checks: C-62954r938696_chk

Run the command "ls -al postgresql*.conf" to show file permissions. The default path for the postgresql*.conf files is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data, but this will vary according to local circumstances. If the files are not owned by enterprisedb (user)/enterprisedb (group) or do not have RW permission for the user only, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62863r938697_fix

Run these commands as the "root" user (or user with sudo privileges) from the EDB Postgres Advanced Server data (PGDATA) directory: > chown enterprisedb postgresql*.conf > chgrp enterprisedb postgresql*.conf > chmod 600 postgresql*.conf The default path for the postgresql*.conf files is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances. Run these commands as the "root" user (or user with sudo privileges) from the EDB Postgres Advanced Server data (PGDATA) directory: > chown enterprisedb postgresql*.conf > chgrp enterprisedb postgresql*.conf > chmod 600 postgresql*.conf The default path for the postgresql*.conf files is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are retrieved.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259216 - SV-259216r938701_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-001200
Vuln IDs
  • V-259216
Rule IDs
  • SV-259216r938701_rule
Under some circumstances, it may be useful to monitor who/what is reading privilege/permission/role information. Therefore, it must be possible to configure auditing to do this. DBMSs typically make such information available through views or functions. This requirement addresses explicit requests for privilege/permission/role membership information. It does not refer to the implicit retrieval of privileges/permissions/role memberships that the DBMS continually performs to determine if any and every action on the database is permitted.
Checks: C-62955r938699_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62864r938700_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to retrieve privileges/permissions occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259217 - SV-259217r938704_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-001300
Vuln IDs
  • V-259217
Rule IDs
  • SV-259217r938704_rule
Under some circumstances, it may be useful to monitor who/what is reading privilege/permission/role information. Therefore, it must be possible to configure auditing to do this. DBMSs typically make such information available through views or functions. This requirement addresses explicit requests for privilege/permission/role membership information. It does not refer to the implicit retrieval of privileges/permissions/role memberships that the DBMS continually performs to determine if any and every action on the database is permitted. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones.
Checks: C-62956r938702_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62865r938703_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must initiate support of session auditing upon startup.
AU-14 - Medium - CCI-001464 - V-259218 - SV-259218r938707_rule
RMF Control
AU-14
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001464
Version
EPAS-00-001400
Vuln IDs
  • V-259218
Rule IDs
  • SV-259218r938707_rule
Session auditing is for use when a user's activities are under investigation. Typically, this DBMS capability would be used in conjunction with comparable monitoring of a user's online session, involving other software components such as operating systems, web servers, and front-end user applications. The current requirement, however, deals specifically with the DBMS. To be sure of capturing all activity during those periods when session auditing is in use, database auditing needs to be in operation for the whole time the DBMS is running.
Checks: C-62957r938705_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62866r938706_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish what type of events occurred.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000130 - V-259219 - SV-259219r938710_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000130
Version
EPAS-00-001600
Vuln IDs
  • V-259219
Rule IDs
  • SV-259219r938710_rule
Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without establishing what type of event occurred, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this policy includes, for example, time stamps, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, filenames involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked. Associating event types with detected events in the application and audit logs provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured application. Database software is capable of a range of actions on data stored within the database. It is important, for accurate forensic analysis, to know exactly what actions were performed. This requires specific information regarding the event type an audit record is referring to. If event type information is not recorded and stored with the audit record, the record itself is of very limited use.
Checks: C-62958r938708_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62867r938709_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must produce audit records containing time stamps to establish when the events occurred.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000131 - V-259220 - SV-259220r938713_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000131
Version
EPAS-00-001700
Vuln IDs
  • V-259220
Rule IDs
  • SV-259220r938713_rule
Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without establishing when events occurred, it is impossible to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident. In order to compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, it is essential for security personnel to know the date and time when events occurred. Associating the date and time with detected events in the application and audit logs provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured application. Database software is capable of a range of actions on data stored within the database. It is important, for accurate forensic analysis, to know exactly when specific actions were performed. This requires the date and time an audit record is referring to. If date and time information is not recorded and stored with the audit record, the record itself is of very limited use.
Checks: C-62959r938711_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62868r938712_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish where the events occurred.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000132 - V-259221 - SV-259221r938716_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000132
Version
EPAS-00-001800
Vuln IDs
  • V-259221
Rule IDs
  • SV-259221r938716_rule
Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without establishing where events occurred, it is impossible to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident. In order to compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, it is essential for security personnel to know where events occurred, such as application components, modules, session identifiers, filenames, host names, and functionality. Associating information about where the event occurred within the application provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured application.
Checks: C-62960r938714_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62869r938715_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish the sources (origins) of the events.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000133 - V-259222 - SV-259222r938719_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000133
Version
EPAS-00-001900
Vuln IDs
  • V-259222
Rule IDs
  • SV-259222r938719_rule
Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without establishing the source of the event, it is impossible to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident. In order to compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, it is essential for security personnel to know where events occurred, such as application components, modules, session identifiers, filenames, host names, and functionality. In addition to logging where events occur within the application, the application must also produce audit records that identify the application itself as the source of the event. Associating information about the source of the event within the application provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured application.
Checks: C-62961r938717_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62870r938718_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish the outcome (success or failure) of the events.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000134 - V-259223 - SV-259223r938722_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000134
Version
EPAS-00-002000
Vuln IDs
  • V-259223
Rule IDs
  • SV-259223r938722_rule
Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without information about the outcome of events, security personnel cannot make an accurate assessment as to whether an attack was successful or if changes were made to the security state of the system. Event outcomes can include indicators of event success or failure and event-specific results (e.g., the security state of the information system after the event occurred). As such, they also provide a means to measure the impact of an event and help authorized personnel to determine the appropriate response.
Checks: C-62962r938720_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62871r938721_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish the identity of any user/subject or process associated with the event.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-001487 - V-259224 - SV-259224r938725_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001487
Version
EPAS-00-002100
Vuln IDs
  • V-259224
Rule IDs
  • SV-259224r938725_rule
Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without information that establishes the identity of the subjects (i.e., users or processes acting on behalf of users) associated with the events, security personnel cannot determine responsibility for the potentially harmful event. Identifiers (if authenticated or otherwise known) include, but are not limited to, user database tables, primary key values, user names, or process identifiers.
Checks: C-62963r938723_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62872r938724_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must include additional, more detailed, organization-defined information in the audit records for audit events identified by type, location, or subject.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000135 - V-259225 - SV-259225r938728_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000135
Version
EPAS-00-002200
Vuln IDs
  • V-259225
Rule IDs
  • SV-259225r938728_rule
Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Reconstruction of harmful events or forensic analysis is not possible if audit records do not contain enough information. To support analysis, some types of events will need information to be logged that exceeds the basic requirements of event type, time stamps, location, source, outcome, and user identity. If additional information is not available, it could negatively impact forensic investigations into user actions or other malicious events. The organization must determine what additional information is required for complete analysis of the audited events. The additional information required is dependent on the type of information (e.g., sensitivity of the data and the environment within which it resides). At a minimum, the organization must employ either full-text recording of privileged commands or the individual identities of group users, or both. The organization must maintain audit trails in sufficient detail to reconstruct events to determine the cause and impact of compromise. Examples of detailed information the organization may require in audit records are full-text recording of privileged commands or the individual identities of group account users. In EnterpriseDB Postgres Advanced Server, the edb_audit_tag can be used to record additional information. This tag can be set to different values by different sessions (connections), and can be set to new values any number of times. How to recognize the conditions for producing such audit data has to be determined and coded for as part of application and database design.
Checks: C-62964r938726_chk

Review the system documentation to identify what additional information the organization has determined necessary. Check application and database design, and existing audit records to verify that all organization-defined additional, more detailed information is in the audit records for audit events identified by type, location, or subject. If any additional information is defined and is not included in the audit records, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62873r938727_fix

Execute the following SQL to set additional detailed information for the audit records in the session: set edb_audit_tag = '<information>'; Replace <information> with a character string holding the additional data that must be captured. To set this in a trigger, an example is included below. Keep in mind that the edb_audit_tag is set for the life of the session, not just the life of the insert command: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION add_audit_info() RETURNS trigger AS $BODY $BEGIN SET edb_audit_tag = '<information>'; RETURN NEW; END; $BODY $LANGUAGE plpgsql; CREATE TRIGGER add_audit_info_trigger BEFORE INSERT ON <table> FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE add_audit_info();

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must, by default, shut down upon audit failure, to include the unavailability of space for more audit log records; or must be configurable to shut down upon audit failure.
AU-5 - Medium - CCI-000140 - V-259226 - SV-259226r938731_rule
RMF Control
AU-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000140
Version
EPAS-00-002300
Vuln IDs
  • V-259226
Rule IDs
  • SV-259226r938731_rule
It is critical that when the DBMS is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required, it take action to mitigate the failure. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors; failures in the audit capturing mechanisms; and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded. Responses to audit failure depend upon the nature of the failure mode. When the need for system availability does not outweigh the need for a complete audit trail, the DBMS should shut down immediately, rolling back all in-flight transactions. Systems where audit trail completeness is paramount will most likely be at a lower MAC level than MAC I; the final determination is the prerogative of the application owner, subject to Authorizing Official concurrence. In any case, sufficient auditing resources must be allocated to avoid a shutdown in all but the most extreme situations.
Checks: C-62965r938729_chk

If the application owner has determined that the need for system availability outweighs the need for a complete audit trail, this is not applicable. If Postgres Enterprise Manager (PEM) is installed and configured to shut down the database when the audit log is full, this is not a finding. Otherwise, review the procedures, manual and/or automated, for monitoring the space used by audit trail(s) and for off-loading audit records to a centralized log management system. If the procedures do not exist, this is a finding. If the procedures exist, request evidence that they are followed. If the evidence indicates that the procedures are not followed, this is a finding. If the procedures exist, inquire if the system has ever run out of audit trail space in the last two years or since the last system upgrade, whichever is more recent. If it has run out of space in this period, and the procedures have not been updated to compensate, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62874r938730_fix

Modify DBMS, OS, or third-party logging application settings to alert appropriate personnel when a specific percentage of log storage capacity is reached. If PEM is in use, it may be configured to issue an alert, send an email to designated personnel, and shut down the EDB Postgres Advanced Server instance when the audit log mount point is at 99 percent full. Refer to the Supplemental Procedures document supplied with this STIG for guidance on configuring PEM alerts.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must be configurable to overwrite audit log records, oldest first (First-In-First-Out [FIFO]), in the event of unavailability of space for more audit log records.
AU-5 - Medium - CCI-000140 - V-259227 - SV-259227r938734_rule
RMF Control
AU-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000140
Version
EPAS-00-002400
Vuln IDs
  • V-259227
Rule IDs
  • SV-259227r938734_rule
It is critical that when the DBMS is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required, it take action to mitigate the failure. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors; failures in the audit capturing mechanisms; and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded. Responses to audit failure depend upon the nature of the failure mode. When availability is an overriding concern, approved actions in response to an audit failure are as follows: (i) If the failure was caused by the lack of audit record storage capacity, the DBMS must continue generating audit records, if possible (automatically restarting the audit service if necessary), overwriting the oldest audit records in a first-in-first-out manner. (ii) If audit records are sent to a centralized collection server and communication with this server is lost or the server fails, the DBMS must queue audit records locally until communication is restored or until the audit records are retrieved manually. Upon restoration of the connection to the centralized collection server, action should be taken to synchronize the local audit data with the collection server. Systems where availability is paramount will most likely be MAC I; the final determination is the prerogative of the application owner, subject to Authorizing Official concurrence. In any case, sufficient auditing resources must be allocated to avoid audit data loss in all but the most extreme situations.
Checks: C-62966r938732_chk

If an externally managed and monitored partition or logical volume that can be grown dynamically is being used for logging, this is not a finding. If EDB Postgres Advanced Server is auditing to a directory that is not being actively checked for availability of disk space, and if logrotate is not configured to rotate logs based on the size of the audit log directory with oldest logs being replaced by newest logs, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62875r938733_fix

Determine the max size of the audit log directory. This fix assumes that the audit log directory has a max size of 100MB. Divide the max size of the directory by 10 to determine the size of the log files for rotation. Perform the following steps to ensure that the audit log directory is never more than 90 percent full and new logs always replace the oldest logs: 1. Add the following to the bottom of the /etc/logrotate.conf file: <path-to-PGDATA-directory>/edb_audit/audit.csv { size 10M dateext dateformat .%Y-%m-%d.%s copytruncate rotate 8 } The default path for the EDB Postgres Advanced Server data directory [PGDATA] is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data, but this will vary according to local circumstances. 2. Create the file /etc/cron.hourly/logrotate with these contents: #!/bin/sh /usr/sbin/logrotate /etc/logrotate.conf EXITVALUE=$? if [ $EXITVALUE != 0 ]; then /usr/bin/logger -t logrotate "ALERT exited abnormally with [$EXITVALUE]" fi exit 0 3. Issue these SQL statements: ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_filename = 'audit'; SELECT pg_reload_conf();

b
The audit information produced by the EDB Postgres Advanced Server must be protected from unauthorized read access.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000162 - V-259228 - SV-259228r938737_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000162
Version
EPAS-00-002600
Vuln IDs
  • V-259228
Rule IDs
  • SV-259228r938737_rule
If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In addition, access to audit records provides information an attacker could potentially use to his or her advantage. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the information system and/or the application must protect audit information from any and all unauthorized access. This includes read, write, copy, etc. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include ensuring log files enjoy the proper file system permissions utilizing file system protections and limiting log data location. Additionally, applications with user interfaces to audit records should not allow for the unfettered manipulation of or access to those records via the application. If the application provides access to the audit data, the application becomes accountable for ensuring that audit information is protected from unauthorized access. Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity.
Checks: C-62967r938735_chk

Verify User ownership, Group ownership, and permissions on the "edb_audit" directory: &gt; ls -ld &lt;path-to-data-directory&gt;/edb_audit If the User owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the Group owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the directory is more permissive than 700, this is a finding. The default path for the edb_audit directory is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

Fix: F-62876r938736_fix

Run these commands as the "root" user (or user with sudo privileges) from the EDB Postgres Advanced Server data (PGDATA) directory: > chown enterprisedb edb_audit > chgrp enterprisedb edb_audit > chmod 700 edb_audit The default path for the edb_audit directory is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

b
The audit information produced by the EDB Postgres Advanced Server must be protected from unauthorized modification.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000163 - V-259229 - SV-259229r938740_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000163
Version
EPAS-00-002700
Vuln IDs
  • V-259229
Rule IDs
  • SV-259229r938740_rule
If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data the information system and/or the application must protect audit information from unauthorized modification. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods that will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include ensuring log files enjoy the proper file system permissions and limiting log data locations. Applications providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights that the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the modification of audit data. Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity. Modification of database audit data could mask the theft of, or the unauthorized modification of, sensitive data stored in the database.
Checks: C-62968r938738_chk

Verify User ownership, Group ownership, and permissions on the "edb_audit" directory: &gt; ls -ld &lt;path-to-data-directory&gt;/edb_audit If the User owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the Group owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the directory is more permissive than 700, this is a finding. The default path for the edb_audit directory is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

Fix: F-62877r938739_fix

Run these commands as the "root" user (or user with sudo privileges) from the EDB Postgres Advanced Server data (PGDATA) directory: > chown enterprisedb edb_audit > chgrp enterprisedb edb_audit > chmod 700 edb_audit The default path for the edb_audit directory is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

b
The audit information produced by the EDB Postgres Advanced Server must be protected from unauthorized deletion.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000164 - V-259230 - SV-259230r938743_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000164
Version
EPAS-00-002800
Vuln IDs
  • V-259230
Rule IDs
  • SV-259230r938743_rule
If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the information system and/or the application must protect audit information from unauthorized deletion. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include: ensuring log files enjoy the proper file system permissions utilizing file system protections; restricting access; and backing up log data to ensure log data is retained. Applications providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order make access decisions regarding the deletion of audit data. Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity. Deletion of database audit data could mask the theft of, or the unauthorized modification of, sensitive data stored in the database.
Checks: C-62969r938741_chk

Verify User ownership, Group ownership, and permissions on the "edb_audit" directory: &gt; ls -ld &lt;path-to-data-directory&gt;/edb_audit If the User owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the Group owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the directory is more permissive than 700, this is a finding. The default path for the edb_audit directory is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

Fix: F-62878r938742_fix

Run these commands as the "root" user (or user with sudo privileges) from the EDB Postgres Advanced Server data (PGDATA) directory: > chown enterprisedb edb_audit > chgrp enterprisedb edb_audit > chmod 700 edb_audit The default path for the edb_audit directory is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must protect its audit features from unauthorized access.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-001493 - V-259231 - SV-259231r938746_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001493
Version
EPAS-00-002900
Vuln IDs
  • V-259231
Rule IDs
  • SV-259231r938746_rule
Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Depending upon the log format and application, system, and application log tools may provide the only means to manipulate and manage application and system log data. It is, therefore, imperative that access to audit tools be controlled and protected from unauthorized access. Applications providing tools to interface with audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the tools and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order make access decisions regarding the access to audit tools. Audit tools include, but are not limited to, OS-provided audit tools, vendor-provided audit tools, and open source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records. If an attacker were to gain access to audit tools, they could analyze audit logs for system weaknesses or weaknesses in the auditing itself. An attacker could also manipulate logs to hide evidence of malicious activity.
Checks: C-62970r938744_chk

Verify User ownership, Group ownership, and permissions on the "edb_audit" directory: &gt; ls -ld &lt;path-to-data-directory&gt;/edb_audit If the User owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the Group owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the directory is more permissive than 700, this is a finding. The default path for the edb_audit directory is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

Fix: F-62879r938745_fix

Run these commands as the "root" user (or user with sudo privileges) from the EDB Postgres Advanced Server data (PGDATA) directory: > chown enterprisedb edb_audit > chgrp enterprisedb edb_audit > chmod 700 edb_audit The default path for the edb_audit directory is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must protect its audit configuration from unauthorized modification.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-001494 - V-259232 - SV-259232r938749_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001494
Version
EPAS-00-003000
Vuln IDs
  • V-259232
Rule IDs
  • SV-259232r938749_rule
Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Therefore, protecting audit tools is necessary to prevent unauthorized operation on audit data. Applications providing tools to interface with audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the tools and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order make access decisions regarding the modification of audit tools. Audit tools include, but are not limited to, vendor-provided and open source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records. Audit tools include custom queries and report generators.
Checks: C-62971r938747_chk

Verify User ownership, Group ownership, and permissions on the "edb_audit" directory: &gt; ls -ld &lt;path-to-data-directory&gt;/edb_audit If the User owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding If the Group owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the directory is more permissive than 700, this is a finding. The default path for the edb_audit directory is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

Fix: F-62880r938748_fix

Run these commands as the "root" user (or user with sudo privileges) from the EDB Postgres Advanced Server data (PGDATA) directory: > chown enterprisedb edb_audit > chgrp enterprisedb edb_audit > chmod 700 edb_audit The default path for the edb_audit directory is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must protect its audit features from unauthorized removal.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-001495 - V-259233 - SV-259233r938752_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001495
Version
EPAS-00-003100
Vuln IDs
  • V-259233
Rule IDs
  • SV-259233r938752_rule
Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Therefore, protecting audit tools is necessary to prevent unauthorized operation on audit data. Applications providing tools to interface with audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the tools and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order make access decisions regarding the deletion of audit tools. Audit tools include, but are not limited to, vendor-provided and open source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records. Audit tools include custom queries and report generators.
Checks: C-62972r938750_chk

Verify User ownership, Group ownership, and permissions on the "edb_audit" directory: &gt; ls -ld &lt;path-to-data-directory&gt;/edb_audit If the User owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the Group owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the directory is more permissive than 700, this is a finding. The default path for the edb_audit directory is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

Fix: F-62881r938751_fix

Run these commands as the "root" user (or user with sudo privileges) from the EDB Postgres Advanced Server data (PGDATA) directory: > chown enterprisedb edb_audit > chgrp enterprisedb edb_audit > chmod 700 edb_audit The default path for the edb_audit directory is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

b
Software, applications, and configuration files that are part of, or related to, the EDB Postgres Advanced Server installation must be monitored to discover unauthorized changes.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-259234 - SV-259234r938755_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
EPAS-00-003200
Vuln IDs
  • V-259234
Rule IDs
  • SV-259234r938755_rule
If the system were to allow any user to make changes to software libraries, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process. Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals must be allowed to obtain access to information system components for purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications. Monitoring is required for assurance that the protections are effective. Unmanaged changes that occur to the database software libraries or configuration can lead to unauthorized or compromised installations.
Checks: C-62973r938753_chk

Review monitoring procedures and implementation evidence to verify monitoring of changes to database software libraries, related applications, and configuration files is done. Verify the list of files and directories being monitored is complete. If monitoring does not occur or is not complete, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62882r938754_fix

Implement procedures to monitor for unauthorized changes to DBMS software libraries, related software application libraries, and configuration files. If a third-party automated tool is not employed, an automated job that reports file information on the directories and files of interest (including file permissions and sizes) and compares them to the baseline report for the same will meet the requirement. Use file hashes or checksums for comparisons, as file dates may be manipulated by malicious users.

b
EDB Postgres Advanced Server software modules, to include stored procedures, functions, and triggers must be monitored to discover unauthorized changes.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-259235 - SV-259235r938758_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
EPAS-00-003210
Vuln IDs
  • V-259235
Rule IDs
  • SV-259235r938758_rule
If the system were to allow any user to make changes to software libraries, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process. Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals must be allowed to obtain access to information system components for purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications. Monitoring is required for assurance that the protections are effective. Unmanaged changes that occur to the logic modules within the database can lead to unauthorized or compromised installations.
Checks: C-62974r938756_chk

Check the EDB Postgres configuration for a timed job that automatically checks all system and user-defined procedures, functions, and triggers for being modified by running the following EDB Postgres query: select job, what from ALL_JOBS; Additionally, in Postgres Enterprise Manager, navigate to the "Jobs" node of the database and examine the job from there. If a timed job or the relation "ALL_JOBS" does not exist, check if the EDB Audit utility has been enabled to capture these changes. As the "enterprisedb" operating system user, run the following command: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" The output should return "all". If neither a timed job or some other method is not implemented to check for procedures, functions, and triggers being modified such as enabling EDB auditing, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62883r938757_fix

Configure an EDB Postgres timed job that automatically checks all system and user-defined procedures, functions, and triggers for being modified, and in the event of such changes informs the proper personnel for evaluation and possible action. Refer to the EDB documentation for further information on how to configure a job using the DBMS_JOB package: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/latest/reference/oracle_compatibility_reference/epas_compat_bip_guide/03_built-in_packages/05_dbms_job/ Alternatively, the EDB audit utility can capture these changes by enabling as follows: Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()"

c
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server software installation account must be restricted to authorized users.
CM-5 - High - CCI-001499 - V-259236 - SV-259236r938761_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
EPAS-00-003300
Vuln IDs
  • V-259236
Rule IDs
  • SV-259236r938761_rule
When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can have significant effects on the overall security of the system. If the system were to allow any user to make changes to software libraries, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process. Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals must be allowed access to information system components for purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications. DBA and other privileged administrative or application owner accounts are granted privileges that allow actions that can have a great impact on database security and operation. It is especially important to grant privileged access to only those persons who are qualified and authorized to use them.
Checks: C-62975r938759_chk

Review procedures for controlling, granting access to, and tracking use of the DBMS software installation account. If access or use of this account is not restricted to the minimum number of personnel required or if unauthorized access to the account has been granted, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62884r938760_fix

Develop, document, and implement procedures to restrict and track use of the DBMS software installation account.

b
Database software, including EDB Postgres Advanced Server configuration files, must be stored in dedicated directories, separate from the host OS and other applications.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-259237 - SV-259237r938764_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
EPAS-00-003400
Vuln IDs
  • V-259237
Rule IDs
  • SV-259237r938764_rule
When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. Multiple applications can provide a cumulative negative effect. A vulnerability and subsequent exploit to one application can lead to an exploit of other applications sharing the same security context. For example, an exploit to a web server process that leads to unauthorized administrative access to host system directories can most likely lead to a compromise of all applications hosted by the same system. Database software not installed using dedicated directories both threatens and is threatened by other hosted applications. Access controls defined for one application may by default provide access to the other application's database objects or directories. Any method that provides any level of separation of security context assists in the protection between applications.
Checks: C-62976r938762_chk

Review the DBMS software library directory and note other root directories located on the same disk directory or any subdirectories. If any non-DBMS software directories exist on the disk directory, examine or investigate their use. If any of the directories are used by other applications, including third-party applications that use the DBMS, this is a finding. Only applications that are required for the functioning and administration, not use, of the DBMS should be located in the same disk directory as the DBMS software libraries. If other applications are located in the same directory as the DBMS, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62885r938763_fix

Install all applications on directories separate from the DBMS software library directory. Relocate any directories or reinstall other application software that currently shares the DBMS software library directory.

b
Database objects must be owned by database/EDB Postgres Advanced Server principals authorized for ownership.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-259238 - SV-259238r938767_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
EPAS-00-003500
Vuln IDs
  • V-259238
Rule IDs
  • SV-259238r938767_rule
Database objects include but are not limited to tables, indexes, storage, stored procedures, functions, triggers, and links to software external to the EDB Postgres Advanced Server, etc. Within the database, object ownership implies full privileges to the owned object, including the privilege to assign access to the owned objects to other subjects. Database functions and procedures can be coded using definer's rights. This allows anyone who utilizes the object to perform the actions as if they were the owner. If not properly managed, this can lead to privileged actions being taken by unauthorized individuals. Conversely, if critical tables or other objects rely on unauthorized owner accounts, these objects may be lost when an account is removed.
Checks: C-62977r938765_chk

Review system documentation to identify accounts authorized to own database objects. Review accounts that own objects in the database(s) by running the following SQL command as the "enterprisedb" user: psql edb -c "SELECT * FROM sys.all_objects;" If any database objects are found to be owned by users not authorized to own database objects, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62886r938766_fix

Assign ownership of authorized objects to authorized object owner accounts by running the following SQL command for each object to be changed: ALTER <type> <object name> OWNER TO <new owner>; For example: ALTER TABLE my_table OWNER TO APP_USER;

b
The role(s)/group(s) used to modify database structure and logic modules must be restricted to authorized users.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-259239 - SV-259239r938770_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
EPAS-00-003600
Vuln IDs
  • V-259239
Rule IDs
  • SV-259239r938770_rule
Database structures include but are not necessarily limited to tables, indexes, storage, etc. Logic modules are objects such as stored procedures, functions, triggers, and links to software external to the DBMS, etc. If the DBMS were to allow any user to make changes to database structure or logic modules, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process. Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals must be allowed to obtain access to information system components for purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications. Unmanaged changes that occur to the database software libraries or configuration can lead to unauthorized or compromised installations.
Checks: C-62978r938768_chk

Use psql to connect to the database as enterprisedb and run this command: \dp *.* If any unauthorized roles have unauthorized accesses, this is a finding. Definitions of the access privileges are defined here: http://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/sql-grant.html

Fix: F-62887r938769_fix

Revoke unauthorized privileges. The syntax is: REVOKE <privilege> ON <object> FROM <role>. Example: REVOKE INSERT ON mytable FROM PUBLIC; Refer to PostgreSQL documentation for details: https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/sql-revoke.html

b
Default, demonstration and sample databases, database objects, and applications must be removed.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-259240 - SV-259240r938773_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
EPAS-00-003700
Vuln IDs
  • V-259240
Rule IDs
  • SV-259240r938773_rule
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for software products to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Examples include, but are not limited to, installing advertising software, demonstrations, or browser plugins not related to requirements or providing a wide array of functionality, not required for every mission, that cannot be disabled. DBMSs must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. Demonstration and sample database objects and applications present publicly known attack points for malicious users. These demonstration and sample objects are meant to provide simple examples of coding specific functions and are not developed to prevent vulnerabilities from being introduced to the DBMS and host system.
Checks: C-62979r938771_chk

Review vendor documentation and vendor websites for vendor-provided demonstration or sample databases, database applications, objects, and files. Review the DBMS to determine if any of the demonstration and sample databases, database applications, or files are installed in the database or are included with the DBMS application. If any are present in the database or are included with the DBMS application, this is a finding. Check for the existence of EDB Postgres sample databases: postgres and edb. Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: psql edb -c "SELECT datname FROM pg_database WHERE datistemplate = false" If any databases are listed here that are not used by the application, this is a finding. Note: the "postgres" and "edb" databases are internal databases that are part of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server.

Fix: F-62888r938772_fix

Remove any unused databases from the DBMS. To remove a database, execute the follow SQL as the enterprised user: > psql edb -c "DROP DATABASE <database>" or > dropdb <database_name>

b
Unused database components, EDB Postgres Advanced Server software, and database objects must be removed.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-259241 - SV-259241r938776_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
EPAS-00-003800
Vuln IDs
  • V-259241
Rule IDs
  • SV-259241r938776_rule
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for software products to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. DBMSs must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities.
Checks: C-62980r938774_chk

Review the list of components and features installed with the database. If unused components are installed and are not documented and authorized, this is a finding. RPM can also be used to check what is installed: &gt; yum list installed | grep edb- This returns EDB database packages that have been installed. If any packages displayed by this command are not being used, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62889r938775_fix

Review the EDB Postgres Advanced Server packages available in the installation guide here: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/<version number>/ Uninstall all packages that are not required by running the following as the "root" user: > yum erase -y <package-name> At a minimum, the edb-as<version>-server-* packages are required. Additionally, other packages such as pem, jdbc, postgis, pgpool, and others may be required by applications that need the functionality provided in these additional packages.

b
Unused database components which are integrated in the EDB Postgres Advanced Server and cannot be uninstalled must be disabled.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-259242 - SV-259242r938779_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
EPAS-00-003900
Vuln IDs
  • V-259242
Rule IDs
  • SV-259242r938779_rule
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for software products to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. DBMSs must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. Unused, unnecessary DBMS components increase the attack vector for the DBMS by introducing additional targets for attack. By minimizing the services and applications installed on the system, the number of potential vulnerabilities is reduced. Components of the system that are unused and cannot be uninstalled must be disabled. The techniques available for disabling components will vary by DBMS product, OS, and the nature of the component and may include DBMS configuration settings, OS service settings, OS file access security, and DBMS user/group permissions.
Checks: C-62981r938777_chk

Run the following command as the "root" user: &gt; yum list installed | grep edb- If any packages are installed that are not required, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62890r938778_fix

Review the EDB Postgres Advanced Server packages available in the installation guide here: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/<version number>/ Uninstall all packages that are not required by running the following as the "root" user: > yum erase -y <package-name> At a minimum, the edb-as<version>-server-* packages are required. Additionally, other packages such as pem, jdbc, postgis, pgpool, and others may be required by applications that need the functionality provided in these additional packages.

b
Access to external executables must be disabled or restricted.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000381 - V-259243 - SV-259243r938782_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000381
Version
EPAS-00-004000
Vuln IDs
  • V-259243
Rule IDs
  • SV-259243r938782_rule
Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities. DBMSs may spawn additional external processes to execute procedures that are defined in the DBMS but stored in external host files (external procedures). The spawned process used to execute the external procedure may operate within a different OS security context than the DBMS and provide unauthorized access to the host system.
Checks: C-62982r938780_chk

Run the following command as the "root" user: &gt; yum list installed | grep edb- If any packages are installed that are not required, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62891r938781_fix

Review the EDB Postgres Advanced Server packages available in the installation guide here: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/<version number>/ Uninstall all packages that are not required by running the following as the "root" user: > yum erase -y <package-name> At a minimum, the edb-as<version>-server-* packages are required. Additionally, other packages such as pem, jdbc, postgis, pgpool, and others may be required by applications that need the functionality provided in these additional packages.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must be configured to prohibit or restrict the use of organization-defined functions, ports, protocols, and/or services, as defined in the PPSM CAL and vulnerability assessments.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-000382 - V-259244 - SV-259244r938785_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000382
Version
EPAS-00-004100
Vuln IDs
  • V-259244
Rule IDs
  • SV-259244r938785_rule
In order to prevent unauthorized connection of devices, unauthorized transfer of information, or unauthorized tunneling (i.e., embedding of data types within data types), organizations must disable or restrict unused or unnecessary physical and logical ports/protocols/services on information systems. Applications are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services provided by default may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations. Additionally, it is sometimes convenient to provide multiple services from a single component (e.g., email and web services); however, doing so increases risk over limiting the services provided by any one component. To support the requirements and principles of least functionality, the application must support the organizational requirements providing only essential capabilities and limiting the use of ports, protocols, and/or services to only those required, authorized, and approved to conduct official business or to address authorized quality of life issues. Database Management Systems using ports, protocols, and services deemed unsafe are open to attack through those ports, protocols, and services. This can allow unauthorized access to the database and through the database to other components of the information system.
Checks: C-62983r938783_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW port" &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW listen_addresses" If the port or addresses are not approved, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62892r938784_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET port = <port number>" > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET listen_addresses = '<addresses>'" Execute the following operating system command as the "root" user: > systemctl restart edb-as-<version> Note: <version> is the major version of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server instance (e.g., 15).

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must uniquely identify and authenticate organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of organizational users).
IA-2 - Medium - CCI-000764 - V-259245 - SV-259245r938788_rule
RMF Control
IA-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000764
Version
EPAS-00-004200
Vuln IDs
  • V-259245
Rule IDs
  • SV-259245r938788_rule
To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, organizational users must be identified and authenticated to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system. Organizational users include organizational employees or individuals the organization deems to have equivalent status of employees (e.g., contractors). Organizational users (and any processes acting on behalf of users) must be uniquely identified and authenticated for all accesses, except the following: (i) Accesses explicitly identified and documented by the organization. Organizations document specific user actions that can be performed on the information system without identification or authentication; and (ii) Accesses that occur through authorized use of group authenticators without individual authentication. Organizations may require unique identification of individuals in group accounts (e.g., shared privilege accounts) or for detailed accountability of individual activity.
Checks: C-62984r938786_chk

Open the "pg_hba.conf" file in a viewer or editor. The default path for the pg_hba.conf file is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances. If any rows have "trust" specified for the "METHOD" column, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62893r938787_fix

Open the "pg_hba.conf" file in an editor. The default path for the pg_hba.conf file is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances. If any rows have "trust" specified for the "METHOD" column, delete the rows or change them to other authentication methods. Permitted methods in preferred order are: peer (local only), cert, ldap, sspi, pam, and scram-sha-256.

c
If DBMS authentication, using passwords, is employed, EDB Postgres Advanced Server must enforce the DOD standards for password complexity and lifetime.
IA-5 - High - CCI-000192 - V-259246 - SV-259246r938791_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000192
Version
EPAS-00-004250
Vuln IDs
  • V-259246
Rule IDs
  • SV-259246r938791_rule
OS/enterprise authentication and identification must be used (SRG-APP-000023-DB-000001). Native DBMS authentication may be used only when circumstances make it unavoidable; and must be documented and AO-approved. The DOD standard for authentication is DOD-approved PKI certificates. Authentication based on User ID and Password may be used only when it is not possible to employ a PKI certificate, and requires AO approval. In such cases, the DOD standards for password complexity and lifetime must be implemented. DBMS products that can inherit the rules for these from the operating system or access control program (e.g., Microsoft Active Directory) must be configured to do so. For other DBMSs, the rules must be enforced using available configuration parameters or custom code.
Checks: C-62985r938789_chk

If DBMS authentication, using passwords, is not employed, this is not a finding. In a SQL window, run this command: select * from dba_profiles; If there are UNLIMITED or NULL values in the "limit" column, this is a finding. Review the password verification functions specified for the PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION settings for each profile. Determine whether the following rules are enforced by the code in those functions. If any are not, this is a finding. a. minimum of 15 characters, including at least one of each of the following character sets: - Upper-case - Lower-case - Numeric - Special characters (e.g., ~ ! @ # $ % ^ &amp; * ( ) _ + = - ' [ ] / ? &gt; &lt;) b. Minimum number of characters changed from previous password: 50 percent of the minimum password length; that is, eight. Review the DBMS settings relating to password lifetime. Determine whether the following rules are enforced. If any are not, this is a finding. a. Password lifetime limits for interactive accounts: minimum 24 hours, maximum 60 days. b. Password lifetime limits for noninteractive accounts: minimum 24 hours, maximum 365 days. c. Number of password changes before an old one may be reused: minimum of five.

Fix: F-62894r938790_fix

After creating a password verification function, configure the default profile to use it and the other required password related settings. To facilitate checking that a new password is sufficiently different from a previously used one, the dod_verify_password function uses the Levenshtein function, which is available as part of the PostgreSQL fuzzystrmatch extension. Before creating the password verification function, check whether the fuzzystrmatch extension is installed by executing the following SQL query as enterprisedb: SELECT extname FROM pg_extension; If "fuzzystrmatch" is not listed, execute the following SQL to install the extension as enterprisedb: CREATE EXTENSION fuzzystrmatch; With the fuzzystrmatch extension installed, execute the following SQL statements as enterprisedb: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION sys.dod_verify_password(user_name varchar2, new_password varchar2, old_password varchar2) RETURN boolean IMMUTABLE IS pwd_length integer := NVL( length(new_password), 0 ); min_length integer := 15; min_lower integer := 1; min_upper integer := 1; min_numeric integer := 1; min_special integer := 1; min_diff integer := ceil(min_length::numeric / 2); cnt_lower integer := 0; cnt_upper integer := 0; cnt_numeric integer := 0; cnt_special integer := 0; cnt_diff integer := 0; i integer ; curr_char CHAR(1); BEGIN -- -- Check Length of new password -- IF ( pwd_length < min_length ) THEN raise_application_error(-20001, 'Password is too short. Password must be at least '||min_length||' characters long.'); END IF; -- -- Get count of each character type in new password. -- FOR i in 1..pwd_length LOOP curr_char := substr(new_password, i, 1); IF ( curr_char SIMILAR TO '[a-z]' ) THEN cnt_lower := cnt_lower + 1; ELSIF ( curr_char SIMILAR TO '[A-Z]' ) THEN cnt_upper := cnt_upper + 1; ELSIF ( curr_char SIMILAR TO '[0-9]' ) THEN cnt_numeric := cnt_numeric + 1; ELSE cnt_special := cnt_special + 1; END IF; END LOOP; -- -- Calculate Levenshtein difference between old and new password -- cnt_diff := levenshtein( old_password, new_password ); -- Check if new password has minimum number of lowercase characters IF cnt_lower < min_lower THEN raise_application_error(-20004, 'Password must contain at least '||min_lower||' lowercase character(s)'); END IF; -- Check if new password has minimum number of uppercase characters IF cnt_upper < min_upper THEN raise_application_error(-20003, 'Password must contain at least '||min_upper||' uppercase character(s)'); END IF; -- Check if new password has minimum number of numeric characters IF cnt_numeric < min_numeric THEN raise_application_error(-20005, 'Password must contain at least '||min_numeric||' numeric character(s)'); END IF; -- Check if new password has minimum number of special characters IF cnt_special < min_special THEN raise_application_error(-20006, 'Password must contain at least '||min_special||' special character(s)'); END IF; -- Check if new password differs from old password by minimum number of required characters IF cnt_diff < min_diff THEN raise_application_error(-20007, 'Password must differ from old password by at least '||min_diff||' character(s)'); END IF; RETURN true; END; ALTER FUNCTION sys.dod_verify_password(varchar2, varchar2, varchar2) OWNER TO enterprisedb; Next, execute the following statement (or a variant of this) to set the default profile for DOD standards: ALTER PROFILE DEFAULT LIMIT FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 3 PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME 1 PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 60 PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME 3 PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME 180 PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX 5 PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION dod_verify_password; Note that the above statement assumes that the password verification function is named "dod_verify_password". If the function was created with a different name, update the ALTER PROFILE statement above as appropriate.

c
If passwords are used for authentication, the EDB Postgres Advanced Server must store only hashed, salted representations of passwords.
IA-5 - High - CCI-000196 - V-259247 - SV-259247r938794_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000196
Version
EPAS-00-004300
Vuln IDs
  • V-259247
Rule IDs
  • SV-259247r938794_rule
The DOD standard for authentication is DOD-approved PKI certificates. Authentication based on User ID and Password may be used only when it is not possible to employ a PKI certificate, and requires AO approval. In such cases, database passwords stored in clear text, using reversible encryption, or using unsalted hashes would be vulnerable to unauthorized disclosure. Database passwords must always be in the form of one-way, salted hashes when stored internally or externally to the DBMS.
Checks: C-62986r938792_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" user: SHOW password_encryption; If the value is not "scram-sha-256", this is a finding

Fix: F-62895r938793_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" user: ALTER SYSTEM SET password_encryption = 'scram-sha-256'; SELECT pg_reload_conf();

c
If passwords are used for authentication, the EDB Postgres Advanced Server must transmit only encrypted representations of passwords.
IA-5 - High - CCI-000197 - V-259248 - SV-259248r938797_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000197
Version
EPAS-00-004400
Vuln IDs
  • V-259248
Rule IDs
  • SV-259248r938797_rule
The DOD standard for authentication is DOD-approved PKI certificates. Authentication based on User ID and Password may be used only when it is not possible to employ a PKI certificate, and requires AO approval. In such cases, passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords during transmission. DBMS passwords sent in clear text format across the network are vulnerable to discovery by unauthorized users. Disclosure of passwords may easily lead to unauthorized access to the database.
Checks: C-62987r938795_chk

Open the "pg_hba.conf" file in a viewer or editor. The default path for the pg_hba.conf file is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances. If any rows have TYPE of "hostssl" but do not include "clientcert=1" in the OPTIONS column at the end of the line, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62896r938796_fix

Open the "pg_hba.conf" file in an editor. The default path for the pg_hba.conf file is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances. For any rows that have TYPE of "hostssl", append "clientcert=1" in the OPTIONS column at the end of the line.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server, when utilizing PKI-based authentication, must validate certificates by performing RFC 5280-compliant certification path validation.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000185 - V-259249 - SV-259249r938800_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000185
Version
EPAS-00-004500
Vuln IDs
  • V-259249
Rule IDs
  • SV-259249r938800_rule
The DOD standard for authentication is DOD-approved PKI certificates. A certificate's certification path is the path from the end entity certificate to a trusted root certification authority (CA). Certification path validation is necessary for a relying party to make an informed decision regarding acceptance of an end entity certificate. Certification path validation includes checks such as certificate issuer trust, time validity and revocation status for each certificate in the certification path. Revocation status information for CA and subject certificates in a certification path is commonly provided via certificate revocation lists (CRLs) or online certificate status protocol (OCSP) responses. Database Management Systems that do not validate certificates by performing RFC 5280-compliant certification path validation are in danger of accepting certificates that are invalid and/or counterfeit. This could allow unauthorized access to the database.
Checks: C-62988r938798_chk

Open "&lt;postgresql data directory&gt;/pg_hba.conf" in a viewer or editor. The default path for the postgresql data directory is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances. If any rows have TYPE of "hostssl" but do not include "clientcert=1" in the OPTIONS column at the end of the line, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62897r938799_fix

Open "<postgresql data directory>/pg_hba.conf" in an editor. The default path for the postgresql data directory is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances. For any rows that have TYPE of "hostssl", append "clientcert=1" in the OPTIONS column at the end of the line.

c
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must enforce authorized access to all PKI private keys stored/used by the EDB Postgres Advanced Server.
IA-5 - High - CCI-000186 - V-259250 - SV-259250r938803_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000186
Version
EPAS-00-004600
Vuln IDs
  • V-259250
Rule IDs
  • SV-259250r938803_rule
The DOD standard for authentication is DOD-approved PKI certificates. PKI certificate-based authentication is performed by requiring the certificate holder to cryptographically prove possession of the corresponding private key. If the private key is stolen, an attacker can use the private key(s) to impersonate the certificate holder. In cases where the DBMS-stored private keys are used to authenticate the DBMS to the system's clients, loss of the corresponding private keys would allow an attacker to successfully perform undetected man-in-the-middle attacks against the DBMS system and its clients. Both the holder of a digital certificate and the issuing authority must take careful measures to protect the corresponding private key. Private keys should always be generated and protected in FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 validated cryptographic modules. All access to the private key(s) of the DBMS must be restricted to authorized and authenticated users. If unauthorized users have access to one or more of the DBMS's private keys, an attacker could gain access to the key(s) and use them to impersonate the database on the network or otherwise perform unauthorized actions.
Checks: C-62989r938801_chk

Verify User ownership, Group ownership, and permissions on the "server.key" file: &gt; ls -alL &lt;postgresql data directory&gt;/server.key If the User owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the Group owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the file is more permissive than 600, this is a finding. The default path for the postgresql data directory is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

Fix: F-62898r938802_fix

Run these commands: > chown enterprisedb <postgresql data directory>/server.key" > chgrp enterprisedb <postgresql data directory>/server.key > chmod 600 <postgresql data directory>/server.key The default path for the postgresql data directory is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

b
The DBMS must map the PKI-authenticated identity to an associated user account.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000187 - V-259251 - SV-259251r938806_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000187
Version
EPAS-00-004700
Vuln IDs
  • V-259251
Rule IDs
  • SV-259251r938806_rule
The DOD standard for authentication is DOD-approved PKI certificates. Once a PKI certificate has been validated, it must be mapped to a DBMS user account for the authenticated identity to be meaningful to the DBMS and useful for authorization decisions.
Checks: C-62990r938804_chk

The Common Name (cn) attribute of the certificate will be compared to the requested database user name and, if they match, the login will be allowed. To check the cn of the certificate, using openssl, do the following: $ openssl x509 -noout -subject -in client_cert If the cn does not match the users listed in PostgreSQL and no user mapping is used, this is a finding. User name mapping can be used to allow cn to be different from the database user name. If User Name Maps are used, run the following as the database administrator (shown here as "enterprisedb"), to get a list of maps used for authentication: $ sudo su - enterprisedb $ grep "map" $&lt;data directory&gt;/pg_hba.conf The default path for the postgresql data directory is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances. With the names of the maps used, check those maps against the user name mappings in pg_ident.conf: $ sudo su - enterprisedb $ cat &lt;data directory&gt;/pg_ident.conf If user accounts are not being mapped to authenticated identities, this is a finding. If the cn and the username mapping do not match, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62899r938805_fix

Configure PostgreSQL to map authenticated identities directly to PostgreSQL user accounts.

c
When using command-line tools such as psql, users must use a logon method that does not expose the password.
IA-6 - High - CCI-000206 - V-259252 - SV-259252r938809_rule
RMF Control
IA-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000206
Version
EPAS-00-004800
Vuln IDs
  • V-259252
Rule IDs
  • SV-259252r938809_rule
To prevent the compromise of authentication information, such as passwords and PINs, during the authentication process, the feedback from the information system must not provide any information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise the authentication mechanism. Obfuscation of user-provided information when typed into the system is a method used in addressing this risk. For example, displaying asterisks when a user types in a password or PIN, is an example of obscuring feedback of authentication information. This requirement is applicable when mixed-mode authentication is enabled. When this is the case, password-authenticated accounts can be created in and authenticated by SQL Server. Other STIG requirements prohibit the use of mixed-mode authentication except when justified and approved. This deals with the exceptions. Psql is part of any PostgreSQL installation. Other command-line tools may also exist. These tools can accept a plain-text password, but do offer alternative techniques. Since the typical user of these tools is a database administrator, the consequences of password compromise are particularly serious. Therefore, the use of plain-text passwords must be prohibited, as a matter of practice and procedure.
Checks: C-62991r938807_chk

For psql, which cannot be configured not to accept a plain-text password, and any other essential tool with the same limitation, verify that the system documentation explains the need for the tool, who uses it, and any relevant mitigations and that AO approval has been obtained. If not, this is a finding. Request evidence that all users of the tool are trained in the importance of using the "-w" option and not using the plain-text password option and in how to keep the password hidden and that they adhere to this practice. If not, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62900r938808_fix

For psql, which can accept a plain-text password, and any other essential tool with the same limitation: 1. Document the need for it, who uses it, and any relevant mitigations, and obtain AO approval. 2. Train all users of the tool in the importance of not using the plain-text password option and in how to keep the password hidden by using the "-w" option.

c
Applications must obscure feedback of authentication information during the authentication process to protect the information from possible exploitation/use by unauthorized individuals.
IA-6 - High - CCI-000206 - V-259253 - SV-259253r938812_rule
RMF Control
IA-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000206
Version
EPAS-00-004810
Vuln IDs
  • V-259253
Rule IDs
  • SV-259253r938812_rule
To prevent the compromise of authentication information, such as passwords and PINs, during the authentication process, the feedback from the information system must not provide any information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise the authentication mechanism. Obfuscation of user-provided information when typed into the system is a method used in addressing this risk. For example, displaying asterisks when a user types in a password or PIN, is an example of obscuring feedback of authentication information. Database applications may allow for entry of the account name and password as a visible parameter of the application execution command. This practice must be prohibited and disabled to prevent shoulder surfing. This calls for review of applications, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers, and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed, and must document what has been discovered.
Checks: C-62992r938810_chk

Determine whether any applications that access the database allow for entry of the account name and password or PIN. If any do, determine whether these applications obfuscate authentication data. If they do not, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62901r938811_fix

Configure or modify applications to prohibit display of passwords in clear text.

c
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must use NIST FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 validated cryptographic modules for cryptographic operations.
IA-7 - High - CCI-000803 - V-259254 - SV-259254r938815_rule
RMF Control
IA-7
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000803
Version
EPAS-00-004900
Vuln IDs
  • V-259254
Rule IDs
  • SV-259254r938815_rule
Use of weak or not validated cryptographic algorithms undermines the purposes of using encryption and digital signatures to protect data. Weak algorithms can be easily broken and not validated cryptographic modules may not implement algorithms correctly. Unapproved cryptographic modules or algorithms should not be relied on for authentication, confidentiality, or integrity. Weak cryptography could allow an attacker to gain access to and modify data stored in the database as well as the administration settings of the DBMS. Applications (including DBMSs) using cryptography are required to use approved NIST FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 validated cryptographic modules that meet the requirements of applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. NSA Type-X (where X=1, 2, 3, 4) products are NSA-certified, hardware-based encryption modules. The standard for validating cryptographic modules will transition to the NIST FIPS 140-3 publication. FIPS 140-2 modules can remain active for up to five years after validation or until September 21, 2026, when the FIPS 140-2 validations will be moved to the historical list. Even on the historical list, CMVP supports the purchase and use of these modules for existing systems. While Federal Agencies decide when they move to FIPS 140-3 only modules, purchasers are reminded that for several years there may be a limited selection of FIPS 140-3 modules from which to choose. CMVP recommends purchasers consider all modules that appear on the Validated Modules Search Page: https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/cryptographic-module-validation-program/validated-modules More information on the FIPS 140-3 transition can be found here: https://csrc.nist.gov/Projects/fips-140-3-transition-effort/
Checks: C-62993r938813_chk

If a FIPS-certified OpenSSL library is not installed, this is a finding. Run the command "cat /proc/sys/crypto/fips_enabled". If the output is not "1", this is a finding. For RedHat 8 or higher, run "fips-mode-setup --check". If the output is not "FIPS mode is enabled", this is a finding.

Fix: F-62902r938814_fix

If fips_enabled = 0 or FIPS mode is not enabled, configure OpenSSL to be FIPS compliant. Configure per operating system documentation: RedHat7: https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/security_guide/chap-federal_standards_and_regulations RedHat8: https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/8/html/security_hardening/assembly_installing-a-rhel-8-system-with-fips-mode-enabled_security-hardening

c
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must be configured on a platform that has a NIST-certified FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 installation of OpenSSL.
IA-7 - High - CCI-000803 - V-259255 - SV-259255r938818_rule
RMF Control
IA-7
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000803
Version
EPAS-00-004950
Vuln IDs
  • V-259255
Rule IDs
  • SV-259255r938818_rule
PostgreSQL uses OpenSSL for the underlying encryption layer. It must be installed on an operating system that contains a certified FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 distribution of OpenSSL. For other operating systems, users must obtain or build their own FIPS 140 OpenSSL libraries.
Checks: C-62994r938816_chk

If the deployment incorporates a custom build of the operating system and PostgreSQL guaranteeing the use of FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 compliant OpenSSL, this is not a finding. If PostgreSQL is not installed on an OS found in the CMVP (https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/cryptographic-module-validation-program/validated-modules), this is a finding. If FIPS encryption is not enabled, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62903r938817_fix

Install PostgreSQL with FIPS-compliant cryptography enabled on an OS found in the CMVP (https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/cryptographic-module-validation-program/validated-modules) or by other means, ensure that FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 certified OpenSSL libraries are used by the DBMS.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must uniquely identify and authenticate nonorganizational users (or processes acting on behalf of nonorganizational users).
IA-8 - Medium - CCI-000804 - V-259256 - SV-259256r938821_rule
RMF Control
IA-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000804
Version
EPAS-00-005000
Vuln IDs
  • V-259256
Rule IDs
  • SV-259256r938821_rule
Nonorganizational users include all information system users other than organizational users, which include organizational employees or individuals the organization deems to have equivalent status of employees (e.g., contractors, guest researchers, individuals from allied nations). Nonorganizational users must be uniquely identified and authenticated for all accesses other than those accesses explicitly identified and documented by the organization when related to the use of anonymous access, such as accessing a web server. Accordingly, a risk assessment is used in determining the authentication needs of the organization. Scalability, practicality, and security are simultaneously considered in balancing the need to ensure ease of use for access to federal information and information systems with the need to protect and adequately mitigate risk to organizational operations, organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, and the nation.
Checks: C-62995r938819_chk

Open the "pg_hba.conf" file in a viewer or editor. The default path for the pg_hba.conf file is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances. If any rows have "trust" specified for the "METHOD" column, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62904r938820_fix

Open the "pg_hba.conf" file in an editor. The default path for the pg_hba.conf file is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances. If any rows have "trust" specified for the "METHOD" column, delete the rows or change them to other authentication methods. Permitted methods in preferred order are: peer (local only), cert, ldap, sspi, pam, and scram-sha-256.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must separate user functionality (including user interface services) from database management functionality.
SC-2 - Medium - CCI-001082 - V-259257 - SV-259257r938824_rule
RMF Control
SC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001082
Version
EPAS-00-005100
Vuln IDs
  • V-259257
Rule IDs
  • SV-259257r938824_rule
Information system management functionality includes functions necessary to administer databases, network components, workstations, or servers and typically requires privileged user access. The separation of user functionality from information system management functionality is either physical or logical and is accomplished by using different computers, different central processing units, different instances of the operating system, different network addresses, combinations of these methods, or other methods, as appropriate. An example of this type of separation is observed in web administrative interfaces that use separate authentication methods for users of any other information system resources. This may include isolating the administrative interface on a different domain and with additional access controls. If administrative functionality or information regarding DBMS management is presented on an interface available for users, information on DBMS settings may be inadvertently made available to the user.
Checks: C-62996r938822_chk

As the "enterprisedb" user, run the following from the command line: &gt; psql edb From the psql prompt run: \du If a user listed in the output is not approved for SUPERUSER access, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62905r938823_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user for all database users not approved for SUPERUSER privileges: > psql edb -c "ALTER USER <username> NOSUPERUSER"

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must invalidate session identifiers upon user logout or other session termination.
SC-23 - Medium - CCI-001185 - V-259258 - SV-259258r938827_rule
RMF Control
SC-23
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001185
Version
EPAS-00-005200
Vuln IDs
  • V-259258
Rule IDs
  • SV-259258r938827_rule
Captured sessions can be reused in "replay" attacks. This requirement limits the ability of adversaries to capture and continue to employ previously valid session IDs. This requirement focuses on communications protection for the DBMS session rather than for the network packet. The intent of this control is to establish grounds for confidence at each end of a communications session in the ongoing identity of the other party and in the validity of the information being transmitted. Session IDs are tokens generated by DBMSs to uniquely identify a user's (or process's) session. DBMSs will make access decisions and execute logic based on the session ID. Unique session IDs help to reduce predictability of said identifiers. Unique session IDs address man-in-the-middle attacks, including session hijacking or insertion of false information into a session. If the attacker is unable to identify or guess the session information related to pending application traffic, they will have more difficulty in hijacking the session or otherwise manipulating valid sessions. When a user logs out, or when any other session termination event occurs, the DBMS must terminate the user session(s) to minimize the potential for sessions to be hijacked.
Checks: C-62997r938825_chk

As the "enterprisedb" user, run the following from the command line: &gt; psql edb From the psql prompt run the following commands: SHOW statement_timeout; SHOW tcp_keepalives_idle; SHOW tcp_keepalives_interval; SHOW tcp_keepalives_count; If any of the above parameters has a value of "0", this is a finding.

Fix: F-62906r938826_fix

As the "enterprisedb" user, run the following from the command line for all of the previously noted parameters with a value of "0" : psql edb ALTER SYSTEM SET statement_timeout = 10000; ALTER SYSTEM SET tcp_keepalives_idle = 10; ALTER SYSTEM SET tcp_keepalives_interval = 10; ALTER SYSTEM SET tcp_keepalives_count = 10; Note: The above values can be configured per organization requirements. Refer to documentation : https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/latest/reference/database_administrator_reference/02_summary_of_configuration_parameters/ From the operating system command line run the following as the "enterprisedb" user: systemctl restart edb-as-<version>

c
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must protect the confidentiality and integrity of all information at rest.
SC-28 - High - CCI-001199 - V-259259 - SV-259259r938830_rule
RMF Control
SC-28
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001199
Version
EPAS-00-005700
Vuln IDs
  • V-259259
Rule IDs
  • SV-259259r938830_rule
This control is intended to address the confidentiality and integrity of information at rest in nonmobile devices and covers user information and system information. Information at rest refers to the state of information when it is located on a secondary storage device (e.g., disk drive, tape drive) within an organizational information system. Applications and application users generate information throughout the course of their application use. User-generated data, as well as application-specific configuration data, needs to be protected. Organizations may choose to employ different mechanisms to achieve confidentiality and integrity protections, as appropriate. If the confidentiality and integrity of application data is not protected, the data will be open to compromise and unauthorized modification.
Checks: C-62998r938828_chk

Review the system documentation to determine whether the organization has defined the information at rest that is to be protected from modification, which must include, at a minimum, PII and classified information. If no information is identified as requiring such protection, this is not a finding. Review the configuration of the DBMS, operating system/file system, and additional software as relevant. If any of the information defined as requiring cryptographic protection from modification is not encrypted in a manner that provides the required level of protection, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62907r938829_fix

Create an encrypted partition to host the PGDATA directory. The default path for the PGDATA directory is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data, but this will vary according to local circumstances. This can be done at the OS level with encryption technologies provided by third-party tools. If only certain columns need encryption, use the pgcrypto module to encrypt those columns as documented here: https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/pgcrypto.html Note: Starting in Version 15, EDB Postgres Advanced Server natively supports Transparent Data Encryption (TDE): https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/latest/epas_security_guide/tde_feature/

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must isolate security functions from nonsecurity functions.
SC-3 - Medium - CCI-001084 - V-259260 - SV-259260r938833_rule
RMF Control
SC-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001084
Version
EPAS-00-005800
Vuln IDs
  • V-259260
Rule IDs
  • SV-259260r938833_rule
An isolation boundary provides access control and protects the integrity of the hardware, software, and firmware that perform security functions. Security functions are the hardware, software, and/or firmware of the information system responsible for enforcing the system security policy and supporting the isolation of code and data on which the protection is based. Developers and implementers can increase the assurance in security functions by employing well-defined security policy models; structured, disciplined, and rigorous hardware and software development techniques; and sound system/security engineering principles. Database Management Systems typically separate security functionality from nonsecurity functionality via separate databases or schemas. Database objects or code implementing security functionality should not be commingled with objects or code implementing application logic. When security and nonsecurity functionality are commingled, users who have access to nonsecurity functionality may be able to access security functionality.
Checks: C-62999r938831_chk

All EDB Postgres Advanced Server built-in security packages are in the sys, pg_catalog, information_schema, and dbo schemas. If any application-specific packages have been added to these schemas, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62908r938832_fix

Remove all application-specific packages that were added to the sys, pg_catalog, information_schema, and dbo schemas.

b
Database contents must be protected from unauthorized and unintended information transfer by enforcement of a data transfer policy.
SC-4 - Medium - CCI-001090 - V-259261 - SV-259261r938836_rule
RMF Control
SC-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001090
Version
EPAS-00-005900
Vuln IDs
  • V-259261
Rule IDs
  • SV-259261r938836_rule
Applications, including DBMSs, must prevent unauthorized and unintended information transfer via shared system resources. Data used for the development and testing of applications often involves copying data from production. It is important that specific procedures exist for this process, to include the conditions under which such transfer may take place, where the copies may reside, and the rules for ensuring sensitive data are not exposed. Copies of sensitive data must not be misplaced or left in a temporary location without the proper controls.
Checks: C-63000r938834_chk

Review the procedures for the refreshing of development/test data from production. Review any scripts or code that exists for the movement of production data to development/test systems or to any other location or for any other purpose. Verify that copies of production data are not left in unprotected locations. If the code that exists for data movement does not comply with the organization-defined data transfer policy and/or fails to remove any copies of production data from unprotected locations, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62909r938835_fix

Modify any code used for moving data from production to development/test systems to comply with the organization-defined data transfer policy and to ensure copies of production data are not left in unsecured locations.

b
Access to database files must be limited to relevant processes and to authorized, administrative users.
SC-4 - Medium - CCI-001090 - V-259262 - SV-259262r938839_rule
RMF Control
SC-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001090
Version
EPAS-00-006100
Vuln IDs
  • V-259262
Rule IDs
  • SV-259262r938839_rule
Applications, including DBMSs, must prevent unauthorized and unintended information transfer via shared system resources. Permitting only DBMS processes and authorized, administrative users to have access to the files where the database resides helps ensure that those files are not shared inappropriately and are not open to backdoor access and manipulation.
Checks: C-63001r938837_chk

Verify User ownership, Group ownership, and permissions on the &lt;postgresql data directory&gt; directory: &gt; ls -ald &lt;PostgreSQL data directory&gt; If the User owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the Group owner is not "enterprisedb", this is a finding. If the directory is more permissive than 700, this is a finding. The default path for the postgresql data directory is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

Fix: F-62910r938838_fix

Run these commands: > chown enterprisedb <PostgreSQL data directory> > chgrp enterprisedb <PostgreSQL data directory> > chmod 700 <PostgreSQL data directory> The default path for the postgresql data directory is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must check the validity of all data inputs except those specifically identified by the organization.
SI-10 - Medium - CCI-001310 - V-259263 - SV-259263r938842_rule
RMF Control
SI-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001310
Version
EPAS-00-006200
Vuln IDs
  • V-259263
Rule IDs
  • SV-259263r938842_rule
Invalid user input occurs when a user inserts data or characters into an application's data entry fields and the application is unprepared to process that data. This results in unanticipated application behavior, potentially leading to an application or information system compromise. Invalid user input is one of the primary methods employed when attempting to compromise an application. With respect to database management systems, one class of threat is known as SQL Injection, or more generally, code injection. It takes advantage of the dynamic execution capabilities of various programming languages, including dialects of SQL. Potentially, the attacker can gain unauthorized access to data, including security settings, and severely corrupt or destroy the database. Even when no such hijacking takes place, invalid input that gets recorded in the database, whether accidental or malicious, reduces the reliability and usability of the system. Available protections include data types, referential constraints, uniqueness constraints, range checking, and application-specific logic. Application-specific logic can be implemented within the database in stored procedures and triggers, where appropriate.
Checks: C-63002r938840_chk

Review DBMS code (trigger procedures, functions), application code, settings, column and field definitions, and constraints to determine whether the database is protected against invalid input. If code exists that allows invalid data to be acted upon or input into the database, this is a finding. If column/field definitions do not exist in the database, this is a finding. If columns/fields do not contain constraints and validity checking where required, this is a finding. Where a column/field is noted in the system documentation as necessarily free-form, even though its name and context suggest that it should be strongly typed and constrained, the absence of these protections is not a finding. Where a column/field is clearly identified by name, caption, or context as Notes, Comments, Description, Text, etc., the absence of these protections is not a finding. Check application code that interacts with the EDB Postgres Advanced Server database for the use of prepared statements. If prepared statements are not used, this is a finding. Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" user: SELECT * FROM sqlprotect.list_protected_users; If the database and user that handles user input is not listed or if sqlprotect.list_protected_users does not exist (meaning SQL/Protect is not installed), and an alternative means of reviewing for vulnerable code is not in use, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62911r938841_fix

Modify database code to properly validate data before it is put into the database or acted upon by the database. Modify the database to contain column/field definitions for each column/field in the database. Modify the database to contain constraints and validity checking on database columns and tables that require them for data integrity. Use prepared statements for user supplied inputs. Do not allow general users direct console access to the EDB Postgres Advanced Server database. If EDB SQL/Protect is being used to monitor and protect the EDB Postgres Advanced Server database from possible SQL injection attacks, install and configure SQL/Protect as documented here: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/latest/epas_security_guide/02_protecting_against_sql_injection_attacks/02_configuring_sql_protect/ Alternatively, implement, document, and maintain another method of checking for the validity of inputs.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server and associated applications must reserve the use of dynamic code execution for situations that require it.
SI-10 - Medium - CCI-001310 - V-259264 - SV-259264r938845_rule
RMF Control
SI-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001310
Version
EPAS-00-006300
Vuln IDs
  • V-259264
Rule IDs
  • SV-259264r938845_rule
With respect to database management systems, one class of threat is known as SQL Injection, or more generally, code injection. It takes advantage of the dynamic execution capabilities of various programming languages, including dialects of SQL. In such cases, the attacker deduces the manner in which SQL statements are being processed, either from inside knowledge or by observing system behavior in response to invalid inputs. When the attacker identifies scenarios where SQL queries are being assembled by application code (which may be within the database or separate from it) and executed dynamically, the attacker is then able to craft input strings that subvert the intent of the query. Potentially, the attacker can gain unauthorized access to data, including security settings, and severely corrupt or destroy the database. The principal protection against code injection is not to use dynamic execution except where it provides necessary functionality that cannot be utilized otherwise. Use strongly typed data items rather than general-purpose strings as input parameters to task-specific, precompiled stored procedures, functions, and triggers. This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers, and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed, and must document what has been discovered.
Checks: C-63003r938843_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SELECT * FROM sqlprotect.list_protected_users" If the database and user that handles user input is not listed or if sqlprotect.list_protected_users does not exist (meaning SQL/Protect is not installed), and an alternative means of reviewing for vulnerable code is not in use, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62912r938844_fix

Install and configure SQL/Protect as documented here for the specific version being used: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/latest/epas_security_guide/02_protecting_against_sql_injection_attacks/02_configuring_sql_protect/ Alternatively, implement, document, and maintain another method of checking for the validity of inputs.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server and associated applications, when making use of dynamic code execution, must scan input data for invalid values that may indicate a code injection attack.
SI-10 - Medium - CCI-001310 - V-259265 - SV-259265r938848_rule
RMF Control
SI-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001310
Version
EPAS-00-006400
Vuln IDs
  • V-259265
Rule IDs
  • SV-259265r938848_rule
With respect to database management systems, one class of threat is known as SQL Injection, or more generally, code injection. It takes advantage of the dynamic execution capabilities of various programming languages, including dialects of SQL. In such cases, the attacker deduces the manner in which SQL statements are being processed, either from inside knowledge or by observing system behavior in response to invalid inputs. When the attacker identifies scenarios where SQL queries are being assembled by application code (which may be within the database or separate from it) and executed dynamically, the attacker is then able to craft input strings that subvert the intent of the query. Potentially, the attacker can gain unauthorized access to data, including security settings, and severely corrupt or destroy the database. The principal protection against code injection is not to use dynamic execution except where it provides necessary functionality that cannot be utilized otherwise. Use strongly typed data items rather than general-purpose strings as input parameters to task-specific, precompiled stored procedures, functions, and triggers. When dynamic execution is necessary, ways to mitigate the risk include the following, which should be implemented both in the on-screen application and at the database level in the stored procedures: -- Allow strings as input only when necessary. -- Rely on data typing to validate numbers, dates, etc. Do not accept invalid values. If substituting other values for them, think carefully about whether this could be subverted. -- Limit the size of input strings to what is truly necessary. -- If single quotes/apostrophes, double quotes, semicolons, equals signs, angle brackets, or square brackets will never be valid as input, reject them. -- If comment markers will never be valid as input, reject them. In SQL, these are -- or /* */ -- If HTML and XML tags, entities, comments, etc. will never be valid, reject them. -- If wildcards are present, reject them unless truly necessary. In SQL, these are the underscore and the percentage sign, and the word ESCAPE is also a clue that wildcards are in use. -- If SQL key words such as SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, ALTER, DROP, ESCAPE, UNION, GRANT, or REVOKE will never be valid, reject them. Use case-insensitive comparisons when searching for these. Bear in mind that some of these words, particularly Grant (as a person's name), could also be valid input. -- If there are range limits on the values that may be entered, enforce those limits. -- Institute procedures for inspection of programs for correct use of dynamic coding, by a party other than the developer. -- Conduct rigorous testing of program modules that use dynamic coding, searching for ways to subvert the intended use. -- Record the inspection and testing in the system documentation. -- Bear in mind that all this applies not only to screen input, but also to the values in an incoming message to a web service or to a stored procedure called by a software component that has not itself been hardened in these ways. Not only can the caller be subject to such vulnerabilities; it may itself be the attacker. This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers, and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed, and must document what has been discovered.
Checks: C-63004r938846_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SELECT * FROM sqlprotect.list_protected_users" If the database and user that handles user input is not listed or if sqlprotect.list_protected_users does not exist (meaning SQL/Protect is not installed), and an alternative means of reviewing for vulnerable code is not in use, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62913r938847_fix

Install and configure SQL/Protect as documented here for the specific version being used: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/latest/epas_security_guide/02_protecting_against_sql_injection_attacks/02_configuring_sql_protect/ Alternatively, implement, document, and maintain another method of checking for the validity of inputs.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must provide nonprivileged users with error messages that provide information necessary for corrective actions without revealing information that could be exploited by adversaries.
SI-11 - Medium - CCI-001312 - V-259266 - SV-259266r938851_rule
RMF Control
SI-11
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001312
Version
EPAS-00-006500
Vuln IDs
  • V-259266
Rule IDs
  • SV-259266r938851_rule
Any DBMS or associated application providing too much information in error messages on the screen or printout risks compromising the data and security of the system. The structure and content of error messages need to be carefully considered by the organization and development team. Databases can inadvertently provide a wealth of information to an attacker through improperly handled error messages. In addition to sensitive business or personal information, database errors can provide host names, IP addresses, user names, and other system information not required for troubleshooting but very useful to someone targeting the system. Carefully consider the structure and content of error messages. The extent to which information systems are able to identify and handle error conditions is guided by organizational policy and operational requirements. Information that could be exploited by adversaries includes, for example, logon attempts with passwords entered by mistake as the username, mission/business information that can be derived from (if not stated explicitly by) information recorded, and personal information, such as account numbers, social security numbers, and credit card numbers. This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers, and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed, and must document what has been discovered.
Checks: C-63005r938849_chk

Check custom database code to verify that error messages do not contain information beyond what is needed for troubleshooting the issue. If custom database errors contain PII data, sensitive business data, or information useful for identifying the host system or database structure, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62914r938850_fix

Configure custom database code and associated application code not to divulge sensitive information or information useful for system identification in error messages.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must reveal detailed error messages only to the ISSO, ISSM, SA, and DBA.
SI-11 - Medium - CCI-001314 - V-259267 - SV-259267r938854_rule
RMF Control
SI-11
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001314
Version
EPAS-00-006600
Vuln IDs
  • V-259267
Rule IDs
  • SV-259267r938854_rule
If the DBMS provides too much information in error logs and administrative messages to the screen, this could lead to compromise. The structure and content of error messages need to be carefully considered by the organization and development team. The extent to which the information system is able to identify and handle error conditions is guided by organizational policy and operational requirements. Some default DBMS error messages can contain information that could aid an attacker in, among other things, identifying the database type, host address, or state of the database. Custom errors may contain sensitive customer information. It is important that detailed error messages be visible only to those who are authorized to view them; that general users receive only generalized acknowledgment that errors have occurred; and that these generalized messages appear only when relevant to the user's task. For example, a message along the lines of, "An error has occurred. Unable to save your changes. If this problem persists, contact the help desk" would be relevant. A message such as "Warning: your transaction generated a large number of page splits" would likely not be relevant. Administrative users authorized to review detailed error messages typically are the ISSO, ISSM, SA, and DBA. Other individuals or roles may be specified according to organization-specific needs, with appropriate approval. This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers, and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed, and must document what has been discovered.
Checks: C-63006r938852_chk

Check the EDB Postgres Advanced Server settings and custom database code to determine if detailed error messages are ever displayed to unauthorized individuals. To check the level of detail for errors exposed to clients, run the following as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW client_min_messages" If client_min_messages is not set to ERROR, this is a finding. If detailed error messages for any custom code are displayed to users not authorized to view them, this is a finding. Additionally, logs may contain detailed information and should only be accessible by the database owner. As the "enterprisedb" operating system user, verify that the log_file_mode parameter is set to 0600: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW log_file_mode" If log_file_mode is not set to 0600, this is a finding. If the EDB Postgres Advanced Server is configured to use syslog for logging, consult organization location and permissions for syslog log files. If the logs are not owned by root or have permissions that are not 0600, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62915r938853_fix

Set the client_min_messages parameter to "ERROR". As the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET client_min_messages='ERROR'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" > psql edb -c "SHOW client_min_messages" Set the log_file_mode to 0600. As the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET log_file_mode='0600'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" > psql edb -c "SHOW log_file_mode"

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must automatically terminate a user session after organization-defined conditions or trigger events requiring session disconnect.
AC-12 - Medium - CCI-002361 - V-259268 - SV-259268r938857_rule
RMF Control
AC-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002361
Version
EPAS-00-006700
Vuln IDs
  • V-259268
Rule IDs
  • SV-259268r938857_rule
This addresses the termination of user-initiated logical sessions in contrast to the termination of network connections that are associated with communications sessions (i.e., network disconnect). A logical session (for local, network, and remote access) is initiated whenever a user (or process acting on behalf of a user) accesses an organizational information system. Such user sessions can be terminated, and thus terminate user access, without terminating network sessions. Session termination ends all processes associated with a user's logical session except those batch processes/jobs that are specifically created by the user (i.e., session owner) to continue after the session is terminated. Conditions or trigger events requiring automatic session termination can include, for example, organization-defined periods of user inactivity, targeted responses to certain types of incidents, and time-of-day restrictions on information system use. This capability is typically reserved for specific cases where the system owner, data owner, or organization requires additional assurance.
Checks: C-63007r938855_chk

Review system documentation to obtain the organization's definition of circumstances requiring automatic session termination. If the documentation explicitly states that such termination is not required or is prohibited, this is not a finding. If the documentation requires automatic session termination but the DBMS is not configured via triggers, scripts, or other organization-defined manners to terminate sessions when required, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62916r938856_fix

Execute this SQL command in the places where the documentation requires automatic session termination: SELECT pg_terminate_backend(pid) FROM pg_stat_activity WHERE usename = '<username>'

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must associate organization-defined types of security labels having organization-defined security label values with information in storage.
AC-16 - Medium - CCI-002262 - V-259269 - SV-259269r938860_rule
RMF Control
AC-16
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002262
Version
EPAS-00-006900
Vuln IDs
  • V-259269
Rule IDs
  • SV-259269r938860_rule
Without the association of security labels to information, there is no basis for the to make security-related access-control decisions. Security labels are abstractions representing the basic properties or characteristics of an entity (e.g., subjects and objects) with respect to safeguarding information. These labels are typically associated with internal data structures (e.g., tables, rows) within the database and are used to enable the implementation of access control and flow control policies, reflect special dissemination, handling or distribution instructions, or support other aspects of the information security policy. One example includes marking data as classified or CUI. These security labels may be assigned manually or during data processing; either way, it is imperative these assignments are maintained while the data is in storage. If the security labels are lost when the data is stored, there is the risk of a data compromise. The mechanism used to support security labeling may be a feature of the DBMS product, a third-party product, or custom application code.
Checks: C-63008r938858_chk

If security labeling is not required, this is not applicable. If security labeling requirements have been specified, execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SELECT * from ALL_POLICIES where OBJECT_NAME = '&lt;object_name&gt;'" If a policy is not enabled for the table requiring security labeling, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62917r938859_fix

For information on creating row-level policies for all required tables with the DBMS_RLS package, refer to the documentation: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/latest/reference/oracle_compatibility_reference/epas_compat_bip_guide/03_built-in_packages/14_dbms_rls/

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must associate organization-defined types of security labels having organization-defined security label values with information in process.
AC-16 - Medium - CCI-002263 - V-259270 - SV-259270r938863_rule
RMF Control
AC-16
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002263
Version
EPAS-00-007000
Vuln IDs
  • V-259270
Rule IDs
  • SV-259270r938863_rule
Without the association of security labels to information, there is no basis for the DBMS to make security-related access-control decisions. Security labels are abstractions representing the basic properties or characteristics of an entity (e.g., subjects and objects) with respect to safeguarding information. These labels are typically associated with internal data structures (e.g., tables, rows) within the database and are used to enable the implementation of access control and flow control policies, reflect special dissemination, handling or distribution instructions, or support other aspects of the information security policy. One example includes marking data as classified or CUI. These security labels may be assigned manually or during data processing; either way, it is imperative these assignments are maintained while the data is in storage. If the security labels are lost when the data is stored, there is the risk of a data compromise. The mechanism used to support security labeling may be a feature of the DBMS product, a third-party product, or custom application code.
Checks: C-63009r938861_chk

If security labeling is not required, this is not applicable. If security labeling requirements have been specified, execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SELECT * from ALL_POLICIES where OBJECT_NAME = '&lt;object_name&gt;'" If a policy is not enabled for the table requiring security labeling, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62918r938862_fix

For more information on creating row-level policies for all required tables with the DBMS_RLS package, refer to the documentation: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/latest/reference/oracle_compatibility_reference/epas_compat_bip_guide/03_built-in_packages/14_dbms_rls/

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must associate organization-defined types of security labels having organization-defined security label values with information in transmission.
AC-16 - Medium - CCI-002264 - V-259271 - SV-259271r938866_rule
RMF Control
AC-16
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002264
Version
EPAS-00-007100
Vuln IDs
  • V-259271
Rule IDs
  • SV-259271r938866_rule
Without the association of security labels to information, there is no basis for the DBMS to make security-related access-control decisions. Security labels are abstractions representing the basic properties or characteristics of an entity (e.g., subjects and objects) with respect to safeguarding information. These labels are typically associated with internal data structures (e.g., tables, rows) within the database and are used to enable the implementation of access control and flow control policies, reflect special dissemination, handling or distribution instructions, or support other aspects of the information security policy. One example includes marking data as classified or CUI. These security labels may be assigned manually or during data processing, but, either way, it is imperative these assignments are maintained while the data is in storage. If the security labels are lost when the data is stored, there is the risk of a data compromise. The mechanism used to support security labeling may be a feature of the DBMS product, a third-party product, or custom application code.
Checks: C-63010r938864_chk

If security labeling is not required, this is not applicable. If security labeling requirements have been specified, execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SELECT * from ALL_POLICIES where OBJECT_NAME = '&lt;object_name&gt;'" If a policy is not enabled for the table requiring security labeling, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62919r938865_fix

For more information on creating row-level policies for all required tables with the DBMS_RLS package, refer to the documentation: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/latest/reference/oracle_compatibility_reference/epas_compat_bip_guide/03_built-in_packages/14_dbms_rls/

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must enforce discretionary access control policies, as defined by the data owner, over defined subjects and objects.
AC-3 - Medium - CCI-002165 - V-259272 - SV-259272r938869_rule
RMF Control
AC-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002165
Version
EPAS-00-007300
Vuln IDs
  • V-259272
Rule IDs
  • SV-259272r938869_rule
Discretionary Access Control (DAC) is based on the notion that individual users are "owners" of objects, and therefore have discretion over who should be authorized to access the object and in which mode (e.g., read or write). Ownership is usually acquired as a consequence of creating the object or via specified ownership assignment. DAC allows the owner to determine who will have access to objects they control. An example of DAC includes user-controlled table permissions. When discretionary access control policies are implemented, subjects are not constrained with regard to what actions they can take with information for which they have already been granted access. Thus, subjects that have been granted access to information are not prevented from passing (i.e., the subjects have the discretion to pass) the information to other subjects or objects. A subject that is constrained in its operation by Mandatory Access Control (MAC) policies is still able to operate under the less rigorous constraints of this requirement. Thus, while MAC imposes constraints preventing a subject from passing information to another subject operating at a different sensitivity level, this requirement permits the subject to pass the information to any subject at the same sensitivity level. The policy is bounded by the information system boundary. Once the information is passed outside of the control of the information system, additional means may be required to ensure the constraints remain in effect. While the older, more traditional definitions of discretionary access control require identity-based access control, that limitation is not required for this use of discretionary access control.
Checks: C-63011r938867_chk

Review system documentation to identify the required DAC for the database. Review the security configuration of the database and the EDB Postgres Advanced Server. If applicable, review the security configuration of the application(s) using the database. If the DAC defined in the documentation is not implemented in the security configuration, this is a finding. If any database objects are found to be owned by users not authorized to own database objects, this is a finding. To check the ownership of objects in the database, as the "enterprisedb" user, run the following the operating system command line: psql &lt;database_name&gt; From the psql prompt: \dn *.* \dt *.* \ds *.* \dv *.* \x (turns on expanded view for easier viewing) \df+ *.* If any role or user is granted privileges to unauthorized objects, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62920r938868_fix

Revoke any unauthorized user/role object privileges found. Example: > psql -c "REVOKE SELECT ON TABLE <schema.table_name> from <user or role name>"

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must prevent nonprivileged users from executing privileged functions to include disabling, circumventing, or altering implemented security safeguards/countermeasures.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-002235 - V-259273 - SV-259273r938872_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002235
Version
EPAS-00-007400
Vuln IDs
  • V-259273
Rule IDs
  • SV-259273r938872_rule
Preventing nonprivileged users from executing privileged functions mitigates the risk that unauthorized individuals or processes may gain unnecessary access to information or privileges. System documentation should include a definition of the functionality considered privileged. Depending on circumstances, privileged functions can include, for example, establishing accounts, performing system integrity checks, or administering cryptographic key management activities. Nonprivileged users are individuals that do not possess appropriate authorizations. Circumventing intrusion detection and prevention mechanisms or malicious code protection mechanisms are examples of privileged functions that require protection from nonprivileged users. A privileged function in the DBMS/database context is any operation that modifies the structure of the database, its built-in logic, or its security settings. This would include all Data Definition Language (DDL) statements and all security-related statements. In an SQL environment, it encompasses, but is not necessarily limited to: CREATE ALTER DROP GRANT REVOKE There may also be Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements that, subject to context, should be regarded as privileged. Possible examples include: TRUNCATE TABLE; DELETE, or DELETE affecting more than n rows, for some n, or DELETE without a WHERE clause; UPDATE or UPDATE affecting more than n rows, for some n, or UPDATE without a WHERE clause; any SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE to an application-defined security table executed by other than a security principal. Depending on the capabilities of the DBMS and the design of the database and associated applications, the prevention of unauthorized use of privileged functions may be achieved by means of DBMS security features, database triggers, other mechanisms, or a combination of these.
Checks: C-63012r938870_chk

Review the system documentation to obtain the definition of the database/DBMS functionality considered privileged in the context of the system in question. To determine nonprivileged user access to database objects use the following SQL command: "SELECT grantee, privilege_type, table_name FROM information_schema.role_table_grants WHERE grantee='&lt;username&gt;';" If any functionality considered privileged has access privileges granted to nonprivileged users, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62921r938871_fix

Revoke any privileges to privileged functionality by executing the REVOKE command as documented here: http://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/sql-revoke.html

b
Execution of software modules (to include stored procedures, functions, and triggers) with elevated privileges must be restricted to necessary cases only.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-002233 - V-259274 - SV-259274r938875_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002233
Version
EPAS-00-007500
Vuln IDs
  • V-259274
Rule IDs
  • SV-259274r938875_rule
In certain situations, to provide required functionality, a DBMS needs to execute internal logic (stored procedures, functions, triggers, etc.) and/or external code modules with elevated privileges. However, if the privileges required for execution are at a higher level than the privileges assigned to organizational users invoking the functionality applications/programs, those users are indirectly provided with greater privileges than assigned by organizations. Privilege elevation must be utilized only where necessary and protected from misuse. This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers, and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed, and must document what has been discovered.
Checks: C-63013r938873_chk

Review the system documentation and source code of the application(s) using the database. If elevation of DBMS privileges is used but not documented, this is a finding. If elevation of DBMS privileges is documented but not implemented as described in the documentation, this is a finding. If the privilege-elevation logic can be invoked in ways other than intended, in contexts other than intended, or by subjects/principals other than intended, this is a finding. Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user to find any SECURITY DEFINER functions (meaning they are executed as owner rather than invoker): psql edb -c "SELECT proname FROM pg_proc WHERE prosecdef = true" If any of these functions should not be SECURITY DEFINER, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62922r938874_fix

Determine where, when, how, and by what principals/subjects elevated privilege is needed. Modify the system and the application(s) using the database to ensure privilege elevation is used only as required. To alter a function to use SECURITY INVOKER instead of SECURITY DEFINER, execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" user: ALTER FUNCTION <function()> SECURITY INVOKER;

b
Execution of software modules (to include stored procedures, functions, and triggers) with elevated privileges must be restricted to necessary cases only.
AC-6 - Medium - CCI-002233 - V-259275 - SV-259275r938878_rule
RMF Control
AC-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002233
Version
EPAS-00-007510
Vuln IDs
  • V-259275
Rule IDs
  • SV-259275r938878_rule
In certain situations, to provide required functionality, a DBMS needs to execute internal logic (stored procedures, functions, triggers, etc.) and/or external code modules with elevated privileges. However, if the privileges required for execution are at a higher level than the privileges assigned to organizational users invoking the functionality applications/programs, those users are indirectly provided with greater privileges than assigned by organizations. Privilege elevation must be utilized only where necessary and protected from misuse. This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers, and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed, and must document what has been discovered.
Checks: C-63014r938876_chk

Review the system documentation and source code of the application(s) using the database. If elevation of DBMS privileges is used but not documented, this is a finding. If elevation of DBMS privileges is documented but not implemented as described in the documentation, this is a finding. If the privilege-elevation logic can be invoked in ways other than intended, in contexts other than intended, or by subjects/principals other than intended, this is a finding. Execute the following SQL to find any users with BYPASS RLS permissions: select rolname from pg_roles where rolbypassrls = true; If any of these users are not superusers that should bypass RLS, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62923r938877_fix

Determine where, when, how, and by what principals/subjects elevated privilege is needed. Modify the system and the application(s) using the database to ensure privilege elevation is used only as required. To alter a user to not allow bypassing RLS, execute the following SQL: ALTER USER <user> NOBYPASSRLS;

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must utilize centralized management of the content captured in audit records generated by all components of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-001844 - V-259276 - SV-259276r938881_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001844
Version
EPAS-00-007700
Vuln IDs
  • V-259276
Rule IDs
  • SV-259276r938881_rule
Without the ability to centrally manage the content captured in the audit records, identification, troubleshooting, and correlation of suspicious behavior would be difficult and could lead to a delayed or incomplete analysis of an ongoing attack. The content captured in audit records must be managed from a central location (necessitating automation). Centralized management of audit records and logs provides for efficiency in maintenance and management of records, as well as the backup and archiving of those records. The DBMS may write audit records to database tables, to files in the file system, to other kinds of local repository, or directly to a centralized log management system. Whatever the method used, it must be compatible with off-loading the records to the centralized system.
Checks: C-63015r938879_chk

If a centralized log collecting tool such as Postgres Enterprise Manager (PEM) is not installed and configured to automatically collect audit logs, this is a finding. Review the system documentation for a description of how audit records are off-loaded and how local audit log space is managed.

Fix: F-62924r938880_fix

Install a centralized log collecting tool and configure it as instructed in its documentation. If using PEM Log Manager, find the instructions here: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/pem/latest/monitoring_performance/log_manager/

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must provide centralized configuration of the content to be captured in audit records generated by all components of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-001844 - V-259277 - SV-259277r938884_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001844
Version
EPAS-00-007800
Vuln IDs
  • V-259277
Rule IDs
  • SV-259277r938884_rule
If the configuration of the DBMS's auditing is spread across multiple locations in the database management software, or across multiple commands, only loosely related, it is harder to use and takes longer to reconfigure in response to events. The DBMS must provide a unified tool for audit configuration.
Checks: C-63016r938882_chk

If a unified tool for audit configuration such as PEM (Postgres Enterprise Manager) is not installed and configured to automatically collect audit logs, this is a finding. Review the system documentation for a description of how audit records are off-loaded and how local audit log space is managed.

Fix: F-62925r938883_fix

Install a centralized log collecting tool and configure it as instructed in its documentation. If using PEM Log Manager, find the instructions here: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/pem/latest/monitoring_performance/log_manager/

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements.
AU-4 - Medium - CCI-001849 - V-259278 - SV-259278r938887_rule
RMF Control
AU-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001849
Version
EPAS-00-007900
Vuln IDs
  • V-259278
Rule IDs
  • SV-259278r938887_rule
In order to ensure sufficient storage capacity for the audit logs, the DBMS must be able to allocate audit record storage capacity. Although another requirement (SRG-APP-000515-DB-000318) mandates that audit data be off-loaded to a centralized log management system, it remains necessary to provide space on the database server to serve as a buffer against outages and capacity limits of the off-loading mechanism. The task of allocating audit record storage capacity is usually performed during initial installation of the DBMS and is closely associated with the DBA and system administrator roles. The DBA or system administrator will usually coordinate the allocation of physical drive space with the application owner/installer and the application will prompt the installer to provide the capacity information, the physical location of the disk, or both. In determining the capacity requirements, consider factors such as total number of users; expected number of concurrent users during busy periods; number and type of events being monitored; types and amounts of data being captured; the frequency/speed with which audit records are off-loaded to the central log management system; and any limitations that exist on the DBMS's ability to reuse the space formerly occupied by off-loaded records.
Checks: C-63017r938885_chk

Investigate whether there have been any incidents where the EDB Postgres Advanced Server ran out of audit log space since the last time the space was allocated or other corrective measures were taken. If there have been, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62926r938886_fix

Allocate sufficient audit file space to "<PostgreSQL data directory>/edb_audit" to support peak demand.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must provide a warning to appropriate support staff when allocated audit record storage volume reaches 75 percent of maximum audit record storage capacity.
AU-5 - Medium - CCI-001855 - V-259279 - SV-259279r938890_rule
RMF Control
AU-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001855
Version
EPAS-00-008000
Vuln IDs
  • V-259279
Rule IDs
  • SV-259279r938890_rule
Organizations are required to use a central log management system, so under normal conditions, the audit space allocated to the DBMS on its own server will not cause an issue. However, space will still be required on the DBMS server for audit records in transit, and, under abnormal conditions, this could fill up. Since a requirement exists to halt processing upon audit failure, a service outage would result. If support personnel are not notified immediately upon storage volume utilization reaching 75 percent, they are unable to plan for storage capacity expansion. The appropriate support staff include, at a minimum, the ISSO and the DBA/SA.
Checks: C-63018r938888_chk

If Postgres Enterprise Manager (PEM) or another similar monitoring capability is not installed and configured to probe storage volume utilization of the PGDATA directory and notify appropriate support staff upon storage volume utilization reaching 75 percent, this is a finding. The default path for the PostgreSQL data directory (PGDATA) is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data, but this will vary according to local circumstances.

Fix: F-62927r938889_fix

Install PEM and configure a probe to monitor and notify appropriate support staff upon storage volume utilization reaching 75 percent. Instructions to create a custom probe can be found at: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/pem/latest/monitoring_performance/probes/#creating-a-custom-probe Example steps for creating a probe are below, using the thin client (browser) PEM interface. Refer also to the Supplemental Procedures document supplied with this STIG. Open the PEM web console in a browser. - Log in. - Click on the agent for the machine to be monitored. - Select "Management | Probe Configuration". - Select "Disk Space" and set the check interval as warranted. - Select "Management | Alerting". - Name the definition "Audit Log Full". - Select Template "Disk Consumption Percentage". - Set Frequency, Comparison Operator, and Thresholds (1 minute, >, 95/96/97 for example). - Enter the Mount Point for where the audit log is. - Click Notification tab. - Click Email all alerts. - Click "Execute Script" on Monitored Server. - Enter script to shut down postgres, generally "systemctl stop edb-as-<version>". - Click Add/Change to save, click OK to exit dialog box.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must provide an immediate real-time alert to appropriate support staff of all audit log failures.
AU-5 - Medium - CCI-001858 - V-259280 - SV-259280r938893_rule
RMF Control
AU-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001858
Version
EPAS-00-008100
Vuln IDs
  • V-259280
Rule IDs
  • SV-259280r938893_rule
It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without a real-time alert, security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability, and system operation may be adversely affected. The appropriate support staff include, at a minimum, the ISSO and the DBA/SA. A failure of database auditing will result in either the database continuing to function without auditing or in a complete halt to database operations. When audit processing fails, appropriate personnel must be alerted immediately to avoid further downtime or unaudited transactions. Alerts provide organizations with urgent messages. Real-time alerts provide these messages immediately (i.e., the time from event detection to alert occurs in seconds or less).
Checks: C-63019r938891_chk

Review Postgres Enterprise Manager (PEM) alert settings, OS, or third-party logging software settings to determine whether a real-time alert will be sent to the appropriate personnel when auditing fails for any reason. If real-time alerts are not sent upon auditing failure, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62928r938892_fix

Install PEM and configure audit failure event alerting as documented here: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/pem/latest/ An example for creating an alert that ensure the audit directory does not fill up is included below, using the thin client (browser) PEM interface. Refer also to the Supplemental Procedures document supplied with this STIG. Open the PEM web console in a browser. - Log in. - Click on the agent for the machine to be monitored. - Select "Management | Probe Configuration". - Select "Disk Space" and set the check interval as warranted. - Select "Management | Alerting". - Name the definition "Audit Log Full". - Select Template "Disk Consumption Percentage". - Set Frequency, Comparison Operator, and Thresholds (1 minute, >, 95/96/97 for example). - Enter the Mount Point for where the audit log is. - Click Notification tab. - Click Email all alerts. - Click "Execute Script" on Monitored Server.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must record time stamps in audit records and application data that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, formerly GMT).
AU-8 - Medium - CCI-001890 - V-259281 - SV-259281r938896_rule
RMF Control
AU-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001890
Version
EPAS-00-008200
Vuln IDs
  • V-259281
Rule IDs
  • SV-259281r938896_rule
If time stamps are not consistently applied and there is no common time reference, it is difficult to perform forensic analysis. Time stamps generated by the DBMS must include date and time. Time is commonly expressed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), a modern continuation of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), or local time with an offset from UTC.
Checks: C-63020r938894_chk

As the "enterprisedb" operating system user, run the following to show the current log_timezone setting: &gt; psql -d edb -c "SHOW log_timezone" If anything other than "UTC" is returned, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62929r938895_fix

As the "enterprisedb" operating system user, run the following to set the log_timezone parameter: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET log_timezone = 'UTC'" Next, reload the parameter file: psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" Confirm the new value: psql edb -c "SHOW log_timezone"

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate time stamps for audit records and application data, with a minimum granularity of one second.
AU-8 - Medium - CCI-001889 - V-259282 - SV-259282r938899_rule
RMF Control
AU-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001889
Version
EPAS-00-008300
Vuln IDs
  • V-259282
Rule IDs
  • SV-259282r938899_rule
Without sufficient granularity of time stamps, it is not possible to adequately determine the chronological order of records. Time stamps generated by the DBMS must include date and time. Granularity of time measurements refers to the precision available in time stamp values. Granularity coarser than one second is not sufficient for audit trail purposes. Time stamp values are typically presented with three or more decimal places of seconds; however, the actual granularity may be coarser than the apparent precision. Some DBMS products offer a data type called TIMESTAMP that is not a representation of date and time. Rather, it is a database state counter and does not correspond to calendar and clock time. This requirement does not refer to that meaning of TIMESTAMP.
Checks: C-63021r938897_chk

As the "enterprisedb" operating system user, run the following to verify the log_line_prefix parameter setting: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW log_line_prefix" If log_line_prefix is not set to "%m" (Timestamp in milliseconds) , this is a finding.

Fix: F-62930r938898_fix

As the "enterprisedb" operating system user, run the following to set the log_line_prefix parameter to "%m" (Timestamps in milliseconds) > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET log_line_prefix = '%m'" Next, reload the parameter file: > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" Confirm the new value: > psql edb -c "SHOW log_line_prefix"

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must prohibit user installation of logic modules (stored procedures, functions, triggers, views, etc.) without explicit privileged status.
CM-11 - Medium - CCI-001812 - V-259283 - SV-259283r938902_rule
RMF Control
CM-11
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001812
Version
EPAS-00-008400
Vuln IDs
  • V-259283
Rule IDs
  • SV-259283r938902_rule
Allowing regular users to install software without explicit privileges creates the risk that untested or potentially malicious software will be installed on the system. Explicit privileges (escalated or administrative privileges) provide the regular user with explicit capabilities and control that exceed the rights of a regular user. DBMS functionality and the nature and requirements of databases will vary; so while users are not permitted to install unapproved software, there may be instances where the organization allows the user to install approved software packages such as from an approved software repository. The requirements for production servers will be more restrictive than those used for development and research. The DBMS must enforce software installation by users based upon what types of software installations are permitted (e.g., updates and security patches to existing software) and what types of installations are prohibited (e.g., software whose pedigree with regard to being potentially malicious is unknown or suspect) by the organization. In the case of a database management system, this requirement covers stored procedures, functions, triggers, views, etc.
Checks: C-63022r938900_chk

If EDB Postgres supports only software development, experimentation, and/or developer-level testing (that is, excluding production systems, integration testing, stress testing, and user acceptance testing), this is not a finding. Review the EDB Postgres security settings with respect to nonadministrative users' ability to create, alter, or replace logic modules, to include but not necessarily only stored procedures, functions, triggers, and views. These psql commands can help with showing existing permissions of databases and schemas: \l \dn+ If any such permissions exist and are not documented and approved, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62931r938901_fix

Document and obtain approval for any nonadministrative users who require the ability to create, alter, or replace logic modules. Implement the approved permissions. Revoke (or deny) any unapproved permissions and remove any unauthorized role memberships.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must enforce access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server or database(s).
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001813 - V-259284 - SV-259284r938905_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001813
Version
EPAS-00-008500
Vuln IDs
  • V-259284
Rule IDs
  • SV-259284r938905_rule
Failure to provide logical access restrictions associated with changes to configuration may have significant effects on the overall security of the system. When dealing with access restrictions pertaining to change control, it should be noted that any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed to obtain access to system components for the purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications.
Checks: C-63023r938903_chk

Review the security configuration of the EDB Postgres database(s). If EDB Postgres does not enforce access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of the database(s), this is a finding. To assist in conducting reviews of permissions, the following psql commands describe permissions of databases, schemas, and users: \l \dn+ \du Permissions of concern in this respect include the following, and possibly others: - any user with SUPERUSER privileges. - any database or schema with "C" (create) or "w" (update) privileges that are not necessary.

Fix: F-62932r938904_fix

Configure EDB Postgres Advanced Server to enforce access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of the EDB Postgres database(s). Other third-party monitoring tools may be used to satisfy this requirement. Use the ALTER ROLE to remove accesses from roles. As the "enterprisedb" operating system user, run the following: > psql edb -c "ALTER ROLE <rolename> NOSUPERUSER" Use REVOKE to remove privileges from databases and schemas: > psql edb -c "REVOKE ALL PRIVILEGES ON <objectname> FROM <username>"

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must produce audit records of its enforcement of access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server or database(s).
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001814 - V-259285 - SV-259285r938908_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001814
Version
EPAS-00-008600
Vuln IDs
  • V-259285
Rule IDs
  • SV-259285r938908_rule
Without auditing the enforcement of access restrictions against changes to configuration, it would be difficult to identify attempted attacks and an audit trail would not be available for forensic investigation for after-the-fact actions. Enforcement actions are the methods or mechanisms used to prevent unauthorized changes to configuration settings. Enforcement action methods may be as simple as denying access to a file based on the application of file permissions (access restriction). Audit items may consist of lists of actions blocked by access restrictions or changes identified after the fact.
Checks: C-63024r938906_chk

Execute the following SQL as "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62933r938907_fix

Execute the following SQL as "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must disable network functions, ports, protocols, and services deemed by the organization to be nonsecure, in accord with the Ports, Protocols, and Services Management (PPSM) guidance.
CM-7 - Medium - CCI-001762 - V-259286 - SV-259286r938911_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001762
Version
EPAS-00-008700
Vuln IDs
  • V-259286
Rule IDs
  • SV-259286r938911_rule
Use of nonsecure network functions, ports, protocols, and services exposes the system to avoidable threats. A database cluster listens on a single port (usually 5444 for EDB Postgres Advanced Server). The Postgres Enterprise Manager (PEM) agents do not listen on ports; they only act as clients to the PEM server. The PEM server has two components, a repository (which is a Postgres database) and a web application. The web application listens on a port configured in Apache HTTP Server, generally 8080 or 8443. The ports to check are: the primary Postgres cluster port, the PEM HTTPD port, and the PEM Repository DB port. Generally, the PEM HTTPD port and the PEM Repository DB port should be installed on an isolated management machine with administrator access only.
Checks: C-63025r938909_chk

Review the network functions, ports, protocols, and services supported by the EDB Postgres Advanced Server. If any protocol is prohibited by the PPSM guidance and is enabled, this is a finding. Open "&lt;PostgreSQL data directory&gt;/pg_hba.conf" in a viewer. The default path for the postgresql data directory is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances. If any rows have a TYPE that is "host" or "hostnossl", this is a finding. Execute the following SQL as "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW port" If the displayed port is not allowed, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62934r938910_fix

Disable each prohibited network function, port, protocol, or service prohibited by the PPSM guidance. Open "pg_hba.conf" in an editor. The default path for the pg_hba.conf file is /var/lib/edb/as<version>/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances. Change the TYPE of any rows not starting with a "#" to be either "local" or "hostssl". The METHOD for the local rows should be "peer", which will authenticate based on the operating system name. The METHOD for the hostssl rows should be one of these (in preferred order): cert, ldap, sspi, pam, or scram-sha-256. Execute the following SQL as "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET port = <port>" Execute the following operating system command as the "root" user (or user with sudo privileges) to restart the postgres instance: > systemctl restart edb-as-<version> Where <version> is the major version of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server instance [e.g., 15].

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must require users to reauthenticate when organization-defined circumstances or situations require reauthentication.
IA-11 - Medium - CCI-002038 - V-259287 - SV-259287r938914_rule
RMF Control
IA-11
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002038
Version
EPAS-00-008800
Vuln IDs
  • V-259287
Rule IDs
  • SV-259287r938914_rule
The DOD standard for authentication of an interactive user is the presentation of a Common Access Card (CAC) or other physical token bearing a valid, current, DOD-issued Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) certificate, coupled with a Personal Identification Number (PIN) to be entered by the user at the beginning of each session and whenever reauthentication is required. Without reauthentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization. When applications provide the capability to change security roles or escalate the functional capability of the application, it is critical the user reauthenticate. In addition to the reauthentication requirements associated with session locks, organizations may require reauthentication of individuals and/or devices in other situations, including (but not limited to) the following circumstances: (i) When authenticators change; (ii) When roles change; (iii) When security categories of information systems change; (iv) When the execution of privileged functions occurs; (v) After a fixed period of time; or (vi) Periodically. Within the DOD, the minimum circumstances requiring reauthentication are privilege escalation and role changes.
Checks: C-63026r938912_chk

Determine all situations where a user must reauthenticate. Check if the mechanisms that handle such situations use the following SQL. To make a single user reauthenticate, the following must be present: SELECT pg_terminate_backend(pid) FROM pg_stat_activity WHERE user='&lt;username&gt;' To make all users reauthenticate, run the following: SELECT pg_terminate_backend(pid) FROM pg_stat_activity WHERE user LIKE '%' If the provided SQL does not force reauthentication, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62935r938913_fix

Determine the organization-defined circumstances or situations that require reauthentication and ensure the following SQL is executed in those situations. To require a single user to reauthenticate, use this SQL: SELECT pg_terminate_backend(pid) FROM pg_stat_activity WHERE user = '<username>'; To require all users to reauthenticate, use this SQL: SELECT pg_terminate_backend(pid) FROM pg_stat_activity WHERE user LIKE '%';

b
The DBMS must use NSA-approved cryptography to protect classified information in accordance with the requirements of the data owner.
SC-13 - Medium - CCI-002450 - V-259288 - SV-259288r938917_rule
RMF Control
SC-13
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002450
Version
EPAS-00-009000
Vuln IDs
  • V-259288
Rule IDs
  • SV-259288r938917_rule
Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides assurance they have been tested and validated. It is the responsibility of the data owner to assess the cryptography requirements in light of applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, and standards. NSA-approved cryptography for classified networks is hardware based. This requirement addresses the compatibility of a DBMS with the encryption devices.
Checks: C-63027r938915_chk

If the EDB Postgres Advanced Server is deployed in an unclassified environment, this is not applicable. If PostgreSQL is not using NSA-approved cryptography to protect classified information in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, and standards, this is a finding. To check if PostgreSQL is configured to use SSL, as the "enterprisedb" operating system user, run the following: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW ssl" If Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is set to "off", this is a finding (Refer to below). Consult network administration staff to determine whether the server is protected by NSA-approved encrypting devices. If not, then this a finding.

Fix: F-62936r938916_fix

As the "enterprisedb" operating system user, run the following to set the ssl parameter to "on": > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET ssl = 'on'" Next, reload the parameter file: psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" Now confirm the new value: psql edb -c "SHOW ssl"

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must only accept end entity certificates issued by DOD PKI or DOD-approved PKI Certification Authorities (CAs) for the establishment of all encrypted sessions.
SC-23 - Medium - CCI-002470 - V-259289 - SV-259289r938920_rule
RMF Control
SC-23
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002470
Version
EPAS-00-009100
Vuln IDs
  • V-259289
Rule IDs
  • SV-259289r938920_rule
Only DOD-approved external PKIs have been evaluated to ensure that they have security controls and identity vetting procedures in place which are sufficient for DOD systems to rely on the identity asserted in the certificate. PKIs lacking sufficient security controls and identity vetting procedures risk being compromised and issuing certificates that enable adversaries to impersonate legitimate users. The authoritative list of DOD-approved PKIs is published at http://iase.disa.mil/pki-pke/interoperability. This requirement focuses on communications protection for the DBMS session rather than for the network packet.
Checks: C-63028r938918_chk

Verify that the root.crt certificate was issued by a valid DOD entity. &gt; openssl x509 -in /&lt;PGDATA directory&gt;/root.crt -text | grep -i "issuer". The default path for the PostgreSQL data directory (PGDATA) is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data, but this will vary according to local circumstances. Example: &gt; openssl x509 -in /var/lib/edb/as15/data/root.crt -text | grep -i "issuer" If any issuers are listed that are not approved DOD certificate authorities, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62937r938919_fix

Revoke trust in any certificates not issued by a DOD-approved certificate authority. Contact the organization's certificate issuer and request a new certificate that is issued by a DOD-approved certificate authority.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must implement cryptographic mechanisms to prevent unauthorized modification of organization-defined information at rest (to include, at a minimum, PII and classified information) on organization-defined information system components.
SC-28 - Medium - CCI-002475 - V-259290 - SV-259290r938923_rule
RMF Control
SC-28
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002475
Version
EPAS-00-009200
Vuln IDs
  • V-259290
Rule IDs
  • SV-259290r938923_rule
DBMSs handling data requiring "data at rest" protections must employ cryptographic mechanisms to prevent unauthorized disclosure and modification of the information at rest. These cryptographic mechanisms may be native to the DBMS or implemented via additional software or operating system/file system settings, as appropriate to the situation. Selection of a cryptographic mechanism is based on the need to protect the integrity of organizational information. The strength of the mechanism is commensurate with the security category and/or classification of the information. Organizations have the flexibility to either encrypt all information on storage devices (i.e., full disk encryption) or encrypt specific data structures (e.g., files, records, or fields). The decision whether and what to encrypt rests with the data owner and is also influenced by the physical measures taken to secure the equipment and media on which the information resides.
Checks: C-63029r938921_chk

Review the system documentation to determine whether the organization has defined the information at rest that is to be protected from modification, which must include, at a minimum, PII and classified information. If no information is identified as requiring such protection, this is not a finding. Review the configuration of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server, operating system/file system, and additional software as relevant. If any of the information defined as requiring cryptographic protection from modification is not encrypted in a manner that provides the required level of protection, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62938r938922_fix

Create an encrypted partition to host the "<PostgreSQL data directory>" directory. This can be done at the OS level with a technology such as db-crypt or other encryption technologies provided by third-party tools. If only certain columns require encryption, use pgcrypt to encrypt those columns as documented here: http://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/pgcrypto.html Note: Starting in Version 15, EDB Postgres Advanced Server natively supports Transparent Data Encryption (TDE): https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/latest/epas_security_guide/tde_feature/

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must implement cryptographic mechanisms preventing the unauthorized disclosure of organization-defined information at rest on organization-defined information system components.
SC-28 - Medium - CCI-002476 - V-259291 - SV-259291r938926_rule
RMF Control
SC-28
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002476
Version
EPAS-00-009300
Vuln IDs
  • V-259291
Rule IDs
  • SV-259291r938926_rule
DBMSs handling data requiring data at rest protections must employ cryptographic mechanisms to prevent unauthorized disclosure and modification of the information at rest. These cryptographic mechanisms may be native to the DBMS or implemented via additional software or operating system/file system settings, as appropriate to the situation. Selection of a cryptographic mechanism is based on the need to protect the integrity of organizational information. The strength of the mechanism is commensurate with the security category and/or classification of the information. Organizations have the flexibility to either encrypt all information on storage devices (i.e., full disk encryption) or encrypt specific data structures (e.g., files, records, or fields). The decision whether and what to encrypt rests with the data owner and is also influenced by the physical measures taken to secure the equipment and media on which the information resides.
Checks: C-63030r938924_chk

Review the system documentation to determine whether the organization has defined the information at rest to be protected from modification, which must include, at a minimum, PII and classified information. If no information is identified as requiring such protection, this is not a finding. Review the configuration of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server, operating system/file system, and additional software as relevant. If any of the information defined as requiring cryptographic protection from modification is not encrypted in a manner that provides the required level of protection, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62939r938925_fix

Create an encrypted partition to host the "<PostgreSQL data directory>" directory. This can be done at the OS level with a technology such as db-crypt or other encryption technologies provided by third-party tools. If only certain columns need encryption, use pgcrypt to encrypt those columns as documented here: http://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/static/pgcrypto.html Note: Starting in Version 15, EDB Postgres Advanced Server natively supports Transparent Data Encryption (TDE): https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/latest/epas_security_guide/tde_feature/

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must maintain the confidentiality and integrity of information during preparation for transmission.
SC-8 - Medium - CCI-002420 - V-259292 - SV-259292r938929_rule
RMF Control
SC-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002420
Version
EPAS-00-009500
Vuln IDs
  • V-259292
Rule IDs
  • SV-259292r938929_rule
Information can be either unintentionally or maliciously disclosed or modified during preparation for transmission, including, for example, during aggregation, at protocol transformation points, and during packing/unpacking. These unauthorized disclosures or modifications compromise the confidentiality or integrity of the information. Use of this requirement will be limited to situations where the data owner has a strict requirement for ensuring data integrity and confidentiality is maintained at every step of the data transfer and handling process. When transmitting data, the DBMS, associated applications, and infrastructure must leverage transmission protection mechanisms. EDB Postgres Advanced Server provides native support for using SSL connections to encrypt client/server communications. To enable the use of SSL, the postgres "ssl" configuration parameter must be set to "on", and the database instance needs to be configured to use a valid server certificate and private key installed on the server. With SSL enabled, connections made to the database server will default to being encrypted. However, it is possible for clients to override the default and attempt to establish an unencrypted connection. To prevent connections made from nonlocal hosts from being unencrypted, the postgres host-based authentication settings should be configured to only allow hostssl (i.e., encrypted) connections. The hostssl connections can be further configured to require that the client present a valid (trusted) SSL certificate for a connection.
Checks: C-63031r938927_chk

If the data owner does not have a strict requirement for ensuring data integrity and confidentiality is maintained at every step of the data transfer and handling process, this is not a finding. Open the "pg_hba.conf" in a viewer or editor. The default path for the pg_hba.conf file is /var/lib/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/data (PGDATA), but this will vary according to local circumstances. If any rows do not have TYPE of "hostssl" as well as a METHOD of "cert", this is a finding.

Fix: F-62940r938928_fix

To configure EDB Postgres Advanced Server to use SSL, open the "postgresql.conf" file in an editor. Note that the default location for the postgresql.conf file is in the postgresql data directory (PGDATA). The location of the postgresql.conf for a running EDB Postgres instance can be found using the following command run from a command prompt: > psql -d <database-name> -U <username> -c "SHOW config_file" Where <database-name> is any database in the EDB postgres instance and <username> is a database superuser. By default, a database named "edb" and a superuser named "enterprisedb" are installed with EDB Postgres Advanced Server (EPAS). In the postgresql.conf file, set the "ssl" parameter as follows: ssl = on Ensure the parameter is uncommented. In order to start an EDB Postgres Advanced Server instance in SSL mode, files containing the server certificate and private key must exist. By default, these files are expected to exist in the Postgres data directory and are expected to be named server.crt and server.key, respectively. Update the ssl_cert_file and ssl_cert_key parameters in the postgresql.conf file if the files are placed in a different location or are named differently. Note that changes to the SSL parameter setting and any of the other SSL-related parameters require a database server restart to be put the changes into effect. To restart the database on a systemd server, issue the following command as the root user or a user with sudo access: > systemctl restart edb-as-<version> Where <version> is the major version of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server instance (e.g., 15). To restart the database on an initd server, issue the following command as the root user or a user with sudo access: > systemctl restart edb-as-<version> Where <version> is the major version of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server instance (e.g., 15). After verifying SSL is enabled for the database, open the pg_hba.conf file in an editor to configure the host-based authentication settings. The default location for the pg_hba.conf file is in the postgresql data directory (PGDATA). The location of the pg_hba.conf file for a running EDB postgres instance can be found using the following command run from a command prompt: > psql -d <database-name> -U <username> -c "SHOW hba_file" Where <database-name> is any database in the EDB postgres instance and <username> is a database superuser. By default, a database named "edb" and a superuser named "enterprisedb" are installed with EDB Postgres Advanced Server (EPAS). Obtain approval and document any uncommented entries with corresponding justification that are not of type hostssl and do not include the "clientcert=1" option. For any entries that are not of type hostssl authentication with the "clientcert=1" option and not documented and approved, change the "TYPE" column to "hostssl" and add the "clientcert=1" authentication method option. Note that changes to the host-based authentication settings require a database reload in order to apply the updated settings. To reload the database on a systemd server, issue the following command as the root user or a user with sudo access: > systemctl reload edb-as-<version> Where <version> is the major version of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server instance (e.g., 15). To reload the database on an initd server, issue the following command as the root user or a user with sudo access: > systemctl reload edb-as-<version> Where <version> is the major version of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server instance (e.g., 15). For more information on configuring PostgreSQL to use SSL, consult the following documentation: https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/ssl-tcp.html

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must maintain the confidentiality and integrity of information during reception.
SC-8 - Medium - CCI-002422 - V-259293 - SV-259293r938932_rule
RMF Control
SC-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002422
Version
EPAS-00-009600
Vuln IDs
  • V-259293
Rule IDs
  • SV-259293r938932_rule
Information can be either unintentionally or maliciously disclosed or modified during reception, including, for example, during aggregation, at protocol transformation points, and during packing/unpacking. These unauthorized disclosures or modifications compromise the confidentiality or integrity of the information. This requirement applies only to those applications that are either distributed or can allow access to data nonlocally. Use of this requirement will be limited to situations where the data owner has a strict requirement for ensuring data integrity and confidentiality is maintained at every step of the data transfer and handling process. When receiving data, the DBMS, associated applications, and infrastructure must leverage protection mechanisms. EDB Postgres Advanced Server provides native support for using SSL connections to encrypt client/server communications. To enable the use of SSL, the postgres "ssl" configuration parameter must be set to "on", and the database instance needs to be configured to use a valid server certificate and private key installed on the server. With SSL enabled, connections made to the database server will default to being encrypted. However, it is possible for clients to override the default and attempt to establish an unencrypted connection. To prevent connections made from nonlocal hosts from being unencrypted, the postgres host-based authentication settings should be configured to only allow hostssl (i.e., encrypted) connections. The hostssl connections can be further configured to require that the client present a valid (trusted) SSL certificate for a connection.
Checks: C-63032r938930_chk

If the data owner does not have a strict requirement for ensuring data integrity and confidentiality is maintained at every step of the data transfer and handling process, this is not a finding. First, check if SSL is enabled for the database instance by executing the following command from a command prompt: &gt; psql -d &lt;database-name&gt; -U &lt;username&gt; -c "SHOW ssl" Where &lt;database-name&gt; is any database in the EDB Postgres instance and &lt;username&gt; is a database superuser. By default, a database named "edb" and a superuser named "enterprisedb" are installed with EDB Postgres Advanced Server (EPAS). If the result is not "on", this is a finding. Next, open the pg_hba.conf file in a viewer or editor and review the authentication settings that are configured in that file. The default location for the pg_hba.conf file is in the postgresql data directory. The location of the pg_hba.conf file for a running EDB postgres instance can be found using the following command run from a command prompt: &gt; psql -d &lt;database-name&gt; -U &lt;username&gt; -c "SHOW hba_file" Where &lt;database-name&gt; is any database in the EDB postgres instance and &lt;username&gt; is a database superuser. By default, a database named "edb" and a superuser named "enterprisedb" are installed with EDB Postgres Advanced Server (EPAS). If any uncommented lines are not of TYPE "hostssl" and do not include the "clientcert=1" authentication option and are not documented in the system security plan or equivalent document as being approved, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62941r938931_fix

To configure EDB Postgres Advanced Server to use SSL, open the "postgresql.conf" file in an editor. The default location for the postgresql.conf file is in the postgresql data directory (PGDATA). The location of the postgresql.conf for a running EDB Postgres instance can be found using the following command run from a command prompt: > psql -d <database-name> -U <username> -c "SHOW config_file" Where <database-name> is any database in the EDB postgres instance and <username> is a database superuser. By default, a database named "edb" and a superuser named "enterprisedb" are installed with EDB Postgres Advanced Server (EPAS). In the postgresql.conf file, set the "ssl" parameter as follows: ssl = on Ensure the parameter is uncommented. In order to start an EDB Postgres Advanced Server instance in SSL mode, files containing the server certificate and private key must exist. By default, these files are expected to exist in the Postgres data directory and are expected to be named server.crt and server.key, respectively. Update the ssl_cert_file and ssl_cert_key parameters in the postgresql.conf file if the files are placed in a different location or are named differently. Note that changes to the SSL parameter setting and any of the other SSL- related parameters require a database server restart to be put the changes into effect. To restart the database on a systemd server, issue the following command as the root user or a user with sudo access: > systemctl restart edb-as-<version> Where <version> is the major version of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server instance (e.g., 15). To restart the database, issue the following command as the root user or a user with sudo access: > systemctl restart edb-as-<version> Where <version> is the major version of the EDB Postgres Advanced Server instance (e.g., 14). After verifying that SSL is enabled for the database, open the pg_hba.conf file in an editor to configure the host-based authentication settings. Note that the default location for the pg_hba.conf file is in the postgresql data directory (PGDATA). The location of the pg_hba.conf file for a running EDB postgres instance can be found using the following command run from a command prompt: > psql -d <database-name> -U <username> -c "SHOW hba_file" Where <database-name> is any database in the EDB postgres instance and <username> is a database superuser. By default, a database named "edb" and a superuser named "enterprisedb" are installed with EDB Postgres Advanced Server (EPAS). Obtain approval and document any uncommented entries with corresponding justification that are not of type hostssl and do not include the "clientcert=1" option. For any entries that are not of type hostssl authentication with the "clientcert=1" option and not documented and approved, change the "TYPE" column to "hostssl" and add the "clientcert=1" authentication method option. Note that changes to the host-based authentication settings require a database reload in order to apply the updated settings.

b
When invalid inputs are received, the EDB Postgres Advanced Server must behave in a predictable and documented manner that reflects organizational and system objectives.
SI-10 - Medium - CCI-002754 - V-259294 - SV-259294r938935_rule
RMF Control
SI-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002754
Version
EPAS-00-009700
Vuln IDs
  • V-259294
Rule IDs
  • SV-259294r938935_rule
A common vulnerability is unplanned behavior when invalid inputs are received. This requirement guards against adverse or unintended system behavior caused by invalid inputs, where information system responses to the invalid input may be disruptive or cause the system to fail into an unsafe state. The behavior will be derived from the organizational and system requirements and includes, but is not limited to, notification of the appropriate personnel, creating an audit record, and rejecting invalid input. This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers, and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed, and must document what has been discovered.
Checks: C-63033r938933_chk

Execute the following SQL as "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SELECT * FROM sqlprotect.list_protected_users" If the database and user that handles user input is not listed or if sqlprotect.list_protected_users does not exist (meaning SQL/Protect is not installed), and an alternative means of reviewing for vulnerable code is not in use, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62942r938934_fix

Install and configure SQL/Protect as documented here for the specific version being used: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/epas/latest/epas_security_guide/02_protecting_against_sql_injection_attacks/02_configuring_sql_protect/ Alternatively, implement, document, and maintain another method of checking for the validity of inputs.

b
Security-relevant software updates to the EDB Postgres Advanced Server must be installed within the time period directed by an authoritative source (e.g., IAVM, CTOs, DTMs, and STIGs).
SI-2 - Medium - CCI-002605 - V-259295 - SV-259295r938938_rule
RMF Control
SI-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002605
Version
EPAS-00-009900
Vuln IDs
  • V-259295
Rule IDs
  • SV-259295r938938_rule
Security flaws with software applications, including database management systems, are discovered daily. Vendors are constantly updating and patching their products to address newly discovered security vulnerabilities. Organizations (including any contractor to the organization) are required to promptly install security-relevant software updates (e.g., patches, service packs, and hot fixes). Flaws discovered during security assessments, continuous monitoring, incident response activities, or information system error handling must also be addressed expeditiously. Organization-defined time periods for updating security-relevant software may vary based on a variety of factors including, for example, the security category of the information system or the criticality of the update (i.e., severity of the vulnerability related to the discovered flaw). This requirement will apply to software patch management solutions that are used to install patches across the enclave and also to applications themselves that are not part of that patch management solution. For example, many browsers today provide the capability to install their own patch software. Patch criticality, as well as system criticality, will vary. Therefore, the tactical situations regarding the patch management process will also vary. This means that the time period utilized must be a configurable parameter. Timeframes for application of security-relevant software updates may be dependent upon the Information Assurance Vulnerability Management (IAVM) process. The application will be configured to check for and install security-relevant software updates within an identified time period from the availability of the update. The specific time period will be defined by an authoritative source (e.g., IAVM, CTOs, DTMs, and STIGs).
Checks: C-63034r938936_chk

Obtain evidence that software patches are obtained from EnterpriseDB and are consistently applied to the DBMS within the timeframe defined for each patch. Verify the current EDB Postgres Advanced Server version by running the following command as the enterprisedb user: &gt; /usr/edb/as15/bin/edb-postgres --version If such evidence cannot be obtained, or the evidence that is obtained indicates a pattern of noncompliance, this is a finding. If an administrator is not registered on the EDB Support Portal with an email address for monitoring technical alerts, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62943r938937_fix

Institute and adhere to policies and procedures to ensure that patches are consistently obtained from EnterpriseDB and applied to the DBMS within the time allowed. Ensure that a monitored email address is registered as a user on the EDB support portal and is receiving technical alerts.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when security objects are accessed.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259296 - SV-259296r938941_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-010000
Vuln IDs
  • V-259296
Rule IDs
  • SV-259296r938941_rule
Changes to the security configuration must be tracked. This requirement applies to situations where security data is retrieved or modified via data manipulation operations, as opposed to via specialized security functionality. In an SQL environment, types of access include, but are not necessarily limited to: SELECT INSERT UPDATE DELETE EXECUTE
Checks: C-63035r938939_chk

Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62944r938940_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to access security objects occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259297 - SV-259297r938944_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-010100
Vuln IDs
  • V-259297
Rule IDs
  • SV-259297r938944_rule
Changes to the security configuration must be tracked. This requirement applies to situations where security data is retrieved or modified via data manipulation operations, as opposed to via specialized security functionality. In an SQL environment, types of access include, but are not necessarily limited to: SELECT INSERT UPDATE DELETE EXECUTE To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones.
Checks: C-63036r938942_chk

Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62945r938943_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when categories of information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) are accessed.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259298 - SV-259298r938947_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-010200
Vuln IDs
  • V-259298
Rule IDs
  • SV-259298r938947_rule
Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, and FIPS Publication 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems.
Checks: C-63037r938945_chk

Review the system documentation to determine whether it is required to track categorized information, such as classification or sensitivity level. If it is not, this is not applicable. Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62946r938946_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
Audit records must be generated when unsuccessful attempts to access categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259299 - SV-259299r938950_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-010300
Vuln IDs
  • V-259299
Rule IDs
  • SV-259299r938950_rule
Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, and FIPS Publication 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems.
Checks: C-63038r938948_chk

Review the system documentation to determine whether it is required to track categorized information, such as classification or sensitivity level. If it is not, this is not applicable. Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62947r938949_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are added.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259300 - SV-259300r938953_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-010400
Vuln IDs
  • V-259300
Rule IDs
  • SV-259300r938953_rule
Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of individuals' and groups' privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functionality that they should not have; restricted privileges wrongly deny access to authorized users. In an SQL environment, adding permissions is typically done via the GRANT command, or, in the negative, the REVOKE command.
Checks: C-63039r938951_chk

Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62948r938952_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to add privileges/permissions occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259301 - SV-259301r938956_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-010500
Vuln IDs
  • V-259301
Rule IDs
  • SV-259301r938956_rule
Failed attempts to change the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized attempts to elevate or restrict individuals' and groups' privileges could go undetected. In an SQL environment, adding permissions is typically done via the GRANT command, or, in the negative, the REVOKE command. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones.
Checks: C-63040r938954_chk

Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62949r938955_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are modified.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259302 - SV-259302r938959_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-010600
Vuln IDs
  • V-259302
Rule IDs
  • SV-259302r938959_rule
Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of individuals' and groups' privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functionality that they should not have; restricted privileges wrongly deny access to authorized users. In an SQL environment, modifying permissions is typically done via the GRANT and REVOKE commands.
Checks: C-63041r938957_chk

Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62950r938958_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to modify privileges/permissions occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259303 - SV-259303r938962_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-010700
Vuln IDs
  • V-259303
Rule IDs
  • SV-259303r938962_rule
Failed attempts to change the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized attempts to elevate or restrict individuals' and groups' privileges could go undetected. In an SQL environment, modifying permissions is typically done via the GRANT and REVOKE commands. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones.
Checks: C-63042r938960_chk

Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62951r938961_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when security objects are modified.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259304 - SV-259304r938965_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-010800
Vuln IDs
  • V-259304
Rule IDs
  • SV-259304r938965_rule
Changes in the database objects (tables, views, procedures, and functions) that record and control permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized changes to the security subsystem could go undetected. The database could be severely compromised or rendered inoperative.
Checks: C-63043r938963_chk

Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62952r938964_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to modify security objects occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259305 - SV-259305r938968_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-010900
Vuln IDs
  • V-259305
Rule IDs
  • SV-259305r938968_rule
Changes in the database objects (tables, views, procedures, functions) that record and control permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized changes to the security subsystem could go undetected. The database could be severely compromised or rendered inoperative. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones.
Checks: C-63044r938966_chk

Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62953r938967_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
Audit records must be generated when categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) is created.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259306 - SV-259306r938971_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-011000
Vuln IDs
  • V-259306
Rule IDs
  • SV-259306r938971_rule
Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, and FIPS Publication 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems.
Checks: C-63045r938969_chk

Review the system documentation to determine whether it is required to track categorized information, such as classification or sensitivity level. If it is not, this is not applicable. Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62954r938970_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
Audit records must be generated when categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) is modified.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259307 - SV-259307r938974_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-011050
Vuln IDs
  • V-259307
Rule IDs
  • SV-259307r938974_rule
Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, and FIPS Publication 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems.
Checks: C-63046r938972_chk

Review the system documentation to determine whether it is required to track categorized information, such as classification or sensitivity level. If it is not, this is not applicable. Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62955r938973_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
Audit records must be generated when unsuccessful attempts to create categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259308 - SV-259308r938977_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-011100
Vuln IDs
  • V-259308
Rule IDs
  • SV-259308r938977_rule
Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, and FIPS Publication 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems.
Checks: C-63047r938975_chk

Review the system documentation to determine whether it is required to track categorized information, such as classification or sensitivity level. If it is not, this is not applicable. Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62956r938976_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
Audit records must be generated when unsuccessful attempts to modify categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259309 - SV-259309r938980_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-011150
Vuln IDs
  • V-259309
Rule IDs
  • SV-259309r938980_rule
Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, and FIPS Publication 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems.
Checks: C-63048r938978_chk

Review the system documentation to determine whether it is required to track categorized information, such as classification or sensitivity level. If it is not, this is not applicable. Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62957r938979_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are deleted.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259310 - SV-259310r938983_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-011200
Vuln IDs
  • V-259310
Rule IDs
  • SV-259310r938983_rule
Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of individuals' and groups' privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functionality that they should not have; restricted privileges wrongly deny access to authorized users. In an SQL environment, deleting permissions is typically done via the REVOKE command.
Checks: C-63049r938981_chk

Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62958r938982_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to delete privileges/permissions occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259311 - SV-259311r938986_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-011300
Vuln IDs
  • V-259311
Rule IDs
  • SV-259311r938986_rule
Failed attempts to change the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized attempts to elevate or restrict individuals' and groups' privileges could go undetected. In an SQL environment, deleting permissions is typically done via the REVOKE command. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones.
Checks: C-63050r938984_chk

Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62959r938985_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when security objects are deleted.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259312 - SV-259312r938989_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-011400
Vuln IDs
  • V-259312
Rule IDs
  • SV-259312r938989_rule
The removal of security objects from the database/DBMS would seriously degrade a system's information assurance posture. If such an event occurs, it must be logged.
Checks: C-63051r938987_chk

Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62960r938988_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to delete security objects occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259313 - SV-259313r938992_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-011500
Vuln IDs
  • V-259313
Rule IDs
  • SV-259313r938992_rule
The removal of security objects from the database/DBMS would seriously degrade a system's information assurance posture. If such an action is attempted, it must be logged. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones.
Checks: C-63052r938990_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62961r938991_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
Audit records must be generated when categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) is deleted.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259314 - SV-259314r938995_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-011600
Vuln IDs
  • V-259314
Rule IDs
  • SV-259314r938995_rule
Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, and FIPS Publication 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems.
Checks: C-63053r938993_chk

Review the system documentation to determine whether it is required to track categorized information such as classification or sensitivity level. If it is not, this is not applicable. Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62962r938994_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
Audit records must be generated when unsuccessful attempts to delete categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259315 - SV-259315r938998_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-011700
Vuln IDs
  • V-259315
Rule IDs
  • SV-259315r938998_rule
Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, and FIPS Publication 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems.
Checks: C-63054r938996_chk

Review the system documentation to determine whether it is required to track categorized information, such as classification or sensitivity level. If it is not, this is not applicable. Execute the following SQL the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62963r938997_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when successful logons or connections occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259316 - SV-259316r939001_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-011800
Vuln IDs
  • V-259316
Rule IDs
  • SV-259316r939001_rule
For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track who/what (a user or other principal) logs on to the DBMS.
Checks: C-63055r938999_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_connect" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62964r939000_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_connect = 'all'" > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_disconnect = 'all'" >psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful logons or connection attempts occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259317 - SV-259317r939004_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-011900
Vuln IDs
  • V-259317
Rule IDs
  • SV-259317r939004_rule
For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track failed attempts to log on to the DBMS. While positive identification may not be possible in a case of failed authentication, as much information as possible about the incident must be captured.
Checks: C-63056r939002_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_connect" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62965r939003_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_connect = 'all'" > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_disconnect = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records for all privileged activities or other system-level access.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259318 - SV-259318r939007_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-012000
Vuln IDs
  • V-259318
Rule IDs
  • SV-259318r939007_rule
Without tracking privileged activity, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. System documentation should include a definition of the functionality considered privileged. A privileged function in this context is any operation that modifies the structure of the database, its built-in logic, or its security settings. This would include all Data Definition Language (DDL) statements and all security-related statements. In an SQL environment, it encompasses, but is not necessarily limited to: CREATE ALTER DROP GRANT REVOKE There may also be Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements that, subject to context, should be regarded as privileged. Possible examples in SQL include: TRUNCATE TABLE; DELETE, or DELETE affecting more than n rows, for some n, or DELETE without a WHERE clause; UPDATE or UPDATE affecting more than n rows, for some n, or UPDATE without a WHERE clause; any SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE to an application-defined security table executed by other than a security principal. Depending on the capabilities of the DBMS and the design of the database and associated applications, audit logging may be achieved by means of DBMS auditing features, database triggers, other mechanisms, or a combination of these. Note that it is particularly important to audit, and tightly control, any action that weakens the implementation of this requirement itself, since the objective is to have a complete audit trail of all administrative activity.
Checks: C-63057r939005_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62966r939006_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to execute privileged activities or other system-level access occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259319 - SV-259319r939010_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-012100
Vuln IDs
  • V-259319
Rule IDs
  • SV-259319r939010_rule
Without tracking privileged activity, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. System documentation should include a definition of the functionality considered privileged. A privileged function in this context is any operation that modifies the structure of the database, its built-in logic, or its security settings. This would include all Data Definition Language (DDL) statements and all security-related statements. In an SQL environment, it encompasses, but is not necessarily limited to: CREATE ALTER DROP GRANT REVOKE Note that it is particularly important to audit, and tightly control, any action that weakens the implementation of this requirement itself, since the objective is to have a complete audit trail of all administrative activity. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones.
Checks: C-63058r939008_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62967r939009_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records showing starting and ending time for user access to the database(s).
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259320 - SV-259320r939013_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-012200
Vuln IDs
  • V-259320
Rule IDs
  • SV-259320r939013_rule
For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to know how long a user's (or other principal's) connection to the DBMS lasts. This can be achieved by recording disconnections, in addition to logons/connections, in the audit logs. Disconnection may be initiated by the user or forced by the system (as in a timeout) or result from a system or network failure. To the greatest extent possible, all disconnections must be logged.
Checks: C-63059r939011_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_connect" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62968r939012_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_connect = 'all'" > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_disconnect = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when concurrent logons/connections by the same user from different workstations occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259321 - SV-259321r939016_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-012300
Vuln IDs
  • V-259321
Rule IDs
  • SV-259321r939016_rule
For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track who logs on to the DBMS. Concurrent connections by the same user from multiple workstations may be valid use of the system; or such connections may be due to improper circumvention of the requirement to use the CAC for authentication; or they may indicate unauthorized account sharing; or they may be because an account has been compromised. If multiple concurrent logons by a given user can be reliably reconstructed from the log entries for other events (logons/connections; voluntary and involuntary disconnections), then it is not mandatory to create additional log entries specifically for this.
Checks: C-63060r939014_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_connect" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62969r939015_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_connect = 'all'" > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_disconnect = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must be able to generate audit records when successful accesses to objects occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259322 - SV-259322r939019_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-012400
Vuln IDs
  • V-259322
Rule IDs
  • SV-259322r939019_rule
Without tracking all or selected types of access to all or selected objects (tables, views, procedures, functions, etc.), it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident, or identify those responsible for one. In an SQL environment, types of access include, but are not necessarily limited to: SELECT INSERT UPDATE DELETE EXECUTE
Checks: C-63061r939017_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62970r939018_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful accesses to objects occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259323 - SV-259323r939022_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-012500
Vuln IDs
  • V-259323
Rule IDs
  • SV-259323r939022_rule
Without tracking all or selected types of access to all or selected objects (tables, views, procedures, functions, etc.), it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. In an SQL environment, types of access include, but are not necessarily limited to: SELECT INSERT UPDATE DELETE EXECUTE To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones.
Checks: C-63062r939020_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" If the result is not "all" or if the current setting for this requirement has not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62971r939021_fix

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: > psql edb -c "ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'" > psql edb -c "SELECT pg_reload_conf()" or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must generate audit records for all direct access to the database(s).
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-259324 - SV-259324r939025_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
EPAS-00-012600
Vuln IDs
  • V-259324
Rule IDs
  • SV-259324r939025_rule
In this context, direct access is any query, command, or call to the DBMS that comes from any source other than the application(s) that it supports. Examples would be the command line or a database management utility program. The intent is to capture all activity from administrative and nonstandard sources.
Checks: C-63063r939023_chk

Execute the following SQL as the "enterprisedb" operating system user: &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_statement" &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_connect" &gt; psql edb -c "SHOW edb_audit_disconnect" If the result is not "all" for any or if the current settings for this requirement have not been noted and approved by the organization in the system documentation, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62972r939024_fix

Execute the following SQL as enterprisedb: ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_statement = 'all'; ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_connect = 'all'; ALTER SYSTEM SET edb_audit_disconnect = 'all'; SELECT pg_reload_conf(); or Update the system documentation to note the organizationally approved setting and corresponding justification of the setting for this requirement.

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must implement NIST FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 validated cryptographic modules to provision digital signatures.
SC-13 - Medium - CCI-002450 - V-259325 - SV-259325r939028_rule
RMF Control
SC-13
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002450
Version
EPAS-00-012700
Vuln IDs
  • V-259325
Rule IDs
  • SV-259325r939028_rule
Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides assurance they have been tested and validated. For detailed information, refer to NIST FIPS Publication 140-3, Security Requirements For Cryptographic Modules. Note that the product's cryptographic modules must be validated and certified by NIST as FIPS-compliant.
Checks: C-63064r939026_chk

If a FIPS-certified OpenSSL library is not installed, this is a finding. Run the command "cat /proc/sys/crypto/fips_enabled". If the output is not "1", this is a finding. For RedHat 8 or higher, run: "fips-mode-setup --check". If the output is not "FIPS mode is enabled", this is a finding.

Fix: F-62973r939027_fix

If fips_enabled = 0 or FIPS mode is not enabled, configure OpenSSL to be FIPS compliant. Configure per operating system documentation: RedHat7: https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/security_guide/chap-federal_standards_and_regulations RedHat8: https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/8/html/security_hardening/assembly_installing-a-rhel-8-system-with-fips-mode-enabled_security-hardening Ubuntu: https://security-certs.docs.ubuntu.com/en/fips

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must implement NIST FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 validated cryptographic modules to generate and validate cryptographic hashes.
SC-13 - Medium - CCI-002450 - V-259326 - SV-259326r939031_rule
RMF Control
SC-13
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002450
Version
EPAS-00-012800
Vuln IDs
  • V-259326
Rule IDs
  • SV-259326r939031_rule
Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides assurance they have been tested and validated. For detailed information, refer to NIST FIPS Publication 140-3, Security Requirements For Cryptographic Modules. Note that the product's cryptographic modules must be validated and certified by NIST as FIPS-compliant.
Checks: C-63065r939029_chk

If a FIPS-certified OpenSSL library is not installed, this is a finding. Run the command "cat /proc/sys/crypto/fips_enabled". If the output is not "1", this is a finding. For RedHat 8 or higher, run: "fips-mode-setup --check". If the output is not "FIPS mode is enabled", this is a finding.

Fix: F-62974r939030_fix

If fips_enabled = 0 or FIPS mode is not enabled, configure OpenSSL to be FIPS compliant. Configure per operating system documentation: RedHat7: https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/security_guide/chap-federal_standards_and_regulations RedHat8: https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/8/html/security_hardening/assembly_installing-a-rhel-8-system-with-fips-mode-enabled_security-hardening Ubuntu: https://security-certs.docs.ubuntu.com/en/fips

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must implement NIST FIPS 140-2 or 140-3 validated cryptographic modules to protect unclassified information requiring confidentiality and cryptographic protection, in accordance with the requirements of the data owner.
SC-13 - Medium - CCI-002450 - V-259327 - SV-259327r939034_rule
RMF Control
SC-13
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002450
Version
EPAS-00-012900
Vuln IDs
  • V-259327
Rule IDs
  • SV-259327r939034_rule
Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides assurance they have been tested and validated. It is the responsibility of the data owner to assess the cryptography requirements in light of applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, and standards. For detailed information, refer to NIST FIPS Publication 140-3, Security Requirements For Cryptographic Modules. Note that the product's cryptographic modules must be validated and certified by NIST as FIPS-compliant.
Checks: C-63066r939032_chk

If a FIPS-certified OpenSSL library is not installed, this is a finding. Run the command "cat /proc/sys/crypto/fips_enabled". If the output is not "1", this is a finding.

Fix: F-62975r939033_fix

If fips_enabled = 0 or FIPS mode is not enabled, configure OpenSSL to be FIPS compliant. Configure per operating system documentation: RedHat7: https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/security_guide/chap-federal_standards_and_regulations RedHat8: https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/8/html/security_hardening/assembly_installing-a-rhel-8-system-with-fips-mode-enabled_security-hardening Ubuntu: https://security-certs.docs.ubuntu.com/en/fips

b
The EDB Postgres Advanced Server must off-load audit data to a separate log management facility; this must be continuous and in near real time for systems with a network connection to the storage facility and weekly or more often for stand-alone systems.
AU-4 - Medium - CCI-001851 - V-259328 - SV-259328r939037_rule
RMF Control
AU-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001851
Version
EPAS-00-013000
Vuln IDs
  • V-259328
Rule IDs
  • SV-259328r939037_rule
Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration. Off-loading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity. The DBMS may write audit records to database tables, to files in the file system, to other kinds of local repository, or directly to a centralized log management system. Whatever the method used, it must be compatible with off-loading the records to the centralized system.
Checks: C-63067r939035_chk

If Postgres Enterprise Manager (PEM) or another log collection tool is not installed and configured to automatically collect audit logs, this is a finding. Review the system documentation for a description of how audit records are off-loaded and how local audit log space is managed.

Fix: F-62976r939036_fix

Install PEM and configure the centralized Audit Manager as documented here: https://www.enterprisedb.com/docs/pem/latest/pem_online_help/04_toc_pem_features/04_audit_manager/ If another tool other than PEM is used, configure it to meet this requirement.

c
EDB Postgres Advanced Server products must be a version supported by the vendor.
SA-22 - High - CCI-003376 - V-259329 - SV-259329r939040_rule
RMF Control
SA-22
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-003376
Version
EPAS-00-013200
Vuln IDs
  • V-259329
Rule IDs
  • SV-259329r939040_rule
Unsupported commercial and database systems should not be used because fixes to newly identified bugs will not be implemented by the vendor. The lack of support can result in potential vulnerabilities. Systems at unsupported servicing levels or releases will not receive security updates for new vulnerabilities, which leaves them subject to exploitation. When maintenance updates and patches are no longer available, the database software is no longer considered supported and should be upgraded or decommissioned.
Checks: C-63068r939038_chk

Review the system documentation and interview the database administrator. Identify all database software components. Review the current version and release information as follows: &gt; /usr/edb/as&lt;version&gt;/bin/edb-postgres --version Access the EDB website to validate that the version is currently supported: https://www.enterprisedb.com/resources/platform-compatibility If the DBMS or any of the software components are not supported by the vendor, this is a finding.

Fix: F-62977r939039_fix

Remove or decommission all unsupported software products. Upgrade unsupported DBMS or unsupported components to a supported version of the product.