Cisco IOS XE Switch NDM Security Technical Implementation Guide

  • Version/Release: V2R8
  • Published: 2023-11-28
  • Expand All:
  • Severity:
  • Sort:
Compare

Select any two versions of this STIG to compare the individual requirements

View

Select any old version/release of this STIG to view the previous requirements

This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DOD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: [email protected].
b
The Cisco switch must be configured to limit the number of concurrent management sessions to an organization-defined number.
AC-10 - Medium - CCI-000054 - V-220518 - SV-220518r879511_rule
RMF Control
AC-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000054
Version
CISC-ND-000010
Vuln IDs
  • V-220518
  • V-101369
Rule IDs
  • SV-220518r879511_rule
  • SV-110473
Device management includes the ability to control the number of administrators and management sessions that manage a device. Limiting the number of allowed administrators and sessions per administrator based on account type, role, or access type is helpful in limiting risks related to DoS attacks. This requirement addresses concurrent sessions for administrative accounts and does not address concurrent sessions by a single administrator via multiple administrative accounts. The maximum number of concurrent sessions should be defined based upon mission needs and the operational environment for each system. At a minimum, limits must be set for SSH, HTTPS, account of last resort, and root account sessions.
Checks: C-22233r835132_chk

Note: This requirement is not applicable to file transfer actions such as FTP, SCP, and SFTP. Review the switch configuration to determine if concurrent management sessions are limited as show in the example below: ip http secure-server ip http max-connections 2 … … … For platforms that support the session-limit command: line vty 0 4 session-limit 2 transport input ssh For those platforms that do not support the session-limit command, the sessions can also be limited by reducing the number of active vty lines as shown in the example below. line vty 0 1 transport input ssh line vty 2 4 transport input none If the switch is not configured to limit the number of concurrent management sessions, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22222r835133_fix

Configure the switch to limit the number of concurrent management sessions to an organization-defined number as shown in the example below: SW4(config)#ip http max-connections 2 SW4(config)#line vty 0 1 SW4(config)#transport input ssh SW4(config)#line vty 2 4 SW4(config)#transport input none

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to automatically audit account creation.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-000018 - V-220519 - SV-220519r879525_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000018
Version
CISC-ND-000090
Vuln IDs
  • V-220519
  • V-101371
Rule IDs
  • SV-220519r879525_rule
  • SV-110475
Upon gaining access to a network device, an attacker will often first attempt to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is to create a new account. Notification of account creation helps to mitigate this risk. Auditing account creation provides the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. Without this audit trail, personnel without the proper authorization may gain access to critical network nodes.
Checks: C-22234r508501_chk

Review the switch configuration to determine if it automatically audits account creation. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account creation is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22223r508502_fix

Configure the switch to log account creation using the following commands: SW4(config)#archive SW4(config-archive)#log config SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to automatically audit account modification.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-001403 - V-220520 - SV-220520r879526_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001403
Version
CISC-ND-000100
Vuln IDs
  • V-220520
  • V-101373
Rule IDs
  • SV-220520r879526_rule
  • SV-110477
Since the accounts in the network device are privileged or system-level accounts, account management is vital to the security of the network device. Account management by a designated authority ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel with the appropriate and necessary privileges. Auditing account modification along with an automatic notification to appropriate individuals will provide the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. If modifications to management accounts are not audited, reconciliation of account management procedures cannot be tracked.
Checks: C-22235r508504_chk

Review the switch configuration to determine if it automatically audits account modification. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account modification is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22224r508505_fix

Configure the switch to log account modification using the following commands: SW4(config)#archive SW4(config-archive)#log config SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to automatically audit account disabling actions.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-001404 - V-220521 - SV-220521r879527_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001404
Version
CISC-ND-000110
Vuln IDs
  • V-220521
  • V-101393
Rule IDs
  • SV-220521r879527_rule
  • SV-110497
Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account disabling actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are disabled, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.
Checks: C-22236r508507_chk

Review the switch configuration to determine if it automatically audits account disabling. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account disabling is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22225r508508_fix

Configure the switch to log account disabling using the following commands: SW4(config)#archive SW4(config-archive)#log config SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to automatically audit account removal actions.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-001405 - V-220522 - SV-220522r879528_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001405
Version
CISC-ND-000120
Vuln IDs
  • V-220522
  • V-101395
Rule IDs
  • SV-220522r879528_rule
  • SV-110499
Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account removal actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are terminated, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.
Checks: C-22237r508510_chk

Review the switch configuration to determine if it automatically audits account removal. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account removal is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22226r508511_fix

Configure the switch to log account removal using the following commands: SW4(config)#archive SW4(config-archive)#log config SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the device based on control policies.
AC-4 - Medium - CCI-001368 - V-220523 - SV-220523r879533_rule
RMF Control
AC-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001368
Version
CISC-ND-000140
Vuln IDs
  • V-220523
  • V-101397
Rule IDs
  • SV-220523r879533_rule
  • SV-110501
A mechanism to detect and prevent unauthorized communication flow must be configured or provided as part of the system design. If management information flow is not enforced based on approved authorizations, the network device may become compromised. Information flow control regulates where management information is allowed to travel within a network device. The flow of all management information must be monitored and controlled so it does not introduce any unacceptable risk to the network device or data. Application-specific examples of enforcement occur in systems that employ rule sets or establish configuration settings that restrict information system services or message-filtering capability based on message content (e.g., implementing key word searches or using document characteristics). Applications providing information flow control must be able to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the system in accordance with applicable policy.
Checks: C-22238r835135_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Administrative access to the switch must only be allowed from hosts residing in the management network. Step 1: Verify that the line vty has an ACL inbound applied as shown in the example below: line vty 0 1 access-class MANAGEMENT_NET in transport input ssh Step 2: Verify that the ACL permits only hosts from the management network to access the switch. ip access-list extended MANAGEMENT_NET permit ip x.x.x.0 0.0.0.255 any deny ip any any log-input If the Cisco switch is not configured to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the device based on control policies, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22227r835136_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to restrict management access to specific IP addresses via SSH as shown in the example below: SW2(config)#ip access-list standard MANAGEMENT_NET SW2(config-std-nacl)#permit x.x.x.0 0.0.0.255 SW2(config-std-nacl)#exit SW2(config)#line vty 0 1 SW2(config-line)#transport input ssh SW2(config-line)#access-class MANAGEMENT_NET in SW2(config-line)#end

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts, after which time it must lock out the user account from accessing the device for 15 minutes.
AC-7 - Medium - CCI-000044 - V-220524 - SV-220524r879546_rule
RMF Control
AC-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000044
Version
CISC-ND-000150
Vuln IDs
  • V-220524
  • V-101399
Rule IDs
  • SV-220524r879546_rule
  • SV-110503
By limiting the number of failed logon attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced.
Checks: C-22239r508516_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it enforces the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts as shown in the example below: login block-for 900 attempts 3 within 120 Note: The configuration example above will block any login attempt for 15 minutes after three consecutive invalid logon attempts within a two-minute period. If the Cisco switch is not configured to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22228r508517_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts as shown in the example below: SW2(config)#login block-for 900 attempts 3 within 120

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access to the device.
AC-8 - Medium - CCI-000048 - V-220525 - SV-220525r879547_rule
RMF Control
AC-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000048
Version
CISC-ND-000160
Vuln IDs
  • V-220525
  • V-101401
Rule IDs
  • SV-220525r879547_rule
  • SV-110505
Display of the DoD-approved use notification before granting access to the network device ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, executive orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. System use notifications are required only for access via logon interfaces with human users.
Checks: C-22240r508519_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below: banner login ^C You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. ^C If the Cisco switch is not configured to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access to the device, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22229r508520_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access as shown in the following example: SW1(config)#banner login # Enter TEXT message. End with the character '#'. You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. # SW1(config)#end

b
The Cisco device must be configured to audit all administrator activity.
AU-10 - Medium - CCI-000166 - V-220526 - SV-220526r879554_rule
RMF Control
AU-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000166
Version
CISC-ND-000210
Vuln IDs
  • V-220526
  • V-101403
Rule IDs
  • SV-220526r879554_rule
  • SV-110507
This requirement supports non-repudiation of actions taken by an administrator and is required in order to maintain the integrity of the configuration management process. All configuration changes to the network device are logged, and administrators authenticate with two-factor authentication before gaining administrative access. Together, these processes will ensure the administrators can be held accountable for the configuration changes they implement. To meet this requirement, the network device must log administrator access and activity.
Checks: C-22241r508522_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below: hostname R1 ! logging userinfo ! … … … archive log config logging enable ! Note: The logging userinfo global configuration command will generate a log when a user increases his or her privilege level. If logging of administrator activity is not configured, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22230r508523_fix

Configure the switch to log administrator activity as shown in the example below: SW1(config)#logging userinfo SW1(config)#archive SW1(config-archive)#log config SW1(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable SW1(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco switch must produce audit records containing information to establish when (date and time) the events occurred.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000131 - V-220528 - SV-220528r879564_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000131
Version
CISC-ND-000280
Vuln IDs
  • V-220528
  • V-101407
Rule IDs
  • SV-220528r879564_rule
  • SV-110511
It is essential for security personnel to know what is being done, what was attempted, where it was done, when it was done, and by whom it was done in order to compile an accurate risk assessment. Logging the date and time of each detected event provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured network device. In order to establish and correlate the series of events leading up to an outage or attack, it is imperative the date and time are recorded in all log records.
Checks: C-22243r508528_chk

Verify that the switch is configured to include the date and time on all log records as shown in the configuration example below: service timestamps log datetime localtime If time stamps is not configured, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22232r508529_fix

Configure the switch to include the date and time on all log records as shown in the example below: SW1(config)#service timestamps log datetime localtime

b
The Cisco switch must produce audit records containing information to establish where the events occurred.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000132 - V-220529 - SV-220529r929024_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000132
Version
CISC-ND-000290
Vuln IDs
  • V-220529
  • V-101409
Rule IDs
  • SV-220529r929024_rule
  • SV-110513
In order to compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, it is essential for security personnel to know where events occurred, such as device hardware components, device software modules, session identifiers, filenames, host names, and functionality. Associating information about where the event occurred within the network device provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured device.
Checks: C-22244r929023_chk

Review the deny statements in all interface ACLs to determine if the log-input parameter has been configured as shown in the example below. Note: log-input can only apply to interface bound ACLs. ip access-list extended BLOCK_INBOUND deny icmp any any log-input If the switch is not configured with the log-input parameter after any deny statements to note where packets have been dropped via an ACL, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22233r508532_fix

Configure the log-input parameter after any deny statements to provide the location as to where packets have been dropped via an ACL. SW1(config)#ip access-list extended BLOCK_INBOUND SW1(config-ext-nacl)#deny icmp any any log-input

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to generate audit records containing the full-text recording of privileged commands.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000135 - V-220530 - SV-220530r879569_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000135
Version
CISC-ND-000330
Vuln IDs
  • V-220530
  • V-101411
Rule IDs
  • SV-220530r879569_rule
  • SV-110515
Reconstruction of harmful events or forensic analysis is not possible if audit records do not contain enough information. Organizations consider limiting the additional audit information to only that information explicitly needed for specific audit requirements. The additional information required is dependent on the type of information (i.e., sensitivity of the data and the environment within which it resides). At a minimum, the organization must audit full-text recording of privileged commands. The organization must maintain audit trails in sufficient detail to reconstruct events to determine the cause and impact of compromise.
Checks: C-22245r508534_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The configuration example below will log all configuration changes. archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If the Cisco switch is not configured to generate audit records of configuration changes, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22234r508535_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to log all configuration changes as shown in the example below: SW4(config)#archive SW4(config-archive)#log config SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to protect audit information from unauthorized modification.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000163 - V-220531 - SV-220531r879577_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000163
Version
CISC-ND-000380
Vuln IDs
  • V-220531
  • V-101413
Rule IDs
  • SV-220531r879577_rule
  • SV-110517
Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit network device activity. If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized modification. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions and limiting log data locations. Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights that the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the modification of audit data.
Checks: C-22246r508537_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: If persistent logging is enabled as shown in the example below, go to Step 2. Otherwise, this requirement is not applicable. logging persistent url disk0:/logfile size 134217728 filesize 16384 Step 2: Verify that the switch is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below: file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the switch is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22235r508538_fix

If persistent logging is enabled, configure the switch to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below: SW4(config)#file privilege 15

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to protect audit information from unauthorized deletion.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000164 - V-220532 - SV-220532r879578_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000164
Version
CISC-ND-000390
Vuln IDs
  • V-220532
  • V-101415
Rule IDs
  • SV-220532r879578_rule
  • SV-110519
Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity. If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized deletion. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include: ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions utilizing file system protections, restricting access, and backing up log data to ensure log data is retained. Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the deletion of audit data.
Checks: C-22247r508540_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: If persistent logging is enabled as shown in the example below, go to Step 2. Otherwise, this requirement is not applicable. logging persistent url disk0:/logfile size 134217728 filesize 16384 Step 2: Verify that the switch is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below: file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the switch is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22236r508541_fix

If persistent logging is enabled, configure the switch to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below: SW4(config)#file privilege 15

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to limit privileges to change the software resident within software libraries.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-220533 - SV-220533r879586_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
CISC-ND-000460
Vuln IDs
  • V-220533
  • V-101417
Rule IDs
  • SV-220533r879586_rule
  • SV-110521
Changes to any software components of the network device can have significant effects on the overall security of the network. Therefore, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed administrative access to the network device for implementing any changes or upgrades. If the network device were to enable non-authorized users to make changes to software libraries, those changes could be implemented without undergoing testing, validation, and approval.
Checks: C-22248r508543_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: If persistent logging is enabled as shown in the example below, go to Step 2. Otherwise, this requirement is not applicable. logging persistent url disk0:/logfile size 134217728 filesize 16384 Step 2: Verify that the switch is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below: file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the switch is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22237r508544_fix

If persistent logging is enabled, configure the switch to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below: SW4(config)#file privilege 15

c
The Cisco switch must be configured to prohibit the use of all unnecessary and nonsecure functions and services.
CM-7 - High - CCI-000382 - V-220534 - SV-220534r892403_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000382
Version
CISC-ND-000470
Vuln IDs
  • V-220534
  • V-101419
Rule IDs
  • SV-220534r892403_rule
  • SV-110523
Network devices are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services provided by default may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations. Additionally, it is sometimes convenient to provide multiple services from a single component (e.g., email and web services); however, doing so increases risk over limiting the services provided by any one component. To support the requirements and principles of least functionality, the network device must support the organizational requirements providing only essential capabilities and limiting the use of ports, protocols, and/or services to only those required, authorized, and approved. Some network devices have capabilities enabled by default; if these capabilities are not necessary, they must be disabled. If a particular capability is used, then it must be documented and approved.
Checks: C-22249r892401_chk

Verify that the switch does not have any unnecessary or nonsecure ports, protocols, and services enabled. For example, the following commands should not be in the configuration: boot network ip boot server ip bootp server ip dns server ip identd ip finger ip http server ip rcmd rcp-enable ip rcmd rsh-enable service config service finger service tcp-small-servers service udp-small-servers service pad service call-home If any unnecessary or nonsecure ports, protocols, or services are enabled, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22238r892402_fix

Disable the following services if enabled as shown in the example below: SW2(config)#no boot network SW2(config)#no ip boot server SW2(config)#no ip bootp server SW2(config)#no ip dns server SW2(config)#no ip identd SW2(config)#no ip finger SW2(config)#no ip http server SW2(config)#no ip rcmd rcp-enable SW2(config)#no ip rcmd rsh-enable SW2(config)#no service config SW2(config)#no service finger SW2(config)#no service tcp-small-servers SW2(config)#no service udp-small-servers SW2(config)#no service pad SW2(config)#no service call-home SW2(config)#end

b
The Cisco switch must be configured with only one local account to be used as the account of last resort in the event the authentication server is unavailable.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-001358 - V-220535 - SV-220535r879589_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001358
Version
CISC-ND-000490
Vuln IDs
  • V-220535
  • V-101421
Rule IDs
  • SV-220535r879589_rule
  • SV-110525
Authentication for administrative (privileged level) access to the device is required at all times. An account can be created on the device's local database for use when the authentication server is down or connectivity between the device and the authentication server is not operable. This account is referred to as the account of last resort since it is intended to be used as a last resort and when immediate administrative access is absolutely necessary. The account of last resort logon credentials must be stored in a sealed envelope and kept in a safe. The safe must be periodically audited to verify the envelope remains sealed. The signature of the auditor and the date of the audit should be added to the envelope as a record. An alternative to using a sealed envelope in a safe would be credential files, separated by technology, located in a secured location on a file server, with the files only accessible to administrators authorized to use the accounts of last resort, and access to that location monitored by a central log server. Administrators should secure the credentials and disable the root account (if possible) when not needed for system administration functions.
Checks: C-22250r508549_chk

Step 1: Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that a local account for last resort has been configured with a privilege level that will enable the administrator to troubleshoot connectivity to the authentication server. username xxxxxxxxxxx privilege 10 common-criteria-policy PASSWORD_POLICY password xxxxxxxxxx Note: The configured Common Criteria policy must be used when creating or changing the local account password as shown in the example above. Step 2: Verify that local is defined after radius or tacacs+ in the authentication order as shown in the example below: aaa authentication login default group tacacs+ local If the Cisco switch is not configured with only one local account to be used as the account of last resort in the event the authentication server is unavailable, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22239r508550_fix

Step 1: Configure a local account with the necessary privilege level to troubleshoot network outage and restore operations as shown in the following example: SW2(config)#username xxxxxxxxxxx privilege 10 common-criteria-policy PASSWORD_POLICY password xxxxxxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the local account if the authentication server is not reachable as shown in the following example: SW2(config)#aaa authentication login default group tacacs+ local

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to enforce a minimum 15-character password length.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000205 - V-220537 - SV-220537r879601_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000205
Version
CISC-ND-000550
Vuln IDs
  • V-220537
  • V-101425
Rule IDs
  • SV-220537r879601_rule
  • SV-110529
Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password length is one factor of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password. The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromise the password.
Checks: C-22252r508555_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below: aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY min-length 15 If the Cisco switch is not configured to enforce a minimum 15-character password length, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22241r508556_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to enforce a minimum 15-character password length as shown in the example below: SW1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY SW1(config-cc-policy)#min-length 15 SW1(config-cc-policy)#exit

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000192 - V-220538 - SV-220538r879603_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000192
Version
CISC-ND-000570
Vuln IDs
  • V-220538
  • V-101427
Rule IDs
  • SV-220538r879603_rule
  • SV-110531
Use of a complex passwords helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password is, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.
Checks: C-22253r508558_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below: aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY upper-case 1 If the Cisco switch is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22242r508559_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used as shown in the example below: SW1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY SW1(config-cc-policy)#upper-case 1 SW1(config-cc-policy)#exit

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000193 - V-220539 - SV-220539r879604_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000193
Version
CISC-ND-000580
Vuln IDs
  • V-220539
  • V-101429
Rule IDs
  • SV-220539r879604_rule
  • SV-110533
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.
Checks: C-22254r508561_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below: aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY lower-case 1 If the Cisco switch is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22243r508562_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used as shown in the example below: SW1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY SW1(config-cc-policy)#lower-case 1 SW1(config-cc-policy)#exit

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000194 - V-220540 - SV-220540r879605_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000194
Version
CISC-ND-000590
Vuln IDs
  • V-220540
  • V-101431
Rule IDs
  • SV-220540r879605_rule
  • SV-110535
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.
Checks: C-22255r508564_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below: aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY numeric-count 1 If the Cisco switch is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22244r508565_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used as shown in the example below: SW1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY SW1(config-cc-policy)#numeric-count 1 SW1(config-cc-policy)#exit

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-001619 - V-220541 - SV-220541r879606_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001619
Version
CISC-ND-000600
Vuln IDs
  • V-220541
  • V-101433
Rule IDs
  • SV-220541r879606_rule
  • SV-110537
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.
Checks: C-22256r508567_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below: aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY special-case 1 If the Cisco switch is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22245r508568_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used as shown in the example below: SW1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY SW1(config-cc-policy)#special-case 1 SW1(config-cc-policy)#exit

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to require that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000195 - V-220542 - SV-220542r879607_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000195
Version
CISC-ND-000610
Vuln IDs
  • V-220542
  • V-101435
Rule IDs
  • SV-220542r879607_rule
  • SV-110539
If the application allows the user to consecutively reuse extensive portions of passwords, this increases the chances of password compromise by increasing the window of opportunity for attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. The number of changed characters refers to the number of changes required with respect to the total number of positions in the current password. In other words, characters may be the same within the two passwords; however, the positions of the like characters must be different. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.
Checks: C-22257r508570_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below: aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY char-changes 8 If the Cisco switch is not configured to require that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22246r508571_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to enforce password complexity by requiring that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password as shown in the example below: SW1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY SW1(config-cc-policy)#char-changes 8 SW1(config-cc-policy)#exit

c
The Cisco switch must only store cryptographic representations of passwords.
IA-5 - High - CCI-000196 - V-220543 - SV-220543r879608_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000196
Version
CISC-ND-000620
Vuln IDs
  • V-220543
  • V-101437
Rule IDs
  • SV-220543r879608_rule
  • SV-110541
Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Network devices must enforce cryptographic representations of passwords when storing passwords in databases, configuration files, and log files. Passwords must be protected at all times; using a strong one-way hashing encryption algorithm with a salt is the standard method for providing a means to validate a password without having to store the actual password. Performance and time required to access are factors that must be considered, and the one way hash is the most feasible means of securing the password and providing an acceptable measure of password security. If passwords are stored in clear text, they can be plainly read and easily compromised. In many instances, verifying the user knows a password is performed using a password verifier. In its simplest form, a password verifier is a computational function that is capable of creating a hash of a password and determining if the value provided by the user matches the stored hash.
Checks: C-22258r508573_chk

Review the switch configuration to determine if passwords are encrypted as shown in the example below: service password-encryption … … … Enable secret 5 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx If the switch is not configured to encrypt passwords, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22247r508574_fix

Configure the switch to encrypt all passwords: SW4(config)#service password-encryption SW4(config)#enable secret xxxxxxxxxxxx SW4(config)#end

c
The Cisco switch must be configured to terminate all network connections associated with device management after five minutes of inactivity.
SC-10 - High - CCI-001133 - V-220544 - SV-220544r916342_rule
RMF Control
SC-10
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001133
Version
CISC-ND-000720
Vuln IDs
  • V-220544
  • V-101439
Rule IDs
  • SV-220544r916342_rule
  • SV-110543
Terminating an idle session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been left unattended. In addition, quickly terminating an idle session will also free up resources committed by the managed network element. Terminating network connections associated with communications sessions includes, for example, de-allocating associated TCP/IP address/port pairs at the operating system level, or de-allocating networking assignments at the application level if multiple application sessions are using a single, operating system-level network connection. This does not mean that the device terminates all sessions or network access; it only ends the inactive session and releases the resources associated with that session.
Checks: C-22259r916299_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that all network connections associated with a device management have an idle timeout value set to five minutes or less as shown in the following example: ip http secure-server ip http timeout-policy idle 300 life nnnn requests nn … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 5 0 line vty 0 1 exec-timeout 5 0 If the Cisco switch is not configured to terminate all network connections associated with a device management after five minutes of inactivity, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22248r916300_fix

Set the idle timeout value to five minutes or less on all configured login classes as shown in the example below: SW1(config)#line vty 0 1 SW1(config-line)#exec-timeout 5 0 SW1(config-line)#exit SW1(config)#line con 0 SW1(config-line)#exec-timeout 5 0 SW1(config-line)#exit SW2(config)#ip http timeout-policy idle 300 life nnnn requests nn

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to automatically audit account enabling actions.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-002130 - V-220545 - SV-220545r879696_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002130
Version
CISC-ND-000880
Vuln IDs
  • V-220545
  • V-101441
Rule IDs
  • SV-220545r879696_rule
  • SV-110545
Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply enable a new or disabled account. Notification of account enabling is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of application user accounts and notifies administrators and Information System Security Officers (ISSO). Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.
Checks: C-22260r508579_chk

Review the switch configuration to determine if it automatically audits account enabling. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account enabling is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22249r508580_fix

Configure the switch to log account enabling using the following commands: SW4(config)#archive SW4(config-archive)#log config SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements.
AU-4 - Medium - CCI-001849 - V-220547 - SV-220547r879730_rule
RMF Control
AU-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001849
Version
CISC-ND-000980
Vuln IDs
  • V-220547
  • V-101445
Rule IDs
  • SV-220547r879730_rule
  • SV-110549
In order to ensure network devices have a sufficient storage capacity in which to write the audit logs, they need to be able to allocate audit record storage capacity. The task of allocating audit record storage capacity is usually performed during initial device setup if it is modifiable. The value for the organization-defined audit record storage requirement will depend on the amount of storage available on the network device, the anticipated volume of logs, the frequency of transfer from the network device to centralized log servers, and other factors.
Checks: C-22262r508585_chk

Verify that the Cisco switch is configured with a logging buffer size. The configuration should look like the example below: logging buffered xxxxxxxx informational If a logging buffer size is not configured, this is a finding. If the Cisco switch is not configured to allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22251r508586_fix

Configure the buffer size for logging as shown in the example below: SW2(config)#logging buffered xxxxxxxx informational

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to generate an alert for all audit failure events.
AU-5 - Medium - CCI-001858 - V-220548 - SV-220548r879733_rule
RMF Control
AU-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001858
Version
CISC-ND-001000
Vuln IDs
  • V-220548
  • V-101447
Rule IDs
  • SV-220548r879733_rule
  • SV-110551
It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without a real-time alert, security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability and system operation may be adversely affected. Alerts provide organizations with urgent messages. Real-time alerts provide these messages immediately (i.e., the time from event detection to alert occurs in seconds or less).
Checks: C-22263r835145_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below: logging trap critical Note: The parameter "critical" can replaced with a lesser severity level (i.e. error, warning, notice, informational). Informational is the default severity level; hence, if the severity level is configured to informational, the logging trap command will not be shown in the configuration. If the Cisco switch is not configured to generate an alert for all audit failure events, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22252r835146_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to send critical to emergency log messages to the syslog server as shown in the example below: SW4(config)#logging trap critical Note: The parameter "critical" can replaced with a lesser severity level (i.e., error, warning, notice, informational).

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to synchronize its clock with the primary and secondary time sources using redundant authoritative time sources.
AU-8 - Medium - CCI-001889 - V-220549 - SV-220549r879746_rule
RMF Control
AU-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001889
Version
CISC-ND-001030
Vuln IDs
  • V-220549
  • V-101449
Rule IDs
  • SV-220549r879746_rule
  • SV-110553
The loss of connectivity to a particular authoritative time source will result in the loss of time synchronization (free-run mode) and increasingly inaccurate time stamps on audit events and other functions. Multiple time sources provide redundancy by including a secondary source. Time synchronization is usually a hierarchy; clients synchronize time to a local source while that source synchronizes its time to a more accurate source. The network device must utilize an authoritative time server and/or be configured to use redundant authoritative time sources. This requirement is related to the comparison done in CCI-001891. DoD-approved solutions consist of a combination of a primary and secondary time source using a combination or multiple instances of the following: a time server designated for the appropriate DoD network (NIPRNet/SIPRNet); United States Naval Observatory (USNO) time servers; and/or the Global Positioning System (GPS). The secondary time source must be located in a different geographic region than the primary time source.
Checks: C-22264r508591_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the configuration example below: ntp server x.x.x.x ntp server y.y.y.y If the Cisco switch is not configured to synchronize its clock with redundant authoritative time sources, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22253r508592_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to synchronize its clock with redundant authoritative time sources as shown in the example below: SW2(config)#ntp server x.x.x.x SW2(config)#ntp server y.y.y.y

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to authenticate SNMP messages using a FIPS-validated Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC).
IA-3 - Medium - CCI-001967 - V-220552 - SV-220552r879768_rule
RMF Control
IA-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001967
Version
CISC-ND-001130
Vuln IDs
  • V-220552
  • V-101455
Rule IDs
  • SV-220552r879768_rule
  • SV-110559
Without authenticating devices, unidentified or unknown devices may be introduced, thereby facilitating malicious activity. Bidirectional authentication provides stronger safeguards to validate the identity of other devices for connections that are of greater risk. A local connection is any connection with a device communicating without the use of a network. A network connection is any connection with a device that communicates through a network (e.g., local area or wide area network, Internet). A remote connection is any connection with a device communicating through an external network (e.g., the Internet). Because of the challenges of applying this requirement on a large scale, organizations are encouraged to only apply the requirement to those limited number (and type) of devices that truly need to support this capability.
Checks: C-22267r508600_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below: snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 auth read V3READ write V3WRITE snmp-server view V3READ iso included snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER Authentication used by the SNMP users can be viewed via the show snmp user command as shown in the example below: R4#show snmp user User name: V3USER Engine ID: 800000090300C2042B540000 storage-type: nonvolatile active Authentication Protocol: SHA Privacy Protocol: None Group-name: V3GROUP If the Cisco switch is not configured to authenticate SNMP messages using a FIPS-validated HMAC, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22256r508601_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to authenticate SNMP messages as shown in the example below: SW4(config)#snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 auth read V3READ write V3WRITE SW4(config)#snmp-server user V3USER V3GROUP v3 auth sha xxxxxxx SW4(config)#snmp-server view V3READ iso included SW4(config)#snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included SW4(config)#snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm.
AC-17 - Medium - CCI-000068 - V-220553 - SV-220553r879768_rule
RMF Control
AC-17
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000068
Version
CISC-ND-001140
Vuln IDs
  • V-220553
  • V-101457
Rule IDs
  • SV-220553r879768_rule
  • SV-110561
Without the strong encryption that is provided by the SNMP Version 3 User-based Security Model (USM), an unauthorized user can gain access to network management information that can be used to create a network outage.
Checks: C-22268r508603_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below: snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 priv read V3READ write V3WRITE snmp-server view V3READ iso included snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER Encryption used by the SNMP users can be viewed via the show snmp user command as shown in the example below: R4#show snmp user User name: V3USER Engine ID: 800000090300C2042B540000 storage-type: nonvolatile active Authentication Protocol: SHA Privacy Protocol: AES256 Group-name: V3GROUP If the Cisco switch is not configured to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22257r508604_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm as shown in the example below: SW4(config)#snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 priv read V3READ write V3WRITE SW4(config)#snmp-server user V3USER V3GROUP v3 auth sha xxxxxx priv aes 256 xxxxxx

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to authenticate Network Time Protocol (NTP) sources using authentication that is cryptographically based.
IA-3 - Medium - CCI-001967 - V-220554 - SV-220554r879768_rule
RMF Control
IA-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001967
Version
CISC-ND-001150
Vuln IDs
  • V-220554
  • V-101459
Rule IDs
  • SV-220554r879768_rule
  • SV-110563
If Network Time Protocol is not authenticated, an attacker can introduce a rogue NTP server. This rogue server can then be used to send incorrect time information to network devices, which will make log timestamps inaccurate and affect scheduled actions. NTP authentication is used to prevent this tampering by authenticating the time source.
Checks: C-22269r508606_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the configuration example below: ntp authentication-key 1 md5 121B0A151012 7 ntp authenticate ntp trusted-key 1 ntp server x.x.x.x key 1 ntp server y.y.y.y key 1 If the Cisco switch is not configured to authenticate NTP sources using authentication that is cryptographically based, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22258r508607_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to authenticate NTP sources using authentication that is cryptographically based as shown in the example below: SW2(config)#ntp authenticate SW2(config)#ntp authentication-key 1 md5 xxxxxx SW2(config)#ntp trusted-key 1 SW2(config)#ntp server x.x.x.x key 1 SW2(config)#ntp server y.y.y.y key 1

c
The Cisco switch must be configured to use FIPS-validated Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) to protect the integrity of remote maintenance sessions.
MA-4 - High - CCI-002890 - V-220555 - SV-220555r879784_rule
RMF Control
MA-4
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-002890
Version
CISC-ND-001200
Vuln IDs
  • V-220555
  • V-101461
Rule IDs
  • SV-220555r879784_rule
  • SV-110565
Unapproved mechanisms that are used for authentication to the cryptographic module are not verified and therefore cannot be relied upon to provide confidentiality or integrity, and DoD data may be compromised. Nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network. Currently, HMAC is the only FIPS-approved algorithm for generating and verifying message/data authentication codes in accordance with FIPS 198-1. Products that are FIPS 140-2 validated will have an HMAC that meets specification; however, the option must be configured for use as the only message authentication code used for authentication to cryptographic modules. Separate requirements for configuring applications and protocols used by each application (e.g., SNMPv3, SSHv2, NTP, HTTPS, and other protocols and applications that require server/client authentication) are required to implement this requirement. Where SSH is used, the SSHv2 protocol suite is required because it includes Layer 7 protocols such as SCP and SFTP, which can be used for secure file transfers.
Checks: C-22270r835151_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below: NOTE: Although allowed by SP800-131Ar2 for some applications, SHA-1 is considered a compromised hashing standard and is being phased out of use by industry and Government standards. Unless required for legacy use, DoD systems should not be configured to use SHA-1 for integrity of remote access sessions. SSH Example ip ssh version 2 ip ssh server algorithm mac hmac-sha2-512 hmac-sha2-256 If the Cisco switch is not configured to use FIPS-validated HMAC to protect the integrity of remote maintenance sessions, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22259r835152_fix

Configure SSH to use FIPS-validated HMAC for remote maintenance sessions as shown in the following example: SSH Example SW1(config)#ip ssh version 2 SW1(config)#iip ssh server algorithm mac hmac-sha2-512 hmac-sha2-256

c
The Cisco switch must be configured to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions.
MA-4 - High - CCI-003123 - V-220556 - SV-220556r879785_rule
RMF Control
MA-4
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-003123
Version
CISC-ND-001210
Vuln IDs
  • V-220556
  • V-101463
Rule IDs
  • SV-220556r879785_rule
  • SV-110567
This requires the use of secure protocols instead of their unsecured counterparts, such as SSH instead of telnet, SCP instead of FTP, and HTTPS instead of HTTP. If unsecured protocols (lacking cryptographic mechanisms) are used for sessions, the contents of those sessions will be susceptible to eavesdropping, potentially putting sensitive data (including administrator passwords) at risk of compromise and potentially allowing hijacking of maintenance sessions.
Checks: C-22271r508612_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. ip ssh version 2 ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes256-ctr aes192-ctr aes128-ctr If the switch is not configured to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22260r508613_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm as shown in the example below: SW1(config)#iip ssh server algorithm encryption aes256-ctr aes192-ctr aes128-ctr

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-220559 - SV-220559r879870_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
CISC-ND-001250
Vuln IDs
  • V-220559
  • V-101469
Rule IDs
  • SV-220559r879870_rule
  • SV-110573
Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).
Checks: C-22274r508621_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below: archive log config logging enable If the Cisco switch is not configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22263r508622_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted as shown in the example below: SW4(config)#archive SW4(config-archive)#log config SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-220560 - SV-220560r879874_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
CISC-ND-001260
Vuln IDs
  • V-220560
  • V-101471
Rule IDs
  • SV-220560r879874_rule
  • SV-110575
Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).
Checks: C-22275r508624_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the examples below: login on-failure log login on-success log If the Cisco switch is not configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22264r508625_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur as shown in the example below: R5(config)#login on-failure log R5(config)#login on-success log

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to generate log records for privileged activities.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-220561 - SV-220561r879875_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
CISC-ND-001270
Vuln IDs
  • V-220561
  • V-101473
Rule IDs
  • SV-220561r879875_rule
  • SV-110577
Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).
Checks: C-22276r508627_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example configurations below: archive log config logging enable If the Cisco switch is not configured to generate log records for privileged activities, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22265r508628_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to generate log records for privileged activities as shown in the example below: SW4(config)#archive SW4(config-archive)#log config SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable SW4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

c
The Cisco switch must be configured to use at least two authentication servers for the purpose of authenticating users prior to granting administrative access.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000370 - V-220565 - SV-220565r939995_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000370
Version
CISC-ND-001370
Vuln IDs
  • V-220565
  • V-101481
Rule IDs
  • SV-220565r939995_rule
  • SV-110585
Centralized management of user accounts and authentication increases the administrative access to the switch. This control is a particularly important protection against the insider threat. With robust centralized management, audit records for administrator account access to the organization's network devices can be more readily analyzed for trends and anomalies. The alternative method of defining administrator accounts on each device exposes the device configuration to remote access authentication attacks and system administrators with multiple authenticators for each network device.
Checks: C-22280r939993_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that the device is configured to use at least two authentication servers as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication CONSOLE local aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1812 acct-port 1813 key xxxxxxx radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1812 acct-port 1813 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 5 0 login authentication CONSOLE line vty 0 1 exec-timeout 5 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the Cisco switch is not configured to use at least two authentication servers for the purpose of authenticating users prior to granting administrative access, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22269r939994_fix

Step 1: Configure the Cisco switch to use at least two authentication servers as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.3 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication servers as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication CONSOLE local R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use the authentication servers for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 1 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication CONSOLE R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to support organizational requirements to conduct backups of the configuration when changes occur.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-220566 - SV-220566r916221_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
CISC-ND-001410
Vuln IDs
  • V-220566
  • V-101483
Rule IDs
  • SV-220566r916221_rule
  • SV-110587
System-level information includes default and customized settings and security attributes, including ACLs that relate to the network device configuration, as well as software required for the execution and operation of the device. Information system backup is a critical step in ensuring system integrity and availability. If the system fails and there is no backup of the system-level information, a denial of service condition is possible for all who utilize this critical network component. This control requires the network device to support the organizational central backup process for system-level information associated with the network device. This function may be provided by the network device itself; however, the preferred best practice is a centralized backup rather than each network device performing discrete backups.
Checks: C-22281r508642_chk

Review the Cisco switch configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The example configuration below will send the configuration to a TFTP server when a configuration change occurs. event manager applet BACKUP_CONFIG event syslog pattern "%SYS-5-CONFIG_I" action 1 info type switchname action 2 cli command "enable" action 3 cli command "copy run tftp" pattern "remote host" action 4 cli command "x.x.x.x" pattern "filename" action 5 cli command "$_info_switchname-config" action 6 syslog priority informational msg "Configuration backup was executed" If the Cisco switch is not configured to conduct backups of the configuration when changes occur, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22270r508643_fix

Configure the Cisco switch to send the configuration to a TFTP or FTP server when a configuration change occurs as shown in the example below: SW4(config)#event manager applet BACKUP_CONFIG SW4(config-applet)#event syslog pattern "%SYS-5-CONFIG_I" SW4(config-applet)#action 1 cli command "enable" SW4(config-applet)#action 2 info type switchname SW4(config-applet)#action 3 cli command "copy run tftp" pattern "remote host" SW4(config-applet)#action 4 cli command "x.x.x.x" pattern "filename" SW4(config-applet)#action 5 cli command "$_info_switchname-config" SW4(config-applet)#action 6 syslog priority informational msg "Configuration backup was executed" SW4(config-applet)#end

b
The Cisco switch must be configured to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-220567 - SV-220567r879887_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
CISC-ND-001440
Vuln IDs
  • V-220567
  • V-101485
Rule IDs
  • SV-220567r879887_rule
  • SV-110589
For user certificates, each organization obtains certificates from an approved, shared service provider, as required by OMB policy. For federal agencies operating a legacy public key infrastructure cross-certified with the Federal Bridge Certification Authority at medium assurance or higher, this Certification Authority will suffice.
Checks: C-22282r802428_chk

Note: This requirement is not applicable if the router does not have any public key certificates. Review the switch configuration to determine if a CA trust point has been configured. The CA trust point will contain the URL of the CA in which the switch has enrolled with. Verify this is a DoD or DoD-approved CA. This will ensure the switch has enrolled and received a certificate from a trusted CA. The CA trust point configuration would look similar to the example below: crypto pki trustpoint CA_X enrollment url http://trustpoint1.example.com Note: A remote end-point's certificate will always be validated by the switch by verifying the signature of the CA on the certificate using the CA's public key, which is contained in the switch's certificate it received at enrollment. If the Cisco switch is not configured to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22271r508646_fix

Configure the switch to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider as show in the example below: SW2(ca-trustpoint)#enrollment url http://trustpoint1.example.com

c
The Cisco switch must be configured to send log data to at least two central log servers for the purpose of forwarding alerts to the administrators and the information system security officer (ISSO).
AU-4 - High - CCI-001851 - V-220568 - SV-220568r916114_rule
RMF Control
AU-4
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001851
Version
CISC-ND-001450
Vuln IDs
  • V-220568
  • V-101487
Rule IDs
  • SV-220568r916114_rule
  • SV-110591
The aggregation of log data kept on a syslog server can be used to detect attacks and trigger an alert to the appropriate security personnel. The stored log data can used to detect weaknesses in security that enable the network IA team to find and address these weaknesses before breaches can occur. Reviewing these logs, whether before or after a security breach, are important in showing whether someone is an internal employee or an outside threat.
Checks: C-22283r916067_chk

Verify that the switch is configured to send logs to at least two central log servers. The configuration should look similar to the example below: logging x.x.x.x logging x.x.x.x If the switch is not configured to send log data to the syslog servers, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22272r916068_fix

Configure the switch to send log messages to the syslog servers as shown in the example below: SW4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x SW4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x

c
The Cisco switch must be running an IOS release that is currently supported by Cisco Systems.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000366 - V-220569 - SV-220569r879887_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
CISC-ND-001470
Vuln IDs
  • V-220569
  • V-101489
Rule IDs
  • SV-220569r879887_rule
  • SV-110593
Network devices running an unsupported operating system lack current security fixes required to mitigate the risks associated with recent vulnerabilities. Running a supported release also enables operations to maintain a stable and reliable network provided by improved quality of service and security features.
Checks: C-22284r508651_chk

Verify that the switch is in compliance with this requirement by having the switch administrator enter the following command: show version Verify that the release is still supported by Cisco. All releases supported by Cisco can be found on the following URL: www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/ios-nx-os-software If the switch is not running a supported release, this is a finding.

Fix: F-22273r508652_fix

Upgrade the switch to a supported release.