Cisco IOS XE Router NDM Security Technical Implementation Guide

  • Version/Release: V2R9
  • Published: 2023-11-28
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This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DOD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: [email protected].
b
The Cisco router must be configured to limit the number of concurrent management sessions to an organization-defined number.
AC-10 - Medium - CCI-000054 - V-215807 - SV-215807r879511_rule
RMF Control
AC-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000054
Version
CISC-ND-000010
Vuln IDs
  • V-215807
  • V-96189
Rule IDs
  • SV-215807r879511_rule
  • SV-105327
Device management includes the ability to control the number of administrators and management sessions that manage a device. Limiting the number of allowed administrators and sessions per administrator based on account type, role, or access type is helpful in limiting risks related to denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. This requirement addresses concurrent sessions for administrative accounts and does not address concurrent sessions by a single administrator via multiple administrative accounts. The maximum number of concurrent sessions should be defined based upon mission needs and the operational environment for each system. At a minimum, limits must be set for SSH, HTTPS, account of last resort, and root account sessions.
Checks: C-17046r835099_chk

Note: This requirement is not applicable to file transfer actions such as FTP, SCP, and SFTP. Review the router configuration to determine if concurrent management sessions are limited as shown in the example below: ip http secure-server ip http max-connections 2 … … … line vty 0 1 transport input ssh line vty 2 4 transport input none If the router is not configured to limit the number of concurrent management sessions, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17044r835100_fix

Configure the router to limit the number of concurrent management sessions to an organization-defined number as shown in the example below. R4(config)#ip http max-connections 2 R4(config)#line vty 0 1 R4(config-line)#transport input ssh R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line vty 2 4 R4(config-line)# transport input none R4(config-line)#end

b
The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account creation.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-000018 - V-215808 - SV-215808r879525_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000018
Version
CISC-ND-000090
Vuln IDs
  • V-215808
  • V-96197
Rule IDs
  • SV-215808r879525_rule
  • SV-105335
Upon gaining access to a network device, an attacker will often first attempt to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is to create a new account. Notification of account creation helps to mitigate this risk. Auditing account creation provides the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. Without this audit trail, personnel without the proper authorization may gain access to critical network nodes.
Checks: C-17047r287463_chk

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account creation. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account creation is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17045r287464_fix

Configure the router to log account creation using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account modification.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-001403 - V-215809 - SV-215809r879526_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001403
Version
CISC-ND-000100
Vuln IDs
  • V-215809
  • V-96199
Rule IDs
  • SV-215809r879526_rule
  • SV-105337
Since the accounts in the network device are privileged or system-level accounts, account management is vital to the security of the network device. Account management by a designated authority ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel with the appropriate and necessary privileges. Auditing account modification along with an automatic notification to appropriate individuals will provide the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. If modifications to management accounts are not audited, reconciliation of account management procedures cannot be tracked.
Checks: C-17048r287466_chk

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account modification. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account modification is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17046r287467_fix

Configure the router to log account modification using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account disabling actions.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-001404 - V-215810 - SV-215810r879527_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001404
Version
CISC-ND-000110
Vuln IDs
  • V-215810
  • V-96201
Rule IDs
  • SV-215810r879527_rule
  • SV-105339
Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account disabling actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are disabled, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.
Checks: C-17049r287469_chk

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account disabling. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account disabling is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17047r287470_fix

Configure the router to log account disabling using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account removal actions.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-001405 - V-215811 - SV-215811r879528_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001405
Version
CISC-ND-000120
Vuln IDs
  • V-215811
  • V-96203
Rule IDs
  • SV-215811r879528_rule
  • SV-105341
Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account removal actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are terminated, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.
Checks: C-17050r287472_chk

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account removal. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account removal is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17048r287473_fix

Configure the router to log account removal using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco router must be configured to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the device based on control policies.
AC-4 - Medium - CCI-001368 - V-215812 - SV-215812r879533_rule
RMF Control
AC-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001368
Version
CISC-ND-000140
Vuln IDs
  • V-215812
  • V-96205
Rule IDs
  • SV-215812r879533_rule
  • SV-105343
A mechanism to detect and prevent unauthorized communication flow must be configured or provided as part of the system design. If management information flow is not enforced based on approved authorizations, the network device may become compromised. Information flow control regulates where management information is allowed to travel within a network device. The flow of all management information must be monitored and controlled so it does not introduce any unacceptable risk to the network device or data. Application-specific examples of enforcement occur in systems that employ rule sets or establish configuration settings that restrict information system services or message-filtering capability based on message content (e.g., implementing key word searches or using document characteristics). Applications providing information flow control must be able to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the system in accordance with applicable policy.
Checks: C-17051r835102_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: Verify that the line vty has an ACL inbound applied as shown in the example below. line vty 0 1 access-class MANAGEMENT_NET in transport input ssh Step 2: Verify that the ACL permits only hosts from the management network to access the router. ip access-list extended MANAGEMENT_NET permit ip x.x.x.0 0.0.0.255 any deny ip any any log-input If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the device based on control policies, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17049r835103_fix

Configure the Cisco router to restrict management access to specific IP addresses via SSH as shown in the example below. SW2(config)#ip access-list standard MANAGEMENT_NET SW2(config-std-nacl)#permit x.x.x.0 0.0.0.255 SW2(config-std-nacl)#exit SW2(config)#line vty 0 1 SW2(config-line)#transport input ssh SW2(config-line)#access-class MANAGEMENT_NET in SW2(config-line)#end

b
The Cisco router must be configured to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts, after which time it must lock out the user account from accessing the device for 15 minutes.
AC-7 - Medium - CCI-000044 - V-215813 - SV-215813r879546_rule
RMF Control
AC-7
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000044
Version
CISC-ND-000150
Vuln IDs
  • V-215813
  • V-96207
Rule IDs
  • SV-215813r879546_rule
  • SV-105345
By limiting the number of failed logon attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced.
Checks: C-17052r287478_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it enforces the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts as shown in the example below. login block-for 900 attempts 3 within 120 Note: The configuration example above will block any login attempt for 15 minutes after three consecutive invalid logon attempts within a two-minute period. If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17050r287479_fix

Configure the Cisco router to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts as shown in the example below. R2(config)#login block-for 900 attempts 3 within 120

b
The Cisco router must be configured to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access to the device.
AC-8 - Medium - CCI-000048 - V-215814 - SV-215814r879547_rule
RMF Control
AC-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000048
Version
CISC-ND-000160
Vuln IDs
  • V-215814
  • V-96209
Rule IDs
  • SV-215814r879547_rule
  • SV-105347
Display of the DoD-approved use notification before granting access to the network device ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. System use notifications are required only for access via logon interfaces with human users.
Checks: C-17053r287481_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. banner login ^C You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. ^C If the Cisco router is not configured to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access to the device, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17051r287482_fix

Configure the Cisco router to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access as shown in the following example: R1(config)#banner login # Enter TEXT message. End with the character '#'. You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions: -The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations. -At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS. -Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose. -This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy. -Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. # R1(config)#end

b
The Cisco device must be configured to audit all administrator activity.
AU-10 - Medium - CCI-000166 - V-215815 - SV-215815r879554_rule
RMF Control
AU-10
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000166
Version
CISC-ND-000210
Vuln IDs
  • V-215815
  • V-96217
Rule IDs
  • SV-215815r879554_rule
  • SV-105355
This requirement supports non-repudiation of actions taken by an administrator and is required in order to maintain the integrity of the configuration management process. All configuration changes to the network device are logged, and administrators authenticate with two-factor authentication before gaining administrative access. Together, these processes will ensure the administrators can be held accountable for the configuration changes they implement. To meet this requirement, the network device must log administrator access and activity.
Checks: C-17054r287484_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. hostname R1 ! logging userinfo ! … … … archive log config logging enable ! Note: The logging userinfo global configuration command will generate a log when a user increases his or her privilege level. If logging of administrator activity is not configured, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17052r287485_fix

Configure the router to log administrator activity as shown in the example below. R1(config)#logging userinfo R1(config)#archive R1(config-archive)#log config R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R1(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco router must produce audit records containing information to establish when (date and time) the events occurred.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000131 - V-215817 - SV-215817r879564_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000131
Version
CISC-ND-000280
Vuln IDs
  • V-215817
  • V-96223
Rule IDs
  • SV-215817r879564_rule
  • SV-105361
It is essential for security personnel to know what is being done, what was attempted, where it was done, when it was done, and by whom it was done in order to compile an accurate risk assessment. Logging the date and time of each detected event provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured network device. In order to establish and correlate the series of events leading up to an outage or attack, it is imperative the date and time are recorded in all log records.
Checks: C-17056r287490_chk

Verify that the router is configured to include the date and time on all log records as shown in the configuration example below. service timestamps log datetime localtime If time stamps are not configured, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17054r287491_fix

Configure the router to include the date and time on all log records as shown in the example below. R1(config)#service timestamps log datetime localtime

b
The Cisco router must produce audit records containing information to establish where the events occurred.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000132 - V-215818 - SV-215818r929022_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000132
Version
CISC-ND-000290
Vuln IDs
  • V-215818
  • V-96225
Rule IDs
  • SV-215818r929022_rule
  • SV-105363
In order to compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, it is essential for security personnel to know where events occurred, such as device hardware components, device software modules, session identifiers, filenames, host names, and functionality. Associating information about where the event occurred within the network device provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured device.
Checks: C-17057r929021_chk

Review the deny statements in all interface ACLs to determine if the log-input parameter has been configured as shown in the example below. Note: log-input can only apply to interface bound ACLs. ip access-list extended BLOCK_INBOUND deny icmp any any log-input If the router is not configured with the log-input parameter after any deny statements to note where packets have been dropped via an ACL, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17055r287494_fix

Configure the log-input parameter after any deny statements to provide the location as to where packets have been dropped via an ACL. R1(config)#ip access-list extended BLOCK_INBOUND R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny icmp any any log-input

b
The Cisco router must be configured to generate audit records containing the full-text recording of privileged commands.
AU-3 - Medium - CCI-000135 - V-215819 - SV-215819r879569_rule
RMF Control
AU-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000135
Version
CISC-ND-000330
Vuln IDs
  • V-215819
  • V-96227
Rule IDs
  • SV-215819r879569_rule
  • SV-105365
Reconstruction of harmful events or forensic analysis is not possible if audit records do not contain enough information. Organizations consider limiting the additional audit information to only that information explicitly needed for specific audit requirements. The additional information required is dependent on the type of information (i.e., sensitivity of the data and the environment within which it resides). At a minimum, the organization must audit full-text recording of privileged commands. The organization must maintain audit trails in sufficient detail to reconstruct events to determine the cause and impact of compromise.
Checks: C-17058r287496_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The configuration example below will log all configuration changes. archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If the Cisco router is not configured to generate audit records of configuration changes, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17056r287497_fix

Configure the Cisco router to log all configuration changes as shown in the example below. R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco router must be configured to protect audit information from unauthorized modification.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000163 - V-215820 - SV-215820r879577_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000163
Version
CISC-ND-000380
Vuln IDs
  • V-215820
  • V-96231
Rule IDs
  • SV-215820r879577_rule
  • SV-105369
Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit network device activity. If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized modification. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions and limiting log data locations. Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights that the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the modification of audit data.
Checks: C-17059r287499_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: If persistent logging is enabled as shown in the example below, go to step 2. Otherwise, this requirement is not applicable. logging persistent url disk0:/logfile size 134217728 filesize 16384 Step 2: Verify that the router is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below. file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the router is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17057r287500_fix

If persistent logging is enabled, configure the router to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below. R4(config)#file privilege 15

b
The Cisco router must be configured to protect audit information from unauthorized deletion.
AU-9 - Medium - CCI-000164 - V-215821 - SV-215821r879578_rule
RMF Control
AU-9
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000164
Version
CISC-ND-000390
Vuln IDs
  • V-215821
  • V-96233
Rule IDs
  • SV-215821r879578_rule
  • SV-105371
Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity. If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized deletion. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include: ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions utilizing file system protections, restricting access, and backing up log data to ensure log data is retained. Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the deletion of audit data.
Checks: C-17060r287502_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. Step 1: If persistent logging is enabled as shown in the example below, go to step 2. Otherwise, this requirement is not applicable. logging persistent url disk0:/logfile size 134217728 filesize 16384 Step 2: Verify that the router is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below. file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the router is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17058r287503_fix

If persistent logging is enabled, configure the router to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below. R4(config)#file privilege 15

b
The Cisco router must be configured to limit privileges to change the software resident within software libraries.
CM-5 - Medium - CCI-001499 - V-215822 - SV-215822r879586_rule
RMF Control
CM-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001499
Version
CISC-ND-000460
Vuln IDs
  • V-215822
  • V-96237
Rule IDs
  • SV-215822r879586_rule
  • SV-105375
Changes to any software components of the network device can have significant effects on the overall security of the network. Therefore, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed administrative access to the network device for implementing any changes or upgrades. If the network device were to enable non-authorized users to make changes to software libraries, those changes could be implemented without undergoing testing, validation, and approval.
Checks: C-17061r287505_chk

Verify that the router is not configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system as shown in the example below. file privilege 10 Note: The default privilege level required for access to the file system is "15"; hence, the command file privilege "15" will not be shown in the configuration. If the router is configured with a privilege level other than "15" to allow access to the file system, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17059r287506_fix

Configure the router to only allow administrators with privilege level "15" access to the file system as shown in the example below. R4(config)#file privilege 15

c
The Cisco router must be configured to prohibit the use of all unnecessary and nonsecure functions and services.
CM-7 - High - CCI-000382 - V-215823 - SV-215823r892394_rule
RMF Control
CM-7
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000382
Version
CISC-ND-000470
Vuln IDs
  • V-215823
  • V-96239
Rule IDs
  • SV-215823r892394_rule
  • SV-105377
Network devices are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services provided by default may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations. Additionally, it is sometimes convenient to provide multiple services from a single component (e.g., email and web services); however, doing so increases risk over limiting the services provided by any one component. To support the requirements and principles of least functionality, the network device must support the organizational requirements providing only essential capabilities and limiting the use of ports, protocols, and/or services to only those required, authorized, and approved. Some network devices have capabilities enabled by default; if these capabilities are not necessary, they must be disabled. If a particular capability is used, then it must be documented and approved.
Checks: C-17062r892392_chk

Verify that the router does not have any unnecessary or nonsecure ports, protocols, and services enabled. For example, the following commands should not be in the configuration: boot network ip boot server ip bootp server ip dns server ip identd ip finger ip http server ip rcmd rcp-enable ip rcmd rsh-enable service config service finger service tcp-small-servers service udp-small-servers service pad service call-home If any unnecessary or nonsecure ports, protocols, or services are enabled, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17060r892393_fix

Disable the following services if enabled as shown in the example below. R2(config)#no boot network R2(config)#no ip boot server R2(config)#no ip bootp server R2(config)#no ip dns server R2(config)#no ip identd R2(config)#no ip finger R2(config)#no ip http server R2(config)#no ip rcmd rcp-enable R2(config)#no ip rcmd rsh-enable R2(config)#no service config R2(config)#no service finger R2(config)#no service tcp-small-servers R2(config)#no service udp-small-servers R2(config)#no service pad R2(config)#no service call-home R2(config)#end

b
The Cisco router must be configured with only one local account to be used as the account of last resort in the event the authentication server is unavailable.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-001358 - V-215824 - SV-215824r879589_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001358
Version
CISC-ND-000490
Vuln IDs
  • V-215824
  • V-96243
Rule IDs
  • SV-215824r879589_rule
  • SV-105381
Authentication for administrative (privileged level) access to the device is required at all times. An account can be created on the device's local database for use when the authentication server is down or connectivity between the device and the authentication server is not operable. This account is referred to as the account of last resort since it is intended to be used as a last resort and when immediate administrative access is absolutely necessary. The account of last resort logon credentials must be stored in a sealed envelope and kept in a safe. The safe must be periodically audited to verify the envelope remains sealed. The signature of the auditor and the date of the audit should be added to the envelope as a record. An alternative to using a sealed envelope in a safe would be credential files, separated by technology, located in a secured location on a file server, with the files only accessible to those administrators authorized to use the accounts of last resort, and access to that location monitored by a central log server. Administrators should secure the credentials and disable the root account (if possible) when not needed for system administration functions.
Checks: C-17063r860783_chk

Step 1: Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that a local account for last resort has been configured. username xxxxxxxxxxx privilege nn common-criteria-policy PASSWORD_POLICY password xxxxxxxxxx Note: The configured Common Criteria policy must be used when creating or changing the local account password as shown in the example above. Step 2: Verify that local is defined after radius or tacas+ in the authentication order as shown in the example below. aaa authentication login default group tacacs+ local If the Cisco router is not configured with only one local account to be used as the account of last resort in the event the authentication server is unavailable, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17061r287512_fix

Step 1: Configure a local account as shown in the example below. R2(config)#username xxxxxxxxx privilege nn secret xxxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the local account if the authentication server is not reachable as shown in the following example: R2(config)#aaa authentication login default group tacacs+ local

b
The Cisco router must be configured to enforce a minimum 15-character password length.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000205 - V-215826 - SV-215826r879601_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000205
Version
CISC-ND-000550
Vuln IDs
  • V-215826
  • V-96253
Rule IDs
  • SV-215826r879601_rule
  • SV-105391
Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password length is one factor of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password. The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromise the password.
Checks: C-17065r287517_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY min-length 15 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce a minimum 15-character password length, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17063r287518_fix

Configure the Cisco router to enforce a minimum 15-character password length as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#min-length 15 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

b
The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000192 - V-215827 - SV-215827r879603_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000192
Version
CISC-ND-000570
Vuln IDs
  • V-215827
  • V-96255
Rule IDs
  • SV-215827r879603_rule
  • SV-105393
Use of a complex passwords helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password is, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.
Checks: C-17066r287520_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY upper-case 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17064r287521_fix

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#upper-case 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

b
The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000193 - V-215828 - SV-215828r879604_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000193
Version
CISC-ND-000580
Vuln IDs
  • V-215828
  • V-96257
Rule IDs
  • SV-215828r879604_rule
  • SV-105395
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.
Checks: C-17067r287523_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY lower-case 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17065r287524_fix

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#lower-case 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

b
The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000194 - V-215829 - SV-215829r879605_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000194
Version
CISC-ND-000590
Vuln IDs
  • V-215829
  • V-96259
Rule IDs
  • SV-215829r879605_rule
  • SV-105397
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.
Checks: C-17068r287526_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY numeric-count 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17066r287527_fix

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#numeric-count 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

b
The Cisco router must be configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-001619 - V-215830 - SV-215830r879606_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001619
Version
CISC-ND-000600
Vuln IDs
  • V-215830
  • V-96261
Rule IDs
  • SV-215830r879606_rule
  • SV-105399
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.
Checks: C-17069r287529_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY special-case 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17067r287530_fix

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#special-case 1 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

b
The Cisco router must be configured to require that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password.
IA-5 - Medium - CCI-000195 - V-215831 - SV-215831r879607_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000195
Version
CISC-ND-000610
Vuln IDs
  • V-215831
  • V-96263
Rule IDs
  • SV-215831r879607_rule
  • SV-105401
If the application allows the user to consecutively reuse extensive portions of passwords, this increases the chances of password compromise by increasing the window of opportunity for attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. The number of changed characters refers to the number of changes required with respect to the total number of positions in the current password. In other words, characters may be the same within the two passwords; however, the positions of the like characters must be different. Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.
Checks: C-17070r287532_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. aaa new-model ! ! aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY char-changes 8 If the Cisco router is not configured to require that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17068r287533_fix

Configure the Cisco router to enforce password complexity by requiring that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least eight of the positions within the password as shown in the example below. R1(config)#aaa common-criteria policy PASSWORD_POLICY R1(config-cc-policy)#char-changes 8 R1(config-cc-policy)#exit

c
The Cisco router must only store cryptographic representations of passwords.
IA-5 - High - CCI-000196 - V-215832 - SV-215832r879608_rule
RMF Control
IA-5
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000196
Version
CISC-ND-000620
Vuln IDs
  • V-215832
  • V-96265
Rule IDs
  • SV-215832r879608_rule
  • SV-105403
Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Network devices must enforce cryptographic representations of passwords when storing passwords in databases, configuration files, and log files. Passwords must be protected at all times; using a strong one-way hashing encryption algorithm with a salt is the standard method for providing a means to validate a password without having to store the actual password. Performance and time required to access are factors that must be considered, and the one way hash is the most feasible means of securing the password and providing an acceptable measure of password security. If passwords are stored in clear text, they can be plainly read and easily compromised. In many instances, verifying the user knows a password is performed using a password verifier. In its simplest form, a password verifier is a computational function that is capable of creating a hash of a password and determining if the value provided by the user matches the stored hash.
Checks: C-17071r287535_chk

Review the router configuration to determine if passwords are encrypted as shown in the example below. service password-encryption If the router is not configured to encrypt passwords, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17069r287536_fix

Configure the router to encrypt all passwords. R4(config)#service password-encryption R4(config)#end

c
The Cisco router must be configured to terminate all network connections associated with device management after five minutes of inactivity.
SC-10 - High - CCI-001133 - V-215833 - SV-215833r916342_rule
RMF Control
SC-10
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001133
Version
CISC-ND-000720
Vuln IDs
  • V-215833
  • V-96271
Rule IDs
  • SV-215833r916342_rule
  • SV-105409
Terminating an idle session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been left unattended. In addition, quickly terminating an idle session will also free up resources committed by the managed network element. Terminating network connections associated with communications sessions includes, for example, de-allocating associated TCP/IP address/port pairs at the operating system level, or de-allocating networking assignments at the application level if multiple application sessions are using a single, operating system-level network connection. This does not mean that the device terminates all sessions or network access; it only ends the inactive session and releases the resources associated with that session.
Checks: C-17072r916293_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that all network connections associated with a device management have an idle timeout value set to five minutes or less as shown in the following example: ip http secure-server ip http timeout-policy idle 300 life nnnn requests nn … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 5 0 line vty 0 1 exec-timeout 5 0 If the Cisco router is not configured to terminate all network connections associated with a device management after five minutes of inactivity, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17070r916294_fix

Set the idle timeout value to five minutes or less on all configured login classes as shown in the example below. R1(config)#line vty 0 1 R1(config-line)#exec-timeout 5 0 R1(config-line)#exit R1(config)#line con 0 R1(config-line)#exec-timeout 5 0 R1(config-line)#exit R2(config)#ip http timeout-policy idle 300 life nnnn requests nn

b
The Cisco router must be configured to automatically audit account enabling actions.
AC-2 - Medium - CCI-002130 - V-215834 - SV-215834r879696_rule
RMF Control
AC-2
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-002130
Version
CISC-ND-000880
Vuln IDs
  • V-215834
  • V-96285
Rule IDs
  • SV-215834r879696_rule
  • SV-105423
Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply enable a new or disabled account. Notification of account enabling is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of application user accounts and notifies administrators and Information System Security Officers (ISSO). Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.
Checks: C-17073r287541_chk

Review the router configuration to determine if it automatically audits account enabling. The configuration should look similar to the example below: archive log config logging enable Note: Configuration changes can be viewed using the show archive log config all command. If account enabling is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17071r287542_fix

Configure the router to log account enabling using the following commands: R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco router must be configured to allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements.
AU-4 - Medium - CCI-001849 - V-215836 - SV-215836r879730_rule
RMF Control
AU-4
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001849
Version
CISC-ND-000980
Vuln IDs
  • V-215836
  • V-96297
Rule IDs
  • SV-215836r879730_rule
  • SV-105435
In order to ensure network devices have a sufficient storage capacity in which to write the audit logs, they need to be able to allocate audit record storage capacity. The task of allocating audit record storage capacity is usually performed during initial device setup if it is modifiable. The value for the organization-defined audit record storage requirement will depend on the amount of storage available on the network device, the anticipated volume of logs, the frequency of transfer from the network device to centralized log servers, and other factors.
Checks: C-17075r287547_chk

Verify that the Cisco router is configured with a logging buffer size. The configuration should look like the example below: logging buffered xxxxxxxx informational If a logging buffer size is not configured, this is a finding. If the Cisco router is not configured to allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17073r287548_fix

Configure the buffer size for logging as shown in the example below. R2(config)#logging buffered xxxxxxxx informational

b
The Cisco router must be configured to generate an alert for all audit failure events.
AU-5 - Medium - CCI-001858 - V-215837 - SV-215837r879733_rule
RMF Control
AU-5
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001858
Version
CISC-ND-001000
Vuln IDs
  • V-215837
  • V-96301
Rule IDs
  • SV-215837r879733_rule
  • SV-105439
It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without a real-time alert, security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability and system operation may be adversely affected. Alerts provide organizations with urgent messages. Real-time alerts provide these messages immediately (i.e., the time from event detection to alert occurs in seconds or less).
Checks: C-17076r835114_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. logging trap critical Note: The parameter "critical" can replaced with a lesser severity level (i.e. error, warning, notice, informational). Informational is the default severity level; hence, if the severity level is configured to informational, the logging trap command will not be shown in the configuration. If the Cisco router is not configured to generate an alert for all audit failure events, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17074r835115_fix

Configure the Cisco router to send critical to emergency log messages to the syslog server as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging trap critical Note: The parameter "critical" can replaced with a lesser severity level (i.e., error, warning, notice, informational).

b
The Cisco router must be configured to synchronize its clock with the primary and secondary time sources using redundant authoritative time sources.
AU-8 - Medium - CCI-001889 - V-215838 - SV-215838r879746_rule
RMF Control
AU-8
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001889
Version
CISC-ND-001030
Vuln IDs
  • V-215838
  • V-96303
Rule IDs
  • SV-215838r879746_rule
  • SV-105441
The loss of connectivity to a particular authoritative time source will result in the loss of time synchronization (free-run mode) and increasingly inaccurate time stamps on audit events and other functions. Multiple time sources provide redundancy by including a secondary source. Time synchronization is usually a hierarchy; clients synchronize time to a local source while that source synchronizes its time to a more accurate source. The network device must utilize an authoritative time server and/or be configured to use redundant authoritative time sources. This requirement is related to the comparison done in CCI-001891. DoD-approved solutions consist of a combination of a primary and secondary time source using a combination or multiple instances of the following: a time server designated for the appropriate DoD network (NIPRNet/SIPRNet); United States Naval Observatory (USNO) time servers; and/or the Global Positioning System (GPS). The secondary time source must be located in a different geographic region than the primary time source.
Checks: C-17077r287553_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the configuration example below. ntp server x.x.x.x ntp server y.y.y.y If the Cisco router is not configured to synchronize its clock with redundant authoritative time sources, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17075r287554_fix

Configure the Cisco router to synchronize its clock with redundant authoritative time sources as shown in the example below. R2(config)#ntp server x.x.x.x R2(config)#ntp server y.y.y.y

b
The Cisco router must be configured to authenticate SNMP messages using a FIPS-validated Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC).
IA-3 - Medium - CCI-001967 - V-215841 - SV-215841r879768_rule
RMF Control
IA-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001967
Version
CISC-ND-001130
Vuln IDs
  • V-215841
  • V-96317
Rule IDs
  • SV-215841r879768_rule
  • SV-105455
Without authenticating devices, unidentified or unknown devices may be introduced, thereby facilitating malicious activity. Bidirectional authentication provides stronger safeguards to validate the identity of other devices for connections that are of greater risk. A local connection is any connection with a device communicating without the use of a network. A network connection is any connection with a device that communicates through a network (e.g., local area or wide area network, Internet). A remote connection is any connection with a device communicating through an external network (e.g., the Internet). Because of the challenges of applying this requirement on a large scale, organizations are encouraged to only apply the requirement to those limited number (and type) of devices that truly need to support this capability.
Checks: C-17080r287562_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 auth read V3READ write V3WRITE snmp-server view V3READ iso included snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER Authentication used by the SNMP users can be viewed via the show snmp user command as shown in the example below. R4#show snmp user User name: V3USER Engine ID: 800000090300C2042B540000 storage-type: nonvolatile active Authentication Protocol: SHA Privacy Protocol: None Group-name: V3GROUP If the Cisco router is not configured to authenticate SNMP messages using a FIPS-validated HMAC, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17078r287563_fix

Configure the Cisco router to authenticate SNMP messages as shown in the example below. R4(config)#snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 auth read V3READ write V3WRITE R4(config)#snmp-server user V3USER V3GROUP v3 auth sha xxxxxxx R4(config)#snmp-server view V3READ iso included R4(config)#snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included R4(config)#snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER

b
The Cisco router must be configured to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm.
AC-17 - Medium - CCI-000068 - V-215842 - SV-215842r879768_rule
RMF Control
AC-17
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000068
Version
CISC-ND-001140
Vuln IDs
  • V-215842
  • V-96319
Rule IDs
  • SV-215842r879768_rule
  • SV-105457
Without the strong encryption that is provided by the SNMP Version 3 User-based Security Model (USM), an unauthorized user can gain access to network management information that can be used to create a network outage.
Checks: C-17081r287565_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 priv read V3READ write V3WRITE snmp-server view V3READ iso included snmp-server view V3WRITE iso included snmp-server host x.x.x.x version 3 auth V3USER Encryption used by the SNMP users can be viewed via the show snmp user command as shown in the example below. R4#show snmp user User name: V3USER Engine ID: 800000090300C2042B540000 storage-type: nonvolatile active Authentication Protocol: SHA Privacy Protocol: AES256 Group-name: V3GROUP If the Cisco router is not configured to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17079r287566_fix

Configure the Cisco router to encrypt SNMP messages using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm as shown in the example below. R4(config)#snmp-server group V3GROUP v3 priv read V3READ write V3WRITE R4(config)#snmp-server user V3USER V3GROUP v3 auth sha xxxxxx priv aes 256 xxxxxx

b
The Cisco router must be configured to authenticate Network Time Protocol (NTP) sources using authentication that is cryptographically based.
IA-3 - Medium - CCI-001967 - V-215843 - SV-215843r879768_rule
RMF Control
IA-3
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-001967
Version
CISC-ND-001150
Vuln IDs
  • V-215843
  • V-96321
Rule IDs
  • SV-215843r879768_rule
  • SV-105459
If Network Time Protocol is not authenticated, an attacker can introduce a rogue NTP server. This rogue server can then be used to send incorrect time information to network devices, which will make log timestamps inaccurate and affect scheduled actions. NTP authentication is used to prevent this tampering by authenticating the time source.
Checks: C-17082r287568_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the configuration example below. ntp authentication-key 1 md5 121B0A151012 7 ntp authenticate ntp trusted-key 1 ntp server x.x.x.x key 1 ntp server y.y.y.y key 1 If the Cisco router is not configured to authenticate NTP sources using authentication that is cryptographically based, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17080r287569_fix

Configure the Cisco router to authenticate NTP sources using authentication that is cryptographically based as shown in the example below. R2(config)#ntp authenticate R2(config)#ntp authentication-key 1 md5 xxxxxx R2(config)#ntp trusted-key 1 R2(config)#ntp server x.x.x.x key 1 R2(config)#ntp server y.y.y.y key 1

c
The Cisco router must be configured to use FIPS-validated Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC) to protect the integrity of remote maintenance sessions.
MA-4 - High - CCI-002890 - V-215844 - SV-215844r879784_rule
RMF Control
MA-4
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-002890
Version
CISC-ND-001200
Vuln IDs
  • V-215844
  • V-96327
Rule IDs
  • SV-215844r879784_rule
  • SV-105465
Unapproved mechanisms that are used for authentication to the cryptographic module are not verified and therefore cannot be relied upon to provide confidentiality or integrity, and DoD data may be compromised. Nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network. Currently, HMAC is the only FIPS-approved algorithm for generating and verifying message/data authentication codes in accordance with FIPS 198-1. Products that are FIPS 140-2 validated will have an HMAC that meets specification; however, the option must be configured for use as the only message authentication code used for authentication to cryptographic modules.
Checks: C-17083r835120_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. NOTE: Although allowed by SP800-131Ar2 for some applications, SHA-1 is considered a compromised hashing standard and is being phased out of use by industry and Government standards. Unless required for legacy use, DoD systems should not be configured to use SHA-1 for integrity of remote access sessions. SSH Example ip ssh version 2 ip ssh server algorithm mac hmac-sha2-256 If the Cisco router is not configured to use FIPS-validated HMAC to protect the integrity of remote maintenance sessions, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17081r835121_fix

Configure SSH to use FIPS-validated HMAC for remote maintenance sessions as shown in the following example: SSH Example R1(config)#ip ssh version 2 R1(config)#ip ssh server algorithm mac hmac-sha2-256

c
The Cisco router must be configured to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions.
MA-4 - High - CCI-003123 - V-215845 - SV-215845r879785_rule
RMF Control
MA-4
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-003123
Version
CISC-ND-001210
Vuln IDs
  • V-215845
  • V-96329
Rule IDs
  • SV-215845r879785_rule
  • SV-105467
This requires the use of secure protocols instead of their unsecured counterparts, such as SSH instead of telnet, SCP instead of FTP, and HTTPS instead of HTTP. If unsecured protocols (lacking cryptographic mechanisms) are used for sessions, the contents of those sessions will be susceptible to eavesdropping, potentially putting sensitive data (including administrator passwords) at risk of compromise and potentially allowing hijacking of maintenance sessions.
Checks: C-17084r860789_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. SSH Example ip ssh version 2 ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes256-ctr aes192-ctr aes128-ctr If the router is not configured to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17082r860790_fix

Configure the Cisco router to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of remote maintenance sessions using a FIPS 140-2 approved algorithm as shown in the examples below. SSH Example R1(config)#ip ssh server algorithm encryption aes256-ctr aes192-ctr aes128-ctr

b
The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-215848 - SV-215848r879870_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
CISC-ND-001250
Vuln IDs
  • V-215848
  • V-96335
Rule IDs
  • SV-215848r879870_rule
  • SV-105473
Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).
Checks: C-17087r287583_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example below. archive log config logging enable If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17085r287584_fix

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records when administrator privileges are deleted as shown in the example below. R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

b
The Cisco router must be configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-215849 - SV-215849r879874_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
CISC-ND-001260
Vuln IDs
  • V-215849
  • V-96337
Rule IDs
  • SV-215849r879874_rule
  • SV-105475
Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).
Checks: C-17088r287586_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the examples below. login on-failure log login on-success log If the Cisco router is not configured to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17086r287587_fix

Configure the Cisco router to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur as shown in the example below. R5(config)#login on-failure log R5(config)#login on-success log

b
The Cisco router must be configured to generate log records for privileged activities.
AU-12 - Medium - CCI-000172 - V-215850 - SV-215850r879875_rule
RMF Control
AU-12
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000172
Version
CISC-ND-001270
Vuln IDs
  • V-215850
  • V-96339
Rule IDs
  • SV-215850r879875_rule
  • SV-105477
Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).
Checks: C-17089r287589_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement as shown in the example configurations below. archive log config logging enable If the Cisco router is not configured to generate log records for privileged activities, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17087r287590_fix

Configure the Cisco router to generate log records for privileged activities as shown in the example below. R4(config)#archive R4(config-archive)#log config R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#logging enable R4(config-archive-log-cfg)#end

c
The Cisco router must be configured to use at least two authentication servers for the purpose of authenticating users prior to granting administrative access.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000370 - V-215854 - SV-215854r939992_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000370
Version
CISC-ND-001370
Vuln IDs
  • V-215854
  • V-96351
Rule IDs
  • SV-215854r939992_rule
  • SV-105489
Centralized management of user accounts and authentication increases the administrative access to the router. This control is particularly important protection against the insider threat. With robust centralized management, audit records for administrator account access to the organization's network devices can be more readily analyzed for trends and anomalies. The alternative method of defining administrator accounts on each device exposes the device configuration to remote access authentication attacks and system administrators with multiple authenticators for each network device.
Checks: C-17093r939990_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that the device is configured to use at least two authentication servers as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: aaa new-model ! aaa authentication CONSOLE local aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local … … … ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION ip http secure-server … … … radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1812 acct-port 1813 key xxxxxxx radius-server host x.x.x.x auth-port 1812 acct-port 1813 key xxxxxxx … … … line con 0 exec-timeout 5 0 login authentication CONSOLE line vty 0 1 exec-timeout 5 0 login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION If the Cisco router is not configured to use at least two authentication servers for the purpose of authenticating users prior to granting administrative access, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17091r939991_fix

Step 1: Configure the Cisco router to use at least two authentication servers as shown in the following example: R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.2 key xxxxxx R4(config)#radius host 10.1.48.3 key xxxxxx Step 2: Configure the authentication order to use the authentication servers as primary source for authentication as shown in the following example: R4(config)#aaa authentication CONSOLE local R4(config)#aaa authentication login LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION group radius local Step 3: Configure all network connections associated with a device management to use the authentication servers for the purpose of login authentication. R4(config)#line vty 0 1 R4(config-line)#login authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#line con 0 R4(config-line)#login authentication CONSOLE R4(config-line)#exit R4(config)#ip http authentication aaa login-authentication LOGIN_AUTHENTICATION

b
The Cisco router must be configured to back up the configuration when changes occur.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-215855 - SV-215855r916221_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
CISC-ND-001410
Vuln IDs
  • V-215855
  • V-96359
Rule IDs
  • SV-215855r916221_rule
  • SV-105497
System-level information includes default and customized settings and security attributes, including ACLs that relate to the network device configuration, as well as software required for the execution and operation of the device. Information system backup is a critical step in ensuring system integrity and availability. If the system fails and there is no backup of the system-level information, a denial of service condition is possible for all who utilize this critical network component. This control requires the network device to support the organizational central backup process for system-level information associated with the network device. This function may be provided by the network device itself; however, the preferred best practice is a centralized backup rather than each network device performing discrete backups.
Checks: C-17094r287604_chk

Review the Cisco router configuration to verify that it is compliant with this requirement. The example configuration below will send the configuration to a TFTP server when a configuration change occurs. event manager applet BACKUP_CONFIG event syslog pattern "%SYS-5-CONFIG_I" action 1 info type routername action 2 cli command "enable" action 3 cli command "copy run tftp" pattern "remote host" action 4 cli command "x.x.x.x" pattern "filename" action 5 cli command "$_info_routername-config" action 6 syslog priority informational msg "Configuration backup was executed" If the Cisco router is not configured to conduct backups of the configuration when changes occur, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17092r287605_fix

Configure the Cisco router to send the configuration to a TFTP or FTP server when a configuration change occurs as shown in the example below. R4(config)#event manager applet BACKUP_CONFIG R4(config-applet)#event syslog pattern "%SYS-5-CONFIG_I" R4(config-applet)#action 1 cli command "enable" R4(config-applet)#action 2 info type routername R4(config-applet)#action 3 cli command "copy run tftp" pattern "remote host" R4(config-applet)#action 4 cli command "x.x.x.x" pattern "filename" R4(config-applet)#action 5 cli command "$_info_routername-config" R4(config-applet)#action 6 syslog priority informational msg "Configuration backup was executed" R4(config-applet)#end

b
The Cisco router must be configured to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider.
CM-6 - Medium - CCI-000366 - V-215856 - SV-215856r879887_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
Medium
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
CISC-ND-001440
Vuln IDs
  • V-215856
  • V-96363
Rule IDs
  • SV-215856r879887_rule
  • SV-105501
For user certificates, each organization obtains certificates from an approved, shared service provider, as required by OMB policy. For federal agencies operating a legacy public key infrastructure cross-certified with the Federal Bridge Certification Authority (CA) at medium assurance or higher, this CA will suffice.
Checks: C-17095r287607_chk

Review the router configuration to determine if a CA trust point has been configured. The CA trust point will contain the URL of the CA in which the router has enrolled with. Verify this is a DoD or DoD-approved CA. This will ensure the router has enrolled and received a certificate from a trusted CA. The CA trust point configuration would look similar to the example below. crypto pki trustpoint CA_X enrollment url http://trustpoint1.example.com Note: A remote end-point's certificate will always be validated by the router by verifying the signature of the CA on the certificate using the CA's public key, which is contained in the router's certificate it received at enrollment. Note: This requirement is not applicable if the router does not have any public key certificates. If the Cisco router is not configured to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider, this is a finding.

Fix: F-17093r287608_fix

Configure the router to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider as shown in the example below. R2(config)# crypto pki trustpoint CA_X R2(ca-trustpoint)#enrollment url http://trustpoint1.example.com

c
The Cisco router must be configured to send log data to at least two syslog servers for the purpose of forwarding alerts to the administrators and the information system security officer (ISSO).
AU-4 - High - CCI-001851 - V-220139 - SV-220139r916114_rule
RMF Control
AU-4
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-001851
Version
CISC-ND-001450
Vuln IDs
  • V-220139
  • V-96365
Rule IDs
  • SV-220139r916114_rule
  • SV-105503
The aggregation of log data kept on a syslog server can be used to detect attacks and trigger an alert to the appropriate security personnel. The stored log data can used to detect weaknesses in security that enable the network IA team to find and address these weaknesses before breaches can occur. Reviewing these logs, whether before or after a security breach, are important in showing whether someone is an internal employee or an outside threat.
Checks: C-21854r916058_chk

Verify that the router is configured to send logs to at least two syslog servers. The configuration should look similar to the example below: logging x.x.x.x logging x.x.x.x If the router is not configured to send log data to the syslog servers, this is a finding.

Fix: F-21846r916059_fix

Configure the router to send log messages to the syslog servers as shown in the example below. R4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x R4(config)#logging host x.x.x.x

c
The Cisco router must be running an IOS release that is currently supported by Cisco Systems.
CM-6 - High - CCI-000366 - V-220140 - SV-220140r879887_rule
RMF Control
CM-6
Severity
High
CCI
CCI-000366
Version
CISC-ND-001470
Vuln IDs
  • V-220140
  • V-96369
Rule IDs
  • SV-220140r879887_rule
  • SV-105507
Network devices running an unsupported operating system lack current security fixes required to mitigate the risks associated with recent vulnerabilities. Running a supported release also enables operations to maintain a stable and reliable network provided by improved quality of service and security features.
Checks: C-21855r388870_chk

Verify that the router is in compliance with this requirement by having the router administrator enter the following command: show version Verify that the release is still supported by Cisco. All releases supported by Cisco can be found on the following URL: www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/ios-nx-os-software If the router is not running a supported release, this is a finding.

Fix: F-21847r388871_fix

Upgrade the router to a supported release.