Oracle Database 12c Security Technical Implementation Guide

V1R12 2019-01-04       U_Oracle_Database_12c_STIG_V1R12_Manual-xccdf.xml
V1R10 2018-02-28       U_Oracle_Database_12c_STIG_V1R10_Manual-xccdf.xml
This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via e-mail to the following address: [email protected]
Comparison
All 201
No Change 198
Updated 2
Added 0
Removed 1
V-61409 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-021100 Rule ID: SV-75899r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Without preservation, a complete discovery of an attack or suspicious activity may not be determined. DBMS audit data also contributes to the complete investigation of unauthorized activity and needs to be included in audit retention plans and procedures.

Checks

Review and verify the implementation of an audit trail retention policy.

Verify that audit data is maintained for a minimum of one year.

If audit data is not maintained for a minimum of one year, this is a finding.

Fix

Develop, document and implement an audit retention policy and procedures.

It is recommended that the most recent thirty days of audit logs remain available online.

After thirty days, the audit logs may be maintained off-line.

Online maintenance provides for a more timely capability and inclination to investigate suspicious activity.
V-61411 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-021200 Rule ID: SV-75901r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Replication database accounts are used for database connections between databases. Replication requires the configuration of these accounts using the same username and password on all databases participating in the replication. Replication connections use fixed user database links. This means that access to the replication account on one server provides access to the other servers participating in the replication. Granting unauthorized access to the replication account provides unauthorized and privileged access to all databases participating in the replication group.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select 'The number of replication objects defined is: '||
count(*) from all_tables
where table_name like 'REPCAT%';

If the count returned is 0, then Oracle Replication is not installed and this check is not a finding.

Otherwise:

From SQL*Plus:

select count(*) from sys.dba_repcatlog;

If the count returned is 0, then Oracle Replication is not in use and this check is not a finding.

If any results are returned, ask the ISSO or DBA if the replication account (the default is REPADMIN, but may be customized) is restricted to ISSO-authorized personnel only.

If it is not, this is a finding.

If there are multiple replication accounts, confirm that all are justified and documented with the ISSO.

If they are not, this is a finding.

Note: Oracle Database Advanced Replication is deprecated in Oracle Database 12c. Use Oracle GoldenGate to replace all features of Advanced Replication, including multimaster replication, updatable materialized views, hierarchical materialized views, and deployment templates.

Fix

Change the password for default and custom replication accounts and provide the password to ISSO-authorized users only.
V-61413 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-021300 Rule ID: SV-75903r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Service names may be discovered by unauthenticated users. If the service name includes version numbers or other database product information, a malicious user may use that information to develop a targeted attack.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select instance_name from v$instance;
select version from v$instance;

If the instance name returned references the Oracle release number, this is a finding.

Numbers used that include version numbers by coincidence are not a finding.

The DBA should be able to relate the significance of the presence of a digit in the SID.

Fix

Follow the instructions in Oracle MetaLink Note 15390.1 (and related documents) to change the SID for the database without re-creating the database to a value that does not identify the Oracle version.
V-61415 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-021400 Rule ID: SV-75905r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Database links define connections that may be used by the local database to access remote Oracle databases. These links provide a means for a compromise to the local database to spread to remote databases in the distributed database environment. Limiting or eliminating use of database links where they are not required to support the operational system can help isolate compromises to the local or a limited number of databases.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select owner||': '||db_link from dba_db_links;

If no records are returned from the first SQL statement, this check is not a finding.

Confirm the public and fixed user database links listed are documented in the System Security Plan, are authorized by the ISSO, and are used for replication or operational system requirements.

If any are not, this is a finding.

Fix

Document all authorized connections from the database to remote databases in the System Security Plan.

Remove all unauthorized remote database connection definitions from the database.

From SQL*Plus:

drop database link [link name];
OR
drop public database link [link name];

Review remote database connection definitions periodically and confirm their use is still required and authorized.
V-61417 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-021500 Rule ID: SV-75907r3_rule Severity: low CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Oracle control files are used to store information critical to Oracle database integrity. Oracle uses these files to maintain time synchronization of database files as well as at system startup to verify the validity of system data and log files. Loss of access to the control files can affect database availability, integrity and recovery.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select name from v$controlfile;

DoD guidance recommends:

2a. Each control file is to be located on separate, archived physical or virtual storage devices.

OR

2b. Each control file is to be located on separate, archived directories within one or more RAID devices.

3. The Logical Paths for each control file should differ at the highest level supported by the configuration, for example:

UNIX
/ora03/app/oracle/{SID}/control/control01.ctl
/ora04/app/oracle/{SID}/control/control02.ctl

Windows
D:/oracle/{SID}/control/control01.ctl
E:/oracle/{SID}/control/control02.ctl

If the minimum listed above is not met, this is a finding.

Consult with the SA or DBA to determine that the mount points or partitions referenced in the file paths indicate separate physical disks or directories on RAID devices.

Note: Distinct does not equal dedicated. May share directory space with other Oracle database instances if present.

Fix

To prevent loss of service during disk failure, multiple copies of Oracle control files must be maintained on separate disks in archived directories or on separate, archived directories within one or more RAID devices.

Adding or moving a control file requires careful planning and execution.

Consult and follow the instructions for creating control files in the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide, under Steps for Creating New Control Files.
V-61419 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-021600 Rule ID: SV-75909r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The Oracle redo log files store the detailed information on changes made to the database. This information is critical to database recovery in case of a database failure.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select count(*) from V$LOG;

If the value of the count returned is less than 2, this is a finding.

From SQL*Plus:

select count(*) from V$LOG where members > 1;

If the value of the count returned is less than 2 and a RAID storage device is not being used, this is a finding.

Fix

To define additional redo log file groups:

From SQL*Plus (Example):

alter database add logfile group 2
('diska:log2.log' ,
'diskb:log2.log') size 50K;

To add additional redo log file [members] to an existing redo log file group:

From SQL*Plus (Example):

alter database add logfile member 'diskc:log2.log'
to group 2;

Replace diska, diskb, diskc with valid, different disk drive specifications.

Replace log#.log file with valid or custom names for the log files.
V-61421 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-021700 Rule ID: SV-75911r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

An account permission to grant privileges within the database is an administrative function. Minimizing the number and privileges of administrative accounts reduces the chances of privileged account exploitation. Application user accounts must never require WITH GRANT OPTION privileges since, by definition, they require only privileges to execute procedures or view / edit data.

Checks

Execute the query:

select grantee||': '||owner||'.'||table_name
from dba_tab_privs
where grantable = 'YES'
and grantee not in (select distinct owner from dba_objects)
and grantee not in (select grantee from dba_role_privs where granted_role = 'DBA')
order by grantee;

If any accounts are listed, this is a finding.

Fix

Revoke privileges granted the WITH GRANT OPTION from non-DBA and accounts that do not own application objects.

Re-grant privileges without specifying WITH GRANT OPTION.
V-61425 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-021900 Rule ID: SV-75915r1_rule Severity: high CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Setting this value to TRUE allows operating system authentication over an unsecured connection. Trusting remote operating systems can allow a user to impersonate another operating system user and connect to the database without having to supply a password. If REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT is set to true, the only information a remote user needs to connect to the database is the name of any user whose account is setup to be authenticated by the operating system.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select value from v$parameter where name = 'remote_os_authent';

If the value returned does not equal FALSE, this is a finding.

Fix

Document remote OS authentication in the System Security Plan.

If not required or not mitigated to an acceptable level, disable remote OS authentication.

From SQL*Plus:

alter system set remote_os_authent = FALSE scope = spfile;

The above SQL*Plus command will set the parameter to take effect at next system startup.
V-61427 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-022000 Rule ID: SV-75917r1_rule Severity: high CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Setting REMOTE_OS_ROLES to TRUE allows operating system groups to control Oracle roles. The default value of FALSE causes roles to be identified and managed by the database. If REMOTE_OS_ROLES is set to TRUE, a remote user could impersonate another operating system user over a network connection.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select value from v$parameter where name = 'remote_os_roles';

If the returned value is not FALSE or not documented in the System Security Plan as required, this is a finding.

Fix

Document remote OS roles in the System Security Plan.

If not required, disable use of remote OS roles.

From SQL*Plus:

alter system set remote_os_roles = FALSE scope = spfile;

The above SQL*Plus command will set the parameter to take effect at next system startup.
V-61429 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-022100 Rule ID: SV-75919r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The configuration option SQL92_SECURITY specifies whether table-level SELECT privileges are required to execute an update or delete that references table column values. If this option is disabled (set to FALSE), the UPDATE privilege can be used to determine values that should require SELECT privileges.

The SQL92_SECURITY setting of TRUE prevents the exploitation of user credentials with only DELETE or UPDATE privileges on a table from being able to derive column values in that table by performing a series of update/delete statements using a where clause, and rolling back the change. In the following example, with SQL92_SECURITY set to FALSE, a user with only delete privilege on the scott.emp table is able to derive that there is one employee with a salary greater than 3000. With SQL92_SECURITY set to TRUE, that user is prevented from attempting to derive a value.

SQL92_SECURITY = FALSE
SQL> delete from scott.emp where sal > 3000;
1 row deleted
SQL> rollback;
Rollback complete

SQL92_SECURITY = TRUE
SQL> delete from scott.emp where sal > 3000;
delete from scott.emp where sal > 3000
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select value from v$parameter where name = 'sql92_security';

If the value returned is set to FALSE, this is a finding.

If the parameter is set to TRUE or does not exist, this is not a finding.

Fix

Enable SQL92 security.

From SQL*Plus:

alter system set sql92_security = TRUE scope = spfile;

The above SQL*Plus command will set the parameter to take effect at next system startup.
V-61431 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-022200 Rule ID: SV-75921r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE setting of "NONE" disallows remote administration of the database. The REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE setting of "EXCLUSIVE" allows for auditing of individual DBA logons to the SYS account. If not set to "EXCLUSIVE", remote connections to the database as "internal" or "as SYSDBA" are not logged to an individual account.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select value from v$parameter where upper(name) = 'REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE';

If the value returned does not equal 'EXCLUSIVE' or 'NONE', this is a finding.

Fix

Disable use of the REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE where remote administration is not authorized by specifying a value of NONE.

If authorized, restrict use of a password file to exclusive use by each database by specifying a value of EXCLUSIVE.

From SQL*Plus:

alter system set REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE = 'EXCLUSIVE' scope = spfile;

OR

alter system set REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE = 'NONE' scope = spfile;

The above SQL*Plus command will set the parameter to take effect at next system startup.
V-61433 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-022300 Rule ID: SV-75923r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The WITH ADMIN OPTION allows the grantee to grant a privilege to another database account. Best security practice restricts the privilege of assigning privileges to authorized personnel. Authorized personnel include DBAs, object owners, and, where designed and included in the application's functions, application administrators. Restricting privilege-granting functions to authorized accounts can help decrease mismanagement of privileges and wrongful assignments to unauthorized accounts.

Checks

A default Oracle Database installation provides a set of predefined administrative accounts and non-administrative accounts. These are accounts that have special privileges required to administer areas of the database, such as the CREATE ANY TABLE or ALTER SESSION privilege, or EXECUTE privileges on packages owned by the SYS schema. The default tablespace for administrative accounts is either SYSTEM or SYSAUX. Non-administrative user accounts only have the minimum privileges needed to perform their jobs. Their default tablespace is USERS.

To protect these accounts from unauthorized access, the installation process expires and locks most of these accounts, except where noted below. The database administrator is responsible for unlocking and resetting these accounts, as required.

Non-Administrative Accounts - Expired and locked:
APEX_PUBLIC_USER, DIP, FLOWS_040100*, FLOWS_FILES, MDDATA, ORACLE_OCM, SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_USR, SPATIAL_WFS_ADMIN_USR, XS$NULL

Administrative Accounts - Expired and Locked:
ANONYMOUS, CTXSTS, EXFSYS, LBACSYS, MDSYS, OLAPSYS, OEDDATA, OWBSYS, ORDPLUGINS, ORDSYS, OUTLN, SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA, WK_TEST, WK_SYS, WKPROXY, WMSYS, XDB

Administrative Accounts - Open:
DBSNMP, MGMT_VIEW, SYS, SYSMAN, SYSTEM, SYSKM

* Subject to change based on version installed

Run the SQL query:

From SQL*Plus:
select grantee, privilege from dba_sys_privs
where grantee not in (<list of non-applicable accounts>)
and admin_option = 'YES'
and grantee not in
(select grantee from dba_role_privs where granted_role = 'DBA');

(With respect to the list of special accounts that are excluded from this requirement, it is expected that the DBA will maintain the list to suit local circumstances, adding special accounts as necessary and removing any that are not supposed to be in use in the Oracle deployment that is under review.)

If any accounts that are not authorized to have the ADMIN OPTION are listed, this is a finding.

Fix

Revoke assignment of privileges with the WITH ADMIN OPTION from unauthorized users and re-grant them without the option.

From SQL*Plus:

revoke [privilege name] from user [username];

Replace [privilege name] with the named privilege and [username] with the named user.

Restrict use of the WITH ADMIN OPTION to authorized administrators.

Document authorized privilege assignments with the WITH ADMIN OPTION in the System Security Plan.
V-61435 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-022400 Rule ID: SV-75925r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

System privileges can be granted to users and roles and to the user group PUBLIC. All privileges granted to PUBLIC are accessible to every user in the database. Many of these privileges convey considerable authority over the database and should be granted only to those persons responsible for administering the database. In general, these privileges should be granted to roles and then the appropriate roles should be granted to users. System privileges must never be granted to PUBLIC as this could allow users to compromise the database.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select privilege from dba_sys_privs where grantee = 'PUBLIC';

If any records are returned, this is a finding.

Fix

Revoke any system privileges assigned to PUBLIC:

From SQL*Plus:

revoke [system privilege] from PUBLIC;

Replace [system privilege] with the named system privilege.

Note: System privileges are not granted to PUBLIC by default and would indicate a custom action.
V-61437 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-022500 Rule ID: SV-75927r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The WITH ADMIN OPTION allows the grantee to grant a role to another database account. Best security practice restricts the privilege of assigning privileges to authorized personnel. Authorized personnel include DBAs, object owners, and, where designed and included in the application's functions, application administrators. Restricting privilege-granting functions to authorized accounts can help decrease mismanagement of privileges and wrongful assignments to unauthorized accounts.

Checks

A default Oracle Database installation provides a set of predefined administrative accounts and non-administrative accounts. These are accounts that have special privileges required to administer areas of the database, such as the CREATE ANY TABLE or ALTER SESSION privilege, or EXECUTE privileges on packages owned by the SYS schema. The default tablespace for administrative accounts is either SYSTEM or SYSAUX. Non-administrative user accounts only have the minimum privileges needed to perform their jobs. Their default tablespace is USERS.

To protect these accounts from unauthorized access, the installation process expires and locks most of these accounts, except where noted below. The database administrator is responsible for unlocking and resetting these accounts, as required.

Non-Administrative Accounts - Expired and locked:
APEX_PUBLIC_USER, DIP, FLOWS_040100*, FLOWS_FILES, MDDATA, ORACLE_OCM, SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_USR, SPATIAL_WFS_ADMIN_USR, XS$NULL

Administrative Accounts - Expired and Locked:
ANONYMOUS, CTXSTS, EXFSYS, LBACSYS, MDSYS, OLAPSYS, OEDDATA, OWBSYS, ORDPLUGINS, ORDSYS, OUTLN, SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA, WK_TEST, WK_SYS, WKPROXY, WMSYS, XDB

Administrative Accounts - Open:
DBSNMP, MGMT_VIEW, SYS, SYSMAN, SYSTEM

* Subject to change based on version installed

Run the SQL statement:

select grantee||': '||granted_role from dba_role_privs
where grantee not in
(<list of non-applicable accounts>)
and admin_option = 'YES'
and grantee not in
(select distinct owner from dba_objects)
and grantee not in
(select grantee from dba_role_privs
where granted_role = 'DBA')
order by grantee;

(With respect to the list of special accounts that are excluded from this requirement, it is expected that the DBA will maintain the list to suit local circumstances, adding special accounts as necessary and removing any that are not supposed to be in use in the Oracle deployment that is under review.)

Review the System Security Plan to confirm any grantees listed are ISSO-authorized DBA accounts or application administration roles.

If any grantees listed are not authorized and documented, this is a finding.

Fix

Revoke assignment of roles with the WITH ADMIN OPTION from unauthorized grantees and re-grant them without the option if required.

SQL statements to remove the admin option from an unauthorized grantee:
revoke <role name> from <grantee>;
grant <role name> to <grantee>;

Restrict use of the WITH ADMIN OPTION to authorized administrators.

Document authorized role assignments with the WITH ADMIN OPTION in the System Security Plan.
V-61439 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-022600 Rule ID: SV-75929r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Permissions on objects may be granted to the user group PUBLIC. Because every database user is a member of the PUBLIC group, granting object permissions to PUBLIC gives all users in the database access to that object. In a secure environment, granting object permissions to PUBLIC must be restricted to those objects that all users are allowed to access. The policy does not require object permissions assigned to PUBLIC by the installation of Oracle Database server components be revoked.

Checks

A default Oracle Database installation provides a set of predefined administrative accounts and non-administrative accounts. These are accounts that have special privileges required to administer areas of the database, such as the “CREATE ANY TABLE” or “ALTER SESSION” privilege, or “EXECUTE” privileges on packages owned by the SYS schema. The default tablespace for administrative accounts is either “SYSTEM” or “SYSAUX”. Non-administrative user accounts only have the minimum privileges needed to perform their jobs. Their default tablespace is “USERS”.

To protect these accounts from unauthorized access, the installation process expires and locks most of these accounts, except where noted below. The database administrator is responsible for unlocking and resetting these accounts, as required.

Non-Administrative Accounts - Expired and locked:
APEX_PUBLIC_USER, DIP, FLOWS_040100*, FLOWS_FILES, MDDATA, ORACLE_OCM, SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_USR, SPATIAL_WFS_ADMIN_USR, XS$NULL

Administrative Accounts - Expired and Locked:
ANONYMOUS, CTXSTS, EXFSYS, LBACSYS, MDSYS, OLAPSYS, OEDDATA, OWBSYS, ORDPLUGINS, ORDSYS, OUTLN, SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA, WK_TEST, WK_SYS, WKPROXY, WMSYS, XDB

Administrative Accounts - Open:
DBSNMP, MGMT_VIEW, SYS, SYSMAN, SYSTEM

* Subject to change based on version installed

Run the SQL query:

select owner ||'.'|| table_name ||':'|| privilege from dba_tab_privs
where grantee = 'PUBLIC'
and owner not in
(<list of non-applicable accounts>);

(With respect to the list of special accounts that are excluded from this requirement, it is expected that the DBA will maintain the list to suit local circumstances, adding special accounts as necessary and removing any that are not supposed to be in use in the Oracle deployment that is under review.)

If there are any records returned that are not Oracle product accounts, and are not documented and authorized, this is a finding.

Note: This check may return false positives where other Oracle product accounts are not included in the exclusion list.

Fix

Revoke any privileges granted to PUBLIC for objects that are not owned by Oracle product accounts.

From SQL*Plus:

revoke [privilege name] from [user name] on [object name];

Assign permissions to custom application user roles based on job functions:

From SQL*Plus:

grant [privilege name] to [user role] on [object name];
V-61441 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-022700 Rule ID: SV-75931r2_rule Severity: high CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Oracle listener authentication helps prevent unauthorized administration of the Oracle listener. Unauthorized administration of the listener could lead to DoS exploits; loss of connection audit data, unauthorized reconfiguration or other unauthorized access. This is a Category I finding because privileged access to the listener is not restricted to authorized users. Unauthorized access can result in stopping of the listener (DoS) and overwriting of listener audit logs.

Checks

If a listener is not running on the local database host server, this check is not a finding.

Note: This check needs to be done only once per host system and once per listener. Multiple listeners may be defined on a single host system. They must all be reviewed, but only once per database home review.

For subsequent database home reviews on the same host system, this check is not a finding.

Determine all Listeners running on the host.

For Windows hosts, view all Windows services with TNSListener embedded in the service name
- The service name format is:
Oracle[ORACLE_HOME_NAME]TNSListener

For UNIX hosts, the Oracle Listener process will indicate the TNSLSNR executable.

At a command prompt, issue the command:
ps -ef | grep tnslsnr | grep -v grep

The alias for the listener follows tnslsnr in the command output.

Must be logged on the host system using the account that owns the tnslsnr executable (UNIX). If the account is denied local logon, have the system SA assist in this task by adding 'su' to the listener account from the root account. On Windows platforms, log on using an account with administrator privileges to complete the check.

From a system command prompt, execute the listener control utility:

lsnrctl status [LISTENER NAME]

Review the results for the value of Security.

If "Security = OFF" is displayed, this is a finding.

If "Security = ON: Local OS Authentication" is displayed, this is not a finding.

If "Security = ON: Password or Local OS Authentication", this is a finding (do not set a password on Oracle versions 10.1 and higher. Instead, use Local OS Authentication).

Repeat the execution of the lsnrctl utility for all active listeners.

Fix

By default, Oracle Net Listener permits only local administration for security reasons. As a policy, the listener can be administered only by the user who started it. This is enforced through local operating system authentication. For example, if user1 starts the listener, then only user1 can administer it. Any other user trying to administer the listener gets an error. The super user is the only exception.

Remote administration of the listener must not be permitted. If listener administration from a remote system is required, granting secure remote access to the Oracle DBMS server and performing local administration is preferred. Authorize and document this requirement in the System Security Plan.

Note: In Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), the listener password feature is no longer supported. This does not cause a loss of security because authentication is enforced through local operating system authentication. Refer to Oracle Database Net Services Reference for additional information.
V-61443 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-022800 Rule ID: SV-75933r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Permissions granted to PUBLIC are granted to all users of the database. Custom roles must be used to assign application permissions to functional groups of application users. The installation of Oracle does not assign role permissions to PUBLIC.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select granted_role from dba_role_privs where grantee = 'PUBLIC';

If any roles are listed, this is a finding.

Fix

Revoke role grants from PUBLIC.

Do not assign role privileges to PUBLIC.

From SQL*Plus:

revoke [role name] from PUBLIC;
V-61445 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-022900 Rule ID: SV-75935r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Application administration roles, which are assigned system or elevated application object privileges, must be protected from default activation. Application administration roles are determined by system privilege assignment (create / alter / drop user) and application user role ADMIN OPTION privileges.

Checks

Run the SQL query:

select grantee, granted_role from dba_role_privs
where default_role='YES'
and granted_role in
(select grantee from dba_sys_privs where upper(privilege) like '%USER%')
and grantee not in
(<list of non-applicable accounts>)
and grantee not in (select distinct owner from dba_tables)
and grantee not in
(select distinct username from dba_users where upper(account_status) like
'%LOCKED%');

(With respect to the list of special accounts that are excluded from this requirement, it is expected that the DBA will maintain the list to suit local circumstances, adding special accounts as necessary and removing any that are not supposed to be in use in the Oracle deployment that is under review.)

Review the list of accounts reported for this check and ensures that they are authorized application administration roles.

If any are not authorized application administration roles, this is a finding.

Fix

For each role assignment returned, issue:

From SQL*Plus:

alter user [username] default role all except [role];

If the user has more than one application administration role assigned, then remove assigned roles from default assignment and assign individually the appropriate default roles.
V-61447 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-023000 Rule ID: SV-75937r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Multi-tier systems may be configured with the database and connecting middle-tier system located on an internal network, with the database located on an internal network behind a firewall and the middle-tier system located in a DMZ. In cases where either or both systems are located in the DMZ (or on networks external to DoD), network communications between the systems must be encrypted.

Checks

Review the System Security Plan for remote applications that access and use the database.

For each remote application or application server, determine whether communications between it and the DBMS are encrypted. If any are not encrypted, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure communications between the DBMS and remote applications/application servers to use DoD-approved encryption.
V-61449 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-023100 Rule ID: SV-75939r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Unauthorized users may bypass security mechanisms by submitting jobs to job queues managed by the database to be run under a more privileged security context of the database or host system. These queues must be monitored regularly to detect any such unauthorized job submissions.

Checks

The DBMS_JOB PL/SQL package has been replaced by DBMS_SCHEDULER in Oracle versions 10.1 and higher, though it continues to be supported for backward compatibility.

Run this query:
select value from v$parameter where name = 'job_queue_processes';

Run this query:
select value from all_scheduler_global_attribute
where ATTRIBUTE_NAME = 'MAX_JOB_SLAVE_PROCESSES';

To understand the relationship between these settings, review:
https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ADMIN/appendix_a.htm#ADMIN11002

Review documented and implemented procedures for monitoring the Oracle DBMS job/batch queues for unauthorized submissions. If procedures for job queue review are not defined, documented or evidence of implementation does not exist, this is a finding.

Job queue information is available from the DBA_JOBS view. The following command lists jobs submitted to the queue. DBMS_JOB does not generate a 'history' of previous job executions.

Run this query:
select job, next_date, next_sec, failures, broken from dba_jobs;

Scheduler queue information is available from the DBA_SCHEDULER_JOBS view. The following command lists jobs submitted to the queue.

Run this query:
select owner, job_name, state, job_class, job_type, job_action
from dba_scheduler_jobs;

Fix

Develop, document and implement procedures to monitor the database job queues for unauthorized job submissions.

Develop, document and implement a formal migration plan to convert jobs using DBMS_JOB to use DBMS_SCHEDULER instead for Oracle versions 10.1 and higher. (This does not apply to DBMS_JOB jobs generated by Oracle itself, such as those for refreshing materialized views.)

Set the value of the job_queue_processes parameter to a low value to restrict concurrent DBMS_JOB executions.

Use auditing to capture use of the DBMS_JOB package in the audit trail. Review the audit trail for unauthorized use of the DBMS_JOB package.
V-61451 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-023200 Rule ID: SV-75941r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

DBMS links provide a communication and data transfer path definition between two databases that may be used by malicious users to discover and obtain unauthorized access to remote systems. Database links between production and development DBMSs provide a means for developers to access production data not authorized for their access or to introduce untested or unauthorized applications to the production database. Only protected, controlled, and authorized downloads of any production data to use for development may be allowed. Only applications that have completed the configuration management process may be introduced by the application object owner account to the production system.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:
select db_link||': '||host from dba_db_links;

If no links are returned, this check is not a finding.

Review documentation for definitions of authorized database links to external interfaces.

The documentation should include:

- Any remote access to the database
- The purpose or function of the remote connection
- Any access to data or procedures stored externally to the local DBMS
- Any network ports or protocols used by remote connections, whether the remote connection is to a production, test, or development system
- Any security accounts used by DBMS to access remote resources or objects

If any unauthorized database links are defined or the definitions do not match the documentation, this is a finding.

Note: findings for production-development links under this check are assigned to the production database only.

If any database links are defined between the production database and any test or development databases, this is a finding.

If remote interface documentation does not exist or is incomplete, this is a finding.

Fix

Document all remote or external interfaces used by the DBMS to connect to or allow connections from remote or external sources.

Include with the documentation as appropriate, any network ports or protocols, security accounts, and the sensitivity of any data exchanged.

Do not define or configure database links between production databases and test or development databases.

Note: Oracle Database Advanced Replication is deprecated in Oracle Database 12c. Use Oracle GoldenGate to replace all features of Advanced Replication, including multimaster replication, updatable materialized views, hierarchical materialized views, and deployment templates.
V-61453 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-023300 Rule ID: SV-75943r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Data export from production databases may include sensitive data. Application developers do not have a need to know to sensitive data. Any access they may have to production data would be considered unauthorized access and subject the sensitive data to unlawful or unauthorized disclosure. See DODD 8500.1 for a definition of Sensitive Information.

Checks

If the database being reviewed is a production database, this check is not a finding.

Review policy, procedures and restrictions for data imports of production data containing sensitive information into development databases.

If data imports of production data are allowed, review procedures for protecting any sensitive data included in production exports.

If sensitive data is included in the exports and no procedures are in place to remove or modify the data to render it not sensitive prior to import into a development database or policy and procedures are not in place to ensure authorization of development personnel to access sensitive information contained in production data, this is a finding.

Fix

Develop, document and implement policy, procedures and restrictions for production data import.

Require any users assigned privileges that allow the export of production data from the database to acknowledge understanding of import policies, procedures and restrictions.

Restrict permissions of development personnel requiring use or access to production data imported into development databases containing sensitive information to authorized users.

Implement policy and procedures to modify or remove sensitive information in production exports prior to import into development databases.
V-61455 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-023400 Rule ID: SV-75945r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Users granted privileges not required to perform their assigned functions are able to make unauthorized modifications to the production data or database. Monthly or more frequent periodic review of privilege assignments assures that organizational and/or functional changes are reflected appropriately.

Checks

Review policy, procedures and implementation evidence to determine if periodic reviews of user privileges by the ISSO are being performed.

Evidence may consist of email or other correspondence that acknowledges receipt of periodic reports and notification of review between the DBA and ISSO or other auditors as assigned.

If policy and procedures are incomplete or no evidence of implementation exists, this is a finding.

Fix

Develop, document and implement policy and procedures for periodic review of database user accounts and privilege assignments.

Include methods to provide evidence of review in the procedures to verify reviews occur in accordance with the procedures.
V-61457 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-023500 Rule ID: SV-75947r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Review of audit trail data provides a means for detection of unauthorized access or attempted access. Frequent and regularly scheduled reviews ensure that such access is discovered in a timely manner.

Checks

If the database being reviewed is not a production database, this check is not a finding.

Review policy and procedures documented or noted in the System Security plan as well as evidence of implementation for daily audit trail monitoring.

If policy and procedures are not documented or evidence of implementation is not available, this is a finding.

Fix

Develop, document and implement policy and procedures to monitor audit trail data daily.
V-61459 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-023600 Rule ID: SV-75949r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The Oracle SYSTEM tablespace is used by the database to store all DBMS system objects. Other use of the system tablespace may compromise system availability and the effectiveness of host system access controls to the tablespace files.

Checks

Run the query:

select property_name, property_value
from database_properties
where property_name in
('DEFAULT_PERMANENT_TABLESPACE','DEFAULT_TEMP_TABLESPACE');

If either value is set to SYSTEM, this is a finding.

Run the query:

select username from dba_users
where (default_tablespace = 'SYSTEM' or temporary_tablespace = 'SYSTEM')
and username not in
('LBACSYS','OUTLN','SYS','SYSTEM');

If any non-default account records are returned, this is a finding.

Fix

Create and dedicate tablespaces to support only one application.

Do not share tablespaces between applications.

Do not grant quotas to application object owners on tablespaces not dedicated to their associated application.

Run the queries:

alter database default tablespace <tablespace_name>;
alter database default temporary tablespace <temporary_tablespace_name>;

alter user <username> default tablespace <tablespace_name> temporary tablespace <temporary_tablespace_name>;

Replace <username> with the named user account.
Replace <tablespace_name> with the new default tablespace name.
Replace <temporary_tablespace_name> with the new default temporary tablespace name (typically TEMP).
Repeat the "alter user" for each affected user account.
V-61461 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-023700 Rule ID: SV-75951r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Separation of tablespaces by application helps to protect the application from resource contention and unauthorized access that could result from storage space reuses or host system access controls. Application data must be stored separately from system and custom user-defined objects to facilitate administration and management of its data storage. The SYSTEM tablespace must never be used for application data storage in order to prevent resource contention and performance degradation.

Checks

Run the SQL query:

select distinct owner, tablespace_name
from dba_SEGMENTS
where owner not in
(<list of non-applicable accounts>)
order by tablespace_name;

(With respect to the list of special accounts that are excluded from this requirement, it is expected that the DBA will maintain the list to suit local circumstances, adding special accounts as necessary and removing any that are not supposed to be in use in the Oracle deployment that is under review.)

Review the list of returned table owners with the tablespace used.

If any of the owners listed are not default Oracle accounts and use the SYSTEM or any other tablespace not dedicated for the application’s use, this is a finding.

Look for multiple applications that may share a tablespace.

If no records were returned, ask the DBA if any applications use this database.

If no applications use the database, this is not a finding.

If there are applications that do use the database or if the application uses the SYS or other default account and SYSTEM tablespace to store its objects, this is a finding.

Fix

Create and assign dedicated tablespaces for the storage of data by each application using the CREATE TABLESPACE command.
V-61463 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-023800 Rule ID: SV-75953r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST parameter is used to specify the directory to which Oracle archive logs are written. Where the DBMS availability and recovery to a specific point in time is critical, the protection of archive log files is critical. Archive log files may also contain unencrypted sensitive data. If written to an inadequately protected or invalidated directory, the archive log files may be accessed by unauthorized persons or processes.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select log_mode from v$database;
select value from v$parameter where name = 'log_archive_dest';
select value from v$parameter where name = 'log_archive_duplex_dest';
select name, value from v$parameter where name LIKE 'log_archive_dest_%';
select value from v$parameter where name = 'db_recovery_file_dest';

If the value returned for LOG_MODE is NOARCHIVELOG, this check is not a finding.

If a value is not returned for LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST and no values are returned for any of the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_[1-10] parameters, and no value is returned for DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST, this is a finding.

Note: LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST and LOG_ARCHIVE_DUPLEX_DEST are incompatible with the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n parameters, and must be defined as the null string (' ') when any LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n parameter has a value other than a null string.

On UNIX Systems:

ls -ld [pathname]

Substitute [pathname] with the directory paths listed from the above SQL statements for log_archive_dest and log_archive_duplex_dest.

If permissions are granted for world access, this is a finding.

On Windows Systems (From Windows Explorer):

Browse to the directory specified.

Select and right-click on the directory, select Properties, select the Security tab.

If permissions are granted to everyone, this is a finding.

If any account other than the Oracle process and software owner accounts, Administrators, DBAs, System group or developers authorized to write and debug applications on this database are listed, this is a finding.

Fix

Specify a valid and protected directory for archive log files.

Restrict access to the Oracle process and software owner accounts, DBAs, and backup operator accounts.
V-61465 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-023900 Rule ID: SV-75955r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The _TRACE_FILES_PUBLIC parameter is used to make trace files used for debugging database applications and events available to all database users. Use of this capability precludes the discrete assignment of privileges based on job function. Additionally, its use may provide access to external files and data to unauthorized users.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select value from v$parameter where name = '_trace_files_public';

If the value returned is TRUE, this is a finding.

If the parameter does not exist or is set to FALSE, this is not a finding.

Fix

From SQL*Plus (shutdown database instance):

shutdown immediate

From SQL*Plus (create a pfile from spfile):

create pfile='[PATH]init[SID].ora' from spfile;

Edit the init[SID].ora file and remove the following line:

*._trace_files_public=TRUE

From SQL*Plus (update the spfile using the pfile):

create spfile from pfile='[PATH]init[SID].ora';

From SQL*Plus (start the database instance):

startup

Note: [PATH] depends on the platform (Windows or UNIX).

Ensure the file is directed to a writable location.

[SID] is equal to the oracle SID or database instance ID.
V-61467 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-024000 Rule ID: SV-75957r4_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Object ownership provides all database object permissions to the owned object. Access to the application object owner accounts requires special protection to prevent unauthorized access and use of the object ownership privileges. In addition to the high privileges to application objects assigned to this account, it is also an account that, by definition, is not accessed interactively except for application installation and maintenance. This reduced access to the account means that unauthorized access to the account could go undetected. To help protect the account, it must be enabled only when access is required.

Checks

Run the SQL query:

select distinct o.owner from dba_objects o, dba_users u
where o.owner not in
(
<list of non-applicable accounts>
)
and o.object_type <> 'SYNONYM'
and o.owner = username
and upper(account_status) not like '%LOCKED%';

(With respect to the list of special accounts that are excluded from this requirement, it is expected that the DBA will maintain the list to suit local circumstances, adding special accounts as necessary and removing any that are not supposed to be in use in the Oracle deployment that is under review.)

To obtain a list of users assigned DBA privileges, run the query:

select grantee from dba_role_privs where granted_role = 'DBA';

If any records are returned, then verify the account is an authorized application object owner account or a default account installed to support an Oracle product.

Verify that any objects owned by custom DBA accounts are for the personal use of that DBA.

If any objects are used to support applications or any functions other than DBA functions, this is a finding.

Any unauthorized object owner accounts are not a finding under this check as they are noted as findings under check O121-C2-011000.

Any other accounts listed are a finding.

Fix

Disable any application object owner accounts.

From SQL*Plus:
alter user [username] account lock;

Enable application object owner accounts only for installation and maintenance.

DBAs are special purpose accounts and do not require disabling although they may own objects.

For application objects that require routine maintenance, e.g. index objects, to maintain performance, consider allowing a special purpose account to own the index or enable the application owner account for the duration of the routine maintenance function only.
V-61487 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-024100 Rule ID: SV-75977r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Developer roles must not be assigned DBMS administrative privileges to production DBMS application and data directories. The separation of production DBA and developer roles helps protect the production system from unauthorized, malicious or unintentional interruption due to development activities.

Checks

If the DBMS or DBMS host is not shared by production and development activities, this check is not a finding.

Review OS DBA group membership.

If any developer accounts, as identified in the System Security Plan, have been assigned DBA privileges, this is a finding.

Note: Though shared production/non-production DBMS installations was allowed under previous database STIG guidance, doing so may place it in violation of OS, Application, Network or Enclave STIG guidance. Ensure that any shared production/non-production DBMS installation meets STIG guidance requirements at all levels or mitigate any conflicts in STIG guidance with the AO.

Fix

Create separate DBMS host OS groups for developer and production DBAs.

Do not assign production DBA OS group membership to accounts used for development.

Remove development accounts from production DBA OS group membership.

Recommend establishing a dedicated DBMS host for production DBMS installations. A dedicated host system in this case refers to an instance of the operating system at a minimum. The operating system may reside on a virtual host machine where supported by the DBMS vendor.
V-61489 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-024200 Rule ID: SV-75979r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The DBMS installation account may be used by any authorized user to perform DBMS installation or maintenance. Without logging, accountability for actions attributed to the account is lost.

Checks

Review documented and implemented procedures for monitoring the use of the DBMS software installation account in the System Security Plan.

If use of this account is not monitored or procedures for monitoring its use do not exist or are incomplete, this is a finding.

Note: On Windows systems, The Oracle DBMS software is installed using an account with administrator privileges. Ownership should be reassigned to a dedicated OS account used to operate the DBMS software. If monitoring does not include all accounts with administrator privileges on the DBMS host, this is a finding.

Fix

Develop, document and implement a logging procedure for use of the DBMS software installation account that provides accountability to individuals for any actions taken by the account.

Host system audit logs should be included in the DBMS account usage log along with an indication of the person who accessed the account and an explanation for the access.

Ensure all accounts with administrator privileges are monitored for DBMS host on Windows OS platforms.
V-61491 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-024300 Rule ID: SV-75981r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The security of the data stored in the DBMS is also vulnerable to attacks against the host platform, calling applications, and other application or optional components.

Checks

If the DBMS host being reviewed is not a production DBMS host, this check is not a finding.

Review evidence of security hardening and auditing of the DBMS host platform with the ISSO.

If the DBMS host platform has not been hardened and received a security audit, this is a finding.

Review evidence of security hardening and auditing for all application(s) that store data in the database and all other separately configured components that access the database including web servers, application servers, report servers, etc.

If any have not been hardened and received a security audit, this is a finding.

Review evidence of security hardening and auditing for all application(s) installed on the local DBMS host where security hardening and auditing guidance exists.

If any have not been hardened and received a security audit, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure all related application components and the DBMS host platform in accordance with the applicable DoD STIG.

Regularly audit the security configuration of related applications and the host platform to confirm continued compliance with security requirements.
V-61493 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-024400 Rule ID: SV-75983r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Remote administrative access to systems provides a path for access to and exploit of DBA privileges. Where the risk has been accepted to allow remote administrative access, it is imperative to instate increased monitoring of this access to detect any abuse or compromise.

Checks

If remote administrative access to the database is prohibited and is disabled, this check is not a finding.

Review policy, procedure and evidence of implementation for monitoring of remote administrative access to the database.

If monitoring procedures for remote administrative access are not documented or implemented, this is a finding.

Fix

Develop, document and implement policy and procedures to monitor remote administrative access to the DBMS.

The automated generation of a log report with automatic dissemination to the ISSO/ISSM may be used.

Require and store an acknowledgement of receipt and confirmation of review for the log report.
V-61495 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-024500 Rule ID: SV-75985r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Databases often store critical and/or sensitive information used by the organization. For this reason, databases are targeted for attacks by malicious users. Additional protections provided by network defenses that limit accessibility help protect the database and its data from unnecessary exposure and risk.

Checks

Review the System Security Plan to determine if the DBMS serves data to users or applications outside the local enclave.

If the DBMS is not accessed outside of the local enclave, this check is not a finding.

If the DBMS serves applications available from a public network (e.g. the Internet), then confirm that the application servers are located in a DMZ.

If the DBMS is located inside the local enclave and is directly accessible to public users, this is a finding.

If the DBMS serves public-facing applications and is not protected from direct client connections and unauthorized networks, this is a finding.

If the DBMS serves public-facing applications and contains sensitive or classified information, this is a finding.

Fix

Do not allow direct connections from users originating from the Internet or other public network to the DBMS.

Include in the System Security Plan for the system whether the DBMS serves public-facing applications or applications serving users from other untrusted networks.

Do not store sensitive or classified data on a DBMS server that serves public-facing applications.
V-61497 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-024600 Rule ID: SV-75987r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Unauthorized assignment of DBA privileges can lead to a compromise of DBMS integrity. Providing oversight to the authorization and assignment of privileges provides the separation of duty to support sufficient oversight.

Checks

Review policy and procedures documented or noted in the System Security Plan as well as evidence of implementation for monitoring changes to DBA role assignments and procedures for notifying the ISSM of the changes for review.

If policy, procedures or implementation evidence do not exist, this is a finding.

Fix

Develop, document and implement procedures to monitor changes to DBA role assignments.

Develop, document and implement procedures to notify the ISSM of changes to DBA role assignments.

Include in the procedures methods that provide evidence of monitoring and notification.
V-61499 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-024700 Rule ID: SV-75989r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Updates and patches to existing software have the intention of improving the security or enhancing or adding features to the product. However, it is unfortunately common that updates or patches can render production systems inoperable or even introduce serious vulnerabilities. Some updates also set security configurations back to unacceptable settings that do not meet security requirements. For these reasons, it is a good practice to test updates and patches offline before introducing them in a production environment.

Checks

Review policy and procedures documented or noted in the System Security Plan and evidence of implementation for testing DBMS installations, upgrades and patches prior to production deployment.

If policy and procedures do not exist or evidence of implementation does not exist, this is a finding.

Fix

Develop, document and implement procedures for testing DBMS installations, upgrades and patches prior to deployment on production systems.
V-61501 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-024800 Rule ID: SV-75991r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Data export from production databases may include sensitive data. Application developers may not be cleared for or have need-to-know to sensitive data. Any access they may have to production data would be considered unauthorized access and subject the sensitive data to unlawful or unauthorized disclosure.

Checks

If the database being reviewed is not a production database or does not contain sensitive data, this check is not a finding.

Review documented policy, procedures and proof of implementation for restrictions placed on data exports from the production database.

Policy and procedures should include that only authorized users have access to DBMS export utilities and that export data is properly sanitized prior to import to a development database.

Policy and procedures may also include that developers be granted the necessary clearance and need-to-know prior to import of production data.

If documented policy, procedures and proof of implementation are not present or complete, this is a finding.

If methods to sanitize sensitive data are required and not documented or followed, this is a finding.

Fix

Develop, document and implement policy and procedures that provide restrictions for production data export.

Require users and administrators assigned privileges that allow the export of production data from a production database to acknowledge understanding of export restrictions.

Restrict permissions allowing use or access to database export procedures or functions to authorized users.

Ensure sensitive data from production is sanitized prior to import to a development database (See check O121-BP-023300.)

Grant access and need-to-know to developers where allowed by policy.
V-61503 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-024900 Rule ID: SV-75993r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

A DBMS that does not have the correct confidentiality level identified or any confidentiality level assigned is not being secured at a level appropriate to the risk it poses.

Checks

If no sensitive or classified data is stored in the database, listed in the System Security Plan and listed in the AIS Functional Architecture documentation, this check is not a finding.

Review AIS Functional Architecture documentation for the DBMS and note any sensitive data that is identified.

Review database table column data or descriptions that indicate sensitive data.

For example, a data column labeled "SSN" could indicate social security numbers are stored in the column.

Question the ISSO or DBA where any questions arise.

General categories of sensitive data requiring identification include any personal data (health, financial, social security number and date of birth), proprietary or financially sensitive business data or data that might be classified.

If any data is considered sensitive and is not documented in the AISFA, this is a finding.

Fix

Include identification of any sensitive data in the AIS Functional Architecture and the System Security Plan.

Include data that appear to be sensitive with a discussion as to why it is not marked as such.
V-61507 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-025200 Rule ID: SV-75997r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Credentials defined for access to remote databases or applications may provide unauthorized access to additional databases and applications to unauthorized or malicious users.

Checks

Review the list of defined database links generated from the DBMS.

Compare to the list in the System Security Plan with the DBA.

If no database links are listed in the database and in the System Security Plan, this check is not a finding.

If any database links are defined in the DBMS, verify the authorization for the definition in the System Security Plan.

If any database links exist that are not authorized or not listed in the System Security Plan, this is a finding.

Fix

Grant access to database links to authorized users or applications only.

Document all database links access authorizations in the System Security Plan.
V-61509 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-025300 Rule ID: SV-75999r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The Security Support Structure is a security control function or service provided by an external system or application. An example of this would be a Windows domain controller that provides identification and authentication that can be used by other systems to control access. The associated risk of a DBMS installed on a system that provides security support is significantly higher than when installed on separate systems. In cases where the DBMS is dedicated to local support of a security support function (e.g. a directory service), separation may not be possible.

Checks

Review the services and processes active on the DBMS host system.

If the host system is a Windows domain controller, this is a finding.

If the host system is supporting any other security or directory services that do not use the DBMS to store information, this is a finding.

Note: This does not include client security applications like firewall and antivirus software.

Fix

Either move the DBMS installation to a dedicated host system or move the directory or security services to another host system.

A dedicated host system in this case refers to an instance of the operating system at a minimum.

The operating system may reside on a virtual host machine where supported by the DBMS vendor.
V-61511 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-025400 Rule ID: SV-76001r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The DBMS software libraries contain the executables used by the DBMS to operate. Unauthorized access to the libraries can result in malicious alteration or planting of operational executables. This may in turn jeopardize data stored in the DBMS and/or operation of the host system.

Checks

For UNIX Systems:

log on using the Oracle software owner account and enter the command:

umask

If the value returned is 022 or more restrictive, this is not a finding.

If the value returned is less restrictive than 022, this is a finding.

The first number sets the mask for user/owner file permissions. The second number sets the mask for group file permissions. The third number sets file permission mask for other users. The list below shows the available settings:

0 = read/write/execute
1 = read/write
2 = read/execute
3 = read
4 = write/execute
5 = write
6 = execute
7 = no permissions

Setting the umask to 022 effectively sets files for user/owner to read/write, group to read and other to read. Directories are set for user/owner to read/write/execute, group to read/execute and other to read/execute.

For Windows Systems:
Review the permissions that control access to the Oracle installation software directories (e.g. \Program Files\Oracle\).

DBA accounts, the DBMS process account, the DBMS software installation/maintenance account, SA accounts if access by them is required for some operational level of support such as backups, and the host system itself require access.

Compare the access control employed with that documented in the System Security Plan.

If access controls do not match the documented requirement, this is a finding.

If access controls appear excessive without justification, this is a finding.

Fix

For UNIX Systems:

Set the umask of the Oracle software owner account to 022. Determine the shell being used for the Oracle software owner account:

env | grep -i shell

Startup files for each shell are as follows (located in users $HOME directory):

C-Shell (CSH) = .cshrc
Bourne Shell (SH) = .profile
Korn Shell (KSH) = .kshrc
TC Shell (TCS) = .tcshrc
BASH Shell = .bash_profile or .bashrc

Edit the shell startup file for the account and add or modify the line:

umask 022

Log off and logon, then enter the umask command to confirm the setting.

Note: To effect this change for all Oracle processes, a reboot of the DBMS server may be required.

For Windows Systems:
Restrict access to the DBMS software libraries to the fewest accounts that clearly require access based on job function.

Document authorized access controls and justify any access grants that do not fall under DBA, DBMS process, ownership, or SA accounts.
V-61513 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-025500 Rule ID: SV-76003r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Replication accounts may be used to access databases defined for the replication architecture. An exploit of a replication on one database could lead to the compromise of any database participating in the replication that uses the same account name and credentials. If the replication account is compromised and it has DBA privileges, the database is at additional risk to unauthorized or malicious action.

Checks

If a review of the System Security Plan confirms the use of replication is not required, not permitted and the database is not configured for replication, this check is not a finding.

If any replication accounts are assigned DBA roles or roles with DBA privileges, this is a finding.

Fix

Restrict privileges assigned to replication accounts to the fewest possible privileges.

Remove DBA roles from replication accounts.

Create and use custom replication accounts assigned least privileges for supporting replication operations.
V-61515 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-025600 Rule ID: SV-76005r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Restricting remote access to specific, trusted systems helps prevent access by unauthorized and potentially malicious users.

Checks

IP address restriction may be defined for the database listener, by use of the Oracle Connection Manager or by an external network device.

Identify the method used to enforce address restriction (interview or System Security Plan review).

If enforced by the database listener, then review the SQLNET.ORA file located in the ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory (note: this assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use; please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files) or the directory indicated by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable or registry setting.

If the following entries do not exist, then restriction by IP address is not configured and is a finding.

tcp.validnode_checking=YES
tcp.invited_nodes=(IP1, IP2, IP3)

If enforced by an Oracle Connection Manager, then review the CMAN.ORA file for the Connection Manager (located in the TNS_ADMIN or ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory for the connection manager).

If a RULE entry allows all addresses ("/32") or does not match the address range specified in the System Security Plan, this is a finding.

(rule=(src=[IP]/27)(dst=[IP])(srv=*)(act=accept))

Note: an IP address with a "/" indicates acceptance by subnet mask where the number after the "/" is the left most number of bits in the address that must match for the rule to apply.

If this rule is database-specific, then determine if the SERVICE_NAMES parameter is set:

From SQL*PLUS:

select value from v$parameter where name = 'service_names';

If SERVICE_NAMES is set in the initialization file for the database instance, use (srv=[service name]), else, use (srv=*) if not set or rule applies to all databases on the DBMS server.

If network access restriction is performed by an external device, validate ACLs are in place to prohibit unauthorized access to the DBMS. To do this, find the IP address of the database server (destination address) and source address (authorized IPs) in the System Security Plan. Confirm only authorized IPs from the System Security Plan are allowed access to the DBMS.

Fix

Configure the database listener to restrict access by IP address or set up an external device to restrict network access to the DBMS.
V-61519 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-025800 Rule ID: SV-76009r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS parameter is used to enable auditing of actions taken by the user SYS. The SYS user account is a shared account by definition and holds all privileges in the Oracle database. It is the account accessed by users connecting to the database with SYSDBA or SYSOPER privileges.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select value from v$parameter where name = 'audit_sys_operations';

If the value returned is FALSE, this is a finding.

Fix

From SQL*Plus:

alter system set audit_sys_operations = TRUE scope = spfile;

The above SQL*Plus command will set the parameter to take effect at next system startup.
V-61523 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-026000 Rule ID: SV-76013r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Remote administration may expose configuration and sensitive data to unauthorized viewing during transit across the network or allow unauthorized administrative access to the DBMS to remote users.

For the purposes of this STIG, "Remote" means "outside the DoDIN." However, use of an approved and properly configured VPN counts as inside the DoDIN.

Checks

Review the System Security Plan for authorization, assignments and usage procedures for remote DBMS administration.

If remote administration of the DBMS is not documented or poorly documented, this is a finding.

If remote administration of the DBMS is not authorized and not disabled, this is a finding.

If remote administration is to be performed from outside the DoDIN, but is not done via an approved and properly configured VPN, this is a finding.

Fix

Disable remote administration of the DBMS where not required.

Where remote administration of the DBMS is required, develop, document and implement policy and procedures on its use.

Assign remote administration privileges to ISSO-authorized personnel only.

Document assignments in the System Security Plan.

Where remote administration is to be performed from outside the DoDIN, configure an approved VPN client for this purpose.
V-61525 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-026100 Rule ID: SV-76015r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Symmetric keys used for encryption protect data from unauthorized access. However, if not protected in accordance with acceptable standards, the keys themselves may be compromised and used for unauthorized data access.

Checks

If the symmetric key management procedures and configuration settings for the DBMS are not specified in the System Security Plan, this is a finding.

If the procedures are not followed, with evidence for audit, this is a finding.

Note: This check does not include a review of the key management procedures for validity. Specific key management requirements may be covered under separate checks.

Fix

Implement the following for symmetric and other encryption keys:
- protection from unauthorized access in transit and in storage
- utilization of accepted algorithms
- generation in accordance with required standards for the key's use
- expiration date
- continuity - key backup and recovery
- key change
- archival key storage (as necessary)

Details for key management requirements are provided by FIPS 140-2 key management standards available from NIST.
V-61527 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-026200 Rule ID: SV-76017r4_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Some DBMS systems provide the feature to assign security labels to data elements. If labeling is required, implementation options include the Oracle Label Security package, or a third-party product, or custom-developed functionality. The confidentiality and integrity of the data depends upon the security label assignment where this feature is in use. Changes to security label assignment may indicate suspicious activity.

Checks

If no data is identified as being sensitive or classified by the Information Owner, in the System Security Plan or in the AIS Functional Architecture documentation, this is not a finding.

If security labeling is not required, this is not a finding.

If Standard Auditing is used, run the SQL query:

select * from dba_sa_audit_options;

If no records are returned or if output from the SQL statement above does not show classification labels being audited as required in the System Security Plan, this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data including changes to security label assignment, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SELECT 'Changes to security label assignment is not being audited. '
FROM dual
WHERE (SELECT Count(*)
FROM (select policy_name , audit_option from audit_unified_policies
WHERE audit_option = 'ALL'
AND audit_option_type = 'OLS ACTION'
AND policy_name in (select policy_name from audit_unified_enabled_policies where user_name='ALL USERS'))) = 0
OR (SELECT value
FROM v$option
WHERE parameter = 'Unified Auditing') != 'TRUE';

If Oracle returns "no rows selected", this is not a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing sufficient information to establish that changes to classification labels are being audited, perform a successful auditable action and an auditable action that results in an SQL error, and then view the results in the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view.

If no ACTION#, or the wrong value, is returned for the auditable actions, this is a finding.

Fix

Define the policy for auditing changes to security labels defined for the data.

Document the audit requirements in the System Security Plan and configure database auditing in accordance with the policy.

If using Standard Auditing:
If there is no Unified Auditing policy deployed to audit changes to security labels, the create one using the following syntax:
SA_AUDIT_ADMIN.AUDIT (
policy_name IN VARCHAR2,
users IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL,
audit_option IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL,
audit_type IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL,
success IN VARCHAR2 DEFAULT NULL);

For additional information on creating audit policies, refer to the Oracle Database Security Guide
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/OLSAG/packages.htm#i1011868

If Unified Auditing is used:
To ensure auditable events are captured:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database. Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing.
Reference V-61625 for information on how to configure a policy to audit changes to security label assignments.

For additional information on creating audit policies, refer to the Oracle Database Security Guide
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/audit_config.htm#CHDGBAAC
V-61529 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-026300 Rule ID: SV-76019r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The Oracle GLOBAL_NAMES parameter is used to set the requirement for database link names to be the same name as the remote database whose connection they define. By using the same name for both, ambiguity is avoided and unauthorized or unintended connections to remote databases are less likely.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select value from v$parameter where name = 'global_names';

If the value returned is FALSE, this is a finding.

Fix

From SQL*Plus:

alter system set global_names = TRUE scope = spfile;

Note: This parameter, if changed, will affect all currently defined Oracle database links.

The above SQL*Plus command will set the parameter to take effect at next system startup.
V-61531 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-026400 Rule ID: SV-76021r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

/diag indicates the directory where trace, alert, core and incident directories and files are located. The files may contain sensitive data or information that could prove useful to potential attackers.

Checks

From SQL*Plus:

select value from v$parameter where name='diagnostic_dest';

On UNIX Systems:

ls -ld [pathname]/diag

Substitute [pathname] with the directory path listed from the above SQL command, and append "/diag" to it, as shown.

If permissions are granted for world access, this is a Finding.

If any groups that include members other than the Oracle process and software owner accounts, DBAs, auditors, or backup accounts are listed, this is a Finding.

On Windows Systems (From Windows Explorer):

Browse to the \diag directory under the directory specified.

Select and right-click on the directory, select Properties, select the Security tab.

If permissions are granted to everyone, this is a Finding.

If any account other than the Oracle process and software owner accounts, Administrators, DBAs, System group or developers authorized to write and debug applications on this database are listed, this is a Finding.

Fix

Alter host system permissions to the <DIAGNOSTIC_DEST>/diag directory to the Oracle process and software owner accounts, DBAs, SAs (if required) and developers or other users that may specifically require access for debugging or other purposes.

Authorize and document user access requirements to the directory outside of the Oracle, DBA and SA account list.
V-61533 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-026500 Rule ID: SV-76023r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Remote administration provides a potential opportunity for malicious users to make unauthorized changes to the Connection Manager configuration or interrupt its service.

Checks

View the cman.ora file in the ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory.

If the file does not exist, the database is not accessed via Oracle Connection Manager and this check is not a finding.

If the entry and value for REMOTE_ADMIN is not listed or is not set to a value of NO (REMOTE_ADMIN = NO), this is a finding.

Fix

View the cman.ora file in the ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory of the Connection Manager.

Include the following line in the file:

REMOTE_ADMIN = NO
V-61535 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-026600 Rule ID: SV-76025r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Unsupported Oracle network client installations may introduce vulnerabilities to the database. Restriction to use of supported versions helps to protect the database and helps to enforce newer, more robust security controls.

Checks

Note: The SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION parameter is deprecated in Oracle Database 12c. This parameter has been replaced with two new Oracle Net Services parameters:

SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION_SERVER
SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION_CLIENT

View the SQLNET.ORA file in the ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory or the directory specified in the TNS_ADMIN environment variable. (Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.)

Locate the following entries:

SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION_SERVER = 11
SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION_CLIENT=11

If the parameters do not exist, this is a finding.

If the parameters are not set to a value of 11 or higher, this is a finding.

Note: Attempting to connect with a client version lower than specified in these parameters may result in a misleading error:
ORA-01017: invalid username/password: logon denied

Fix

Edit the SQLNET.ORA file to add or edit the entries:

SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION_SERVER = 11
SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION_CLIENT=11

Set the value to 11 or higher.
Valid values for SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION_SERVER are: 8,9,10,11,12 and 12a

Valid values for SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION_CLIENT are: 8,10,11,12 and 12a

For more information on sqlnet.ora parameters refer to the following document:
"Database Net Services Reference"
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/NETRF/sqlnet.htm#NETRF006
V-61537 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C1-004500 Rule ID: SV-76027r1_rule Severity: high CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

This requirement is intended to limit exposure due to operating from within a privileged account or role. The inclusion of role is intended to address those situations where an access control policy, such as Role Based Access Control (RBAC), is being implemented and where a change of role provides the same degree of assurance in the change of access authorizations for both the user and all processes acting on behalf of the user as would be provided by a change between a privileged and non-privileged account.

DBAs, if assigned excessive OS privileges, could perform actions that could endanger the information system or hide evidence of malicious activity.

Checks

Review host system privileges assigned to the Oracle DBA group and all individual Oracle DBA accounts.

Note: do not include the Oracle software installation account in any results for this check.

For UNIX systems (as root):
cat /etc/group | grep -i dba
groups root

If "root" is returned in the first list, this is a finding.

If any accounts listed in the first list are also listed in the second list, this is a finding.

Investigate any user account group memberships other than DBA or root groups that are returned by the following command (also as root):

groups [dba user account]

Replace [dba user account] with the user account name of each DBA account.

If individual DBA accounts are assigned to groups that grant access or privileges for purposes other than DBA responsibilities, this is a finding.

For Windows Systems (click or select):
Start / Settings / Control Panel / Administrative Tools / Computer Management / Local Users and Groups / Groups / ORA_DBA
Start / Settings / Control Panel / Administrative Tools / Computer Management / Local Users and Groups / Groups / ORA_[SID]_DBA (if present)

Note: Users assigned DBA privileges on a Windows host are granted membership in the ORA_DBA and/or ORA_[SID]_DBA groups. The ORA_DBA group grants DBA privileges to any database on the system. The ORA_[SID]_DBA groups grant DBA privileges to specific Oracle instances only.

Make a note of each user listed. For each user (click or select):
Start / Settings / Control Panel / Administrative Tools / Computer Management / Local Users and Groups / Users / [DBA user name] / Member of

If DBA users belong to any groups other than DBA groups and the Windows Users group, this is a finding.

Examine User Rights assigned to DBA groups or group members:
Start / Settings / Control Panel / Administrative Tools / Local Security Policy / Security Settings / Local Policies / User Rights Assignments

If any User Rights are assigned directly to the DBA group(s) or DBA user accounts, this is a finding.

Fix

Revoke all host system privileges from the DBA group accounts and DBA user accounts not required for DBMS administration.

Revoke all OS group memberships that assign excessive privileges to the DBA group accounts and DBA user accounts.

Remove any directly applied permissions or user rights from the DBA group accounts and DBA user accounts.

Document all DBA group accounts and individual DBA account-assigned privileges in the System Security Plan.
V-61539 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C1-011100 Rule ID: SV-76029r2_rule Severity: high CCI: CCI-001499

Discussion

Security faults with software applications and operating systems are discovered daily. Vendors are constantly updating and patching their products to address newly discovered security vulnerabilities. Organizations (including any contractor to the organization) are required to promptly install security-relevant software updates (e.g., patches, service packs, and hot fixes). Flaws discovered during security assessments, continuous monitoring, incident response activities, or information system error handling, must also be addressed expeditiously.

Anytime new software code is introduced to a system there is the potential for unintended consequences. There have been documented instances where the application of a patch has caused problems with system integrity or availability. Due to information system integrity and availability concerns, organizations must give careful consideration to the methodology used to carry out automatic updates.

Unsupported software versions are not patched by vendors to address newly discovered security versions. An unpatched version is vulnerable to attack.

Checks

When the Quarterly CPU is released, check the CPU Notice and note the specific patch number for the system.

Then, issue the following command:

SELECT patch_id, version, action, status, description from dba_registry_sqlpatch;

This will generate the patch levels for the home and any specific patches that have been applied to it.

If the currently installed patch levels are lower than the latest, this is a finding.

Fix

Follow the process below to apply the security patch.

Log on to My Oracle Support.

Select patches and download the specific patch number and corresponding MD5 checksum. Once the patch is downloaded to the server, check the MD5 checksum to make sure the patch is valid.

To check the MD5 Checksum in Linux/UNIX, the command is:
$md5sum absolute_path_of_file_name - file_name is the complete location of the downloaded file.
$md5sum /home/oracle/test.zip
a34d8cd98f00cf24e9800998ecf823e4 /home/oracle/test.zip

Once the checksum is validated, apply the patch:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME
$ opatch apply

Check that the patch was applied and the inventory was updated with the following command (UNIX/Linux):
$ opatch lsinventory -detail

Windows:
> opatch lsinventory –detail
V-61541 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C1-015000 Rule ID: SV-76031r1_rule Severity: high CCI: CCI-000199

Discussion

Password maximum lifetime is the maximum period of time, (typically in days) a user's password may be in effect before the user is forced to change it.

Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals as per policy. Any password, no matter how complex, can eventually be cracked.

One method of minimizing this risk is to use complex passwords and periodically change them. If the application does not limit the lifetime of passwords and force users to change their passwords, there is the risk that the system and/or application passwords could be compromised.

DBMS default passwords provide a commonly known and exploited means for unauthorized access to database installations.

Checks

Use this query to identify the Oracle-supplied accounts that still have their default passwords:
SELECT * FROM SYS.DBA_USERS_WITH_DEFPWD;

If any accounts other than XS$NULL are listed, this is a finding.

(XS$NULL is an internal account that represents the absence of a user in a session. Because XS$NULL is not a user, this account can only be accessed by the Oracle Database instance. XS$NULL has no privileges and no one can authenticate as XS$NULL, nor can authentication credentials ever be assigned to XS$NULL.)

Fix

Change passwords for DBMS accounts to non-default values. Where necessary, unlock or enable accounts to change the password, and then return the account to disabled or locked status.
V-61543 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C1-015400 Rule ID: SV-76033r3_rule Severity: high CCI: CCI-000186

Discussion

The cornerstone of the PKI is the private key used to encrypt or digitally sign information.

If the private key is stolen, this will lead to the compromise of the authentication and non-repudiation gained through PKI because the attacker can use the private key to digitally sign documents and can pretend to be the authorized user.

Both the holders of a digital certificate and the issuing authority must protect the computers, storage devices, or whatever they use to keep the private keys.

All access to the private key of the DBMS must be restricted to authorized and authenticated users. If unauthorized users have access to the DBMS’s private key, an attacker could gain access to the primary key and use it to impersonate the database on the network.

Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the successor protocol to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Although the Oracle configuration parameters have names including 'SSL', such as SSL_VERSION and SSL_CIPHER_SUITES, they refer to TLS.

Checks

If PKI is not enabled in Oracle Database, this is not a finding.

Review DBMS configuration to determine whether appropriate access controls exist to protect the DBMS’s private key. If strong access controls do not exist to enforce authorized access to the private key, this is a finding.

- - - - -
The database supports authentication by using digital certificates over TLS in addition to the native encryption and data integrity capabilities of these protocols.

An Oracle Wallet is a container that is used to store authentication and signing credentials, including private keys, certificates, and trusted certificates needed by TLS. In an Oracle environment, every entity that communicates over TLS must have a wallet containing an X.509 version 3 certificate, private key, and list of trusted certificates, with the exception of Diffie-Hellman.

If the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora contains the following entries, TLS is installed. (Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.)

WALLET_LOCATION = (SOURCE=
(METHOD = FILE)
(METHOD_DATA =
DIRECTORY=/wallet)

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES=(SSL_cipher_suiteExample)
SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=FALSE/TRUE

Note: "SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1" is the actual value, not a suggestion to use one or the other.

Fix

Implement strong access and authentication controls to protect the database’s private key.

Configure the database to support Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols and the Oracle Wallet to store authentication and signing credentials, including private keys.
V-61545 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C1-019700 Rule ID: SV-76035r5_rule Severity: high CCI: CCI-002421

Discussion

Preventing the disclosure of transmitted information requires that applications take measures to employ some form of cryptographic mechanism in order to protect the information during transmission. This is usually achieved through the use of Transport Layer Security (TLS), SSL VPN, or IPSEC tunnel.

Alternative physical protection measures include Protected Distribution Systems (PDS). PDS are used to transmit unencrypted classified NSI through an area of lesser classification or control. Inasmuch as the classified NSI is unencrypted, the PDS must provide adequate electrical, electromagnetic, and physical safeguards to deter exploitation. Refer to NSTSSI No. 7003 for additional details on a PDS.

Information in transmission is particularly vulnerable to attack. If the DBMS does not employ cryptographic mechanisms preventing unauthorized disclosure of information during transit, the information may be compromised.

SHA-1 is in the process of being removed from service within the DoD and it's use is to be limited during the transition to SHA-2. Use of SHA-1 for digital signature generation is prohibited. Allowable uses during the transition include CHECKSUM usage and verification of legacy certificate signatures. SHA-1 is considered a temporary solution during legacy application transitionary periods and should not be engineered into new applications. SHA-2 is the path forward for DoD.

Checks

Check DBMS settings to determine whether cryptographic mechanisms are used to prevent the unauthorized disclosure of information during transmission. Determine whether physical measures are being used instead of cryptographic mechanisms. If neither cryptographic nor physical measures are being utilized, this is a finding.

To check that network encryption is enabled and using site-specified encryption procedures, look in SQLNET.ORA located at $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora. (Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.) If encryption is set, entries like the following will be present:

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT= (SHA384)
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER= (SHA384)
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT= (AES256)

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER= (AES256)
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT = requested
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER = required

(The values assigned to the parameters may be different, the combination of parameters may be different, and not all of the example parameters will necessarily exist in the file.)

Fix

Configure DBMS and/or operating system to use cryptographic mechanisms to prevent unauthorized disclosure of information during transmission where physical measures are not being utilized.
V-61553 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-001600 Rule ID: SV-76043r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002186

Discussion

Remote access is any access to an organizational information system by a user (or an information system) communicating through an external, non-organization-controlled network (e.g., the Internet). Examples of remote access methods include dial-up, broadband, and wireless.

Remote network and system access is accomplished by leveraging common communication protocols to establish a remote connection. These connections will typically originate over either the public Internet or the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Neither of these internetworking mechanisms is private or secure and they do not by default restrict access to networked resources once connectivity is established.

Numerous best practices are employed to protect remote connections, such as utilizing encryption to protect data sessions and firewalls to restrict and control network connectivity. In addition to these protections, auditing must also be utilized in order to track system activity, assist in diagnosing system issues, and provide evidence needed for forensic investigations after a security incident.

When organizations define security-related application functions or security-related application information, it is incumbent upon the application providing access to that data to ensure auditing of remote connectivity to those resources occurs in support of organizational requirements

Remote access to security functions (e.g., user management, audit log management, etc.) and security-relevant information requires the activity be audited by the organization. Any application providing remote access must support organizational requirements to audit access or organization-defined security functions and security-relevant information.

Database security features accessed through remote methods must be audited to ensure the access is authorized and appropriate.

Checks

Verify, using vendor and system documentation if necessary, that the DBMS is configured to use Oracle's auditing features, or that a third-party product or custom code is deployed and configured to satisfy this requirement.

If a third-party product or custom code is used, compare its current configuration with the audit requirements. If any of the requirements is not covered by the configuration, this is a finding.

The remainder of this Check is applicable specifically where Oracle auditing is in use.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL
or the following SQL query:
SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';
If Oracle returns the value 'NONE', this is a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing information on the required events, review the contents of the SYS.AUD$ table or the audit file, whichever is in use. If auditable events are not listed, this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SELECT * FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Unified Auditing';
If Oracle returns the value 'TRUE', this is not a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing information on the required events, review the contents of the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view. If auditable events are not listed, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the DBMS's auditing to audit organization-defined auditable events. If preferred, use a third-party tool. The tool must provide the minimum capability to audit the required events.

If using a third-party product, proceed in accordance with the product documentation. If using Oracle's capabilities, proceed as follows.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:
ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=<audit trail type> SCOPE=SPFILE;
Audit trail type can be 'OS', 'DB', 'DB,EXTENDED', 'XML' or 'XML,EXTENDED'.
After executing this statement, it may be necessary to shut down and restart the Oracle database.

If the site-specific audit requirements are not covered by the default audit options, deploy and configure Fine-Grained Auditing. For details, refer to Oracle documentation at the locations below.

If Unified Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database. Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810

If the site-specific audit requirements are not covered by the default audit options, deploy and configure Fine-Grained Auditing. For details, refer to Oracle documentation at the locations above.
V-61555 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-001700 Rule ID: SV-76045r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

This requirement is related to remote access, but more specifically to the networking protocols allowing systems to communicate. Remote access is any access to an organizational information system by a user (or an information system) communicating through an external, non-organization controlled network (e.g., the Internet). Examples of remote access methods include dial-up, broadband, and wireless.

Some networking protocols allowing remote access may not meet security requirements to protect data and components. Bluetooth and peer-to-peer networking are examples of less than secure networking protocols.

The DoD Ports, Protocols, and Services Management (PPSM) program provides implementation guidance on the use of IP protocols and application and data services traversing the DoD Networks in a manner supporting net-centric operations.

Applications implementing or utilizing remote access network protocols need to ensure the application is developed and implemented in accordance with the PPSM requirements. In situations where it has been determined that specific operational requirements outweigh the risks of enabling an insecure network protocol, the organization may pursue a risk acceptance.

Using protocols deemed nonsecure would compromise the ability of the DBMS to operate in a secure fashion. The database must be able to disable network protocols deemed nonsecure.

Checks

Review the PPSM Technical Assurance List to acquire an up-to-date list of network protocols deemed nonsecure.
(For definitive information on Ports, Protocols and Services Management (PPSM), refer to http://www.disa.mil/Services/Network-Services/Enterprise-Connections/PPSM)

Review DBMS settings to determine if the database is utilizing any network protocols deemed nonsecure. If the DBMS is not using any network protocols deemed nonsecure, this is not a finding.

If the database is utilizing protocols specified as nonsecure in the PPSM, verify the protocols are explicitly identified in the System Security Plan and that they are in support of specific operational requirements. If they are not identified in the SSP or are not supporting specific operational requirements, this is a finding.

If nonsecure network protocols are not being used but are not disabled in the DBMS's configuration, this is a finding.

After determining the site-specific operational requirements and which protocols are explicitly defined in the System Security Plan, check the $TNS_ADMIN setting for the location of the Oracle listener.ora file. The listener.ora file is a configuration file for Oracle Net Listener that identifies the following:

A unique name for the listener, typically LISTENER
A protocol address that it is accepting connection requests on, and
A service it is listening for.

If the listener.ora file shows a PROTOCOL= statement and the PROTOCOL is deemed nonsecure, that is a finding.

LISTENER=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sale-server)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=extproc))))
SID_LIST_LISTENER=
(SID_LIST=
(SID_DESC=
(GLOBAL_DBNAME=sales.us.example.com)
(ORACLE_HOME=/oracle12c)
(SID_NAME=sales))
(SID_DESC=
(SID_NAME=plsextproc)
(ORACLE_HOME=/oracle12c)
(PROGRAM=extproc)))

Protocol Parameters

The Oracle Listener and the Oracle Connection Manager are identified by protocol addresses. The information below contains the "Protocol-Specific Parameters" used by the Oracle protocol support.

Protocol-Specific Parameters

Protocol: IPC Parameter: PROTOCOL Notes: Specify ipc as the value.
Protocol: IPC Parameter: KEY Notes: Specify a unique name for the service. Oracle recommends using the service name or SID of the service.
Example: (PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=sales)

Protocol: Named Pipes Parameter: PROTOCOL Notes: Specify nmp as the value.
Protocol: Named Pipes Parameter: SERVER Notes: Specify the name of the Oracle server.
Protocol: Named Pipes Parameter: PIPE Notes: Specify the pipe name used to connect to the database server.
This is the same PIPE keyword specified on the server with Named Pipes. This name can be any name.
Example: (Protocol=nmp) (SERVER=USDOD) (PIPE=dbpipe01)

Protocol: SDP Parameter: PROTOCOL Notes: Specify sdp as the value.
Protocol: SDP Parameter: HOST Notes: Specify the host name or IP address of the computer.
Protocol: SDP Parameter: PORT Notes: Specify the listening port number.
Example: (PROTOCOL=sdp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)
(PROTOCOL=sdp)(HOST=192.168.2.204)(PORT=1521)

Protocol: TCP/IP Parameter: PROTOCOL Notes: Specify TCP as the value.
Protocol: TCP/IP Parameter: HOST Notes: Specify the host name or IP address of the computer.
Protocol: TCP/IP Parameter: PORT Notes: Specify the listening port number.
Example: (PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521)
(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=192.168.2.204)(PORT=1521)

Protocol: TCP/IP with TLS Parameter: PROTOCOL Notes: Specify tcps as the value.
Protocol: TCP/IP with TLS Parameter: HOST Notes: Specify the host name or IP address of the computer.
Protocol: TCP/IP with TLS Parameter: PORT Notes: Specify the listening port number.
Example:(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=sales-server) (PORT=2484)
(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=192.168.2.204)(PORT=2484)

Fix

Disable any network protocol listed as nonsecure in the PPSM documentation.

To disable the protocol deemed not secure, stop the listener by issuing the following command as the Oracle Software owner, typically Oracle.
$ lsnrctl stop
This will stop the listener. Edit the LISTENER.ORA file and remove the protocols deemed not secure and restart the listener.

For example, if TCP was deemed as not secure, the listener.ora would need to be changed and the tcp entry would need to be removed. That would only allow the listener to listen for an IPC connection.

LISTENER=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sale-server)(PORT=1521)) - remove this line and properly balance the parentheses -
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=extproc))))
SID_LIST_LISTENER=
(SID_LIST=
(SID_DESC=
(GLOBAL_DBNAME=sales.us.example.com)
(ORACLE_HOME=/oracle12c)
(SID_NAME=sales))
(SID_DESC=
(SID_NAME=plsextproc)
(ORACLE_HOME=/oracle12c)
(PROGRAM=extproc)))

Revise the client side TNSNAMES.ORA to align the PROTOCOL value in the PROTOCOL portion of the connect string. For example, if TCP was deemed as not secure and the listener.ora was changed to listen for an IPC connection the code below would be required:

net_service_name=
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales1-svr)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales2-svr)(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.example.com)))
V-61557 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-001800 Rule ID: SV-76047r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000015

Discussion

A comprehensive application account management process that includes automation helps to ensure accounts designated as requiring attention are consistently and promptly addressed. Examples include, but are not limited to, using automation to take action on multiple accounts designated as inactive, suspended, or terminated, or by disabling accounts located in non-centralized account stores, such as multiple servers.

Enterprise environments make application user account management challenging and complex. A user management process requiring administrators to manually address account management functions adds risk of potential oversight.

Automated mechanisms may be comprised of differing technologies that when placed together contain an overall automated mechanism supporting an organization's automated account management requirements.

Databases can have large numbers of users in disparate locations and job functions. Automatic account management can help mitigate the risk of human error found in manually managing database access.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Checks

If all user accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

If an Oracle feature/product, an OS feature, a third-party product, or custom code is used to automate account management, this is not a finding.

Determine what the site-defined definition of an acceptably small level of manual account-management activity is. If the site has established the definition, documented it, and obtained ISSO-ISSM-AO approval, use that definition. If not, use the following rule of thumb as the definition: no more than 12 such accounts exist or are expected to exist; no more than 100 manual account-management actions (account creation, modification, locking, unlocking, removal and the like) are expected to occur in the course of a year.

If the amount of account management activity is small, as defined in the preceding paragraph, this is not a finding.

Otherwise, this is a finding.

Fix

Utilize an Oracle feature/product, an OS feature, a third-party product, or custom code to automate some or all account maintenance functionality.

- - - - -

Roles and Profiles are two Oracle features that should be employed in account management. (Indeed, other requirements mandate the use of Roles.) Following are some notes from Oracle on the use of Profiles.

A profile is a named set of resource limits and password parameters that restrict database usage and instance resources for a user. You can assign a profile to each user, and a default profile to all others. Each user can have only one profile, and creating a new one supersedes any earlier one.

Profile resource limits are enforced only when you enable resource limitation for the associated database. Enabling such limitation can occur either before starting up the database (the RESOURCE_LIMIT initialization parameter) or while it is open (using an ALTER SYSTEM statement).

While password parameters reside in profiles, they are unaffected by RESOURCE_LIMIT or ALTER SYSTEM and password management is always enabled.
V-61559 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-001900 Rule ID: SV-76049r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000016

Discussion

Temporary application accounts could be used in the event of a vendor support visit where a support representative requires a temporary unique account in order to perform diagnostic testing or conduct some other support-related activity. When these types of accounts are created, there is a risk that the temporary account may remain in place and active after the support representative has left.

To address this, in the event temporary application accounts are required, the application must ensure accounts designated as temporary in nature shall automatically terminate these accounts after an organization-defined time period. Such a process and capability greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be misused, hijacked, or data compromised.

Note that user authentication and account management should be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Temporary database accounts must be identified in order for the system to recognize and terminate them after a given time period. The DBMS and any administrators must have a means to recognize any temporary accounts for special handling.

Checks

If the organization has a policy, consistently enforced, forbidding the creation of emergency or temporary accounts, this is not a finding.

If all user accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

If using database mechanisms to satisfy this requirement, look for a profile for use with temporary accounts. To obtain a list of profiles:
SELECT PROFILE#, NAME FROM SYS.PROFNAME$;

To obtain a list of users assigned a given profile (TEMPORARY_USERS, in this example):
SELECT USERNAME, PROFILE FROM SYS.DBA_USERS
WHERE PROFILE = 'TEMPORARY_USERS'
ORDER BY USERNAME;

If no profile for temporary accounts can be identified, this is not a finding.

Fix

Use a profile with a distinctive name (for example, TEMPORARY_USERS), so that temporary users can be easily identified. Whenever a temporary user account is created, assign it to this profile.

To enable resource limiting via profiles, use the SQL statement:
ALTER SYSTEM SET RESOURCE_LIMIT = TRUE;

Set values in the profile as needed for temporary users - see below for further information. The values here are examples; set them to values appropriate to the situation:

CREATE PROFILE TEMPORARY_USERS
LIMIT
SESSIONS_PER_USER <limit>
CPU_PER_SESSION <limit>
CPU_PER_CALL <limit>
CONNECT_TIME <limit>
LOGICAL_READS_PER_SESSION DEFAULT
LOGICAL_READS_PER_CALL <limit>
PRIVATE_SGA <limit>
COMPOSITE_LIMIT <limit>
FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 3
PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 7
PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME 60
PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX 5
PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION ORA12c_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION
PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME UNLIMITED
PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME 3;
CREATE USER <username> IDENTIFIED BY <password> PROFILE TEMPORARY_USERS;

Resource Parameters:

COMPOSITE_LIMIT - Specify the total resource cost for a session, expressed in service units. Oracle Database calculates the total service units as a weighted sum of CPU_PER_SESSION, CONNECT_TIME,
LOGICAL_READS_PER_SESSION, and PRIVATE_SGA.

SESSIONS_PER_USER - Specify the number of concurrent sessions to limit the user to.

CPU_PER_SESSION - Specify the CPU time limit for a session, expressed in hundredths of seconds.

CPU_PER_CALL - Specify the CPU time limit for a call (a parse, execute, or fetch), expressed in hundredths of seconds.

LOGICAL_READS_PER_SESSION - Specify the permitted number of data blocks read in a session, including blocks read from memory and disk.

LOGICAL_READS_PER_CALL - Specify the permitted number of data blocks read for a call to process a SQL statement (a parse, execute, or fetch).

PRIVATE_SGA - Specify the amount of private space a session can allocate in the shared pool of the system global area (SGA). Refer to size_clause for information on that clause.

CONNECT_TIME - Specify the total elapsed time limit for a session, expressed in minutes.

IDLE_TIME - Specify the permitted periods of continuous inactive time during a session, expressed in minutes. Long-running queries and other operations are not subject to this limit.

COMPOSITE_LIMIT - See Oracle documentation for more details.


Password Parameters

Use the following clauses to set password parameters. Parameters that set lengths of time are interpreted in number of days. For testing purposes, specify minutes (n/1440) or even seconds (n/86400).

FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS - Specify the number of failed attempts to log on to the user account before the account is locked. If omitting this clause, then the default is 10 times.

PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME - Specify the number of days the same password can be used for authentication. If setting a value for PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME, then the password expires if it is not changed within the grace period, and further connections are rejected. If omitting this clause, then the default is 180 days.

PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME and PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX - These two parameters must be set in conjunction with each other. PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME specifies the number of days before which a password cannot be reused. PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX specifies the number of password changes required before the current password can be reused. For these parameters to have any effect, specify an integer for both of them.

If specifying a value for both of these parameters, then the user cannot reuse a password until the password has been changed the number of times specified for PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX during the number of days specified for PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME.

For example, if specifying PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME to 30 and PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX to 10, then the user can reuse the password after 30 days if the password has already been changed 10 times.

If specifying a value for either of these parameters and specify UNLIMITED for the other, then the user can never reuse a password.

If specifying DEFAULT for either parameter, then Oracle Database uses the value defined in the DEFAULT profile. By default, all parameters are set to UNLIMITED in the DEFAULT profile. If the default setting of UNLIMITED in the DEFAULT profile has not changed, then the database treats the value for that parameter as UNLIMITED.

If setting both of these parameters to UNLIMITED, then the database ignores both of them. This is the default if omitting both parameters.

PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME - Specify the number of days an account will be locked after the specified number of consecutive failed logon attempts. If omitting this clause, then the default is 1 day.

PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME - Specify the number of days after the grace period begins during which a warning is issued and logon is allowed. If omitting this clause, then the default is 7 days.

PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION - The PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION clause lets a PL/SQL password complexity verification script be passed as an argument to the CREATE PROFILE statement. Oracle Database provides a default script, but can create your own routine or use third-party software instead.
V-61561 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-002000 Rule ID: SV-76051r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000016

Discussion

Temporary application accounts could ostensibly be used in the event of a vendor support visit where a support representative requires a temporary unique account in order to perform diagnostic testing or conduct some other support related activity. When these types of accounts are created, there is a risk that the temporary account may remain in place and active after the support representative has left.

To address this, in the event temporary application accounts are required, the application must ensure accounts designated as temporary in nature shall automatically terminate these accounts after an organization-defined time period. Such a process and capability greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be misused, hijacked, or data compromised.

Note that user authentication and account management should be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Temporary database accounts must be automatically terminated after an organization-defined time period in order to mitigate the risk of the account being used beyond its original purpose or timeframe.

Checks

If the organization has a policy, consistently enforced, forbidding the creation of emergency or temporary accounts, this is not a finding.

If all user accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

Check DBMS settings, OS settings, and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms settings to determine if the site utilizes a mechanism whereby temporary or emergency accounts can be terminated after an organization-defined time period. If not, this is a finding.

Check the profiles to see what the password_life_time is set to in the table dba_profiles. The password_life_time is a value stored in the LIMIT column, and identified by the value PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME in the RESOURCE_NAME column.

SQL>select
profile,
resource_name,
resource_type,
limit
from dba_profiles
where upper(resource_name) like 'PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME';

Verify that the user in question is assigned to a profile with the PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME set to the amount of time the user is expected to be using the password. If not, this is a finding.

Fix

If using database mechanisms to satisfy this requirement, use a profile with a distinctive name (for example, TEMPORARY_USERS), so that temporary users can be easily identified. Whenever a temporary user account is created, assign it to this profile.

Create a job to lock accounts under this profile that are more than n days old, where n is the organization-defined time period.
V-61565 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-002200 Rule ID: SV-76055r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000018

Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, they often attempt to create a persistent method of re-establishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply create a new account.

Auditing of account creation is one method and best practice for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail documents the creation of application user accounts and, as required, notifies administrators and/or application owners that they exist. Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Note that user authentication and account management should be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP.

However, notwithstanding how accounts are managed, Oracle auditing should always be configured to capture account creation.

Checks

Check Oracle settings (and also OS settings and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms settings) to determine if account creation is being audited. If account creation is not being audited by Oracle, this is a finding.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL
or the following SQL query:
SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';
If Oracle returns the value 'NONE', this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data including account creation, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SELECT ' Account creation is not being audited. '
FROM dual
WHERE (SELECT Count(*)
FROM (select policy_name , audit_option from audit_unified_policies
WHERE audit_option = 'CREATE USER'
and policy_name in (select policy_name from audit_unified_enabled_policies where user_name='ALL USERS'))) = 0
OR (SELECT value
FROM v$option
WHERE parameter = 'Unified Auditing') != 'TRUE';

If Oracle returns "no rows selected", this is not a finding.

Fix

Configure Oracle to audit account creation activities.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:
ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=<audit trail type> SCOPE=SPFILE;
Audit trail type can be 'OS', 'DB', 'DB,EXTENDED', 'XML' or 'XML,EXTENDED'.
After executing this statement, it may be necessary to shut down and restart the Oracle database.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To ensure auditable events are captured:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database. Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing. Reference V-61625 for information on how to configure a policy to audit account creation.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810
V-61569 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-002300 Rule ID: SV-76059r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001403

Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, they often attempt to create a persistent method of re-establishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply modify an existing account.

Auditing of account modification is one method and best practice for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive application account management process ensures an audit trail automatically documents the modification of application user accounts and, as required, notifies administrators, application owners, and/or appropriate individuals. Applications must provide this capability directly, leveraging complementary technology providing this capability or a combination thereof.

Automated account auditing processes greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously modified and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Note that user authentication and account management should be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP.

However, notwithstanding how accounts are managed, Oracle auditing should always be configured to capture account modification.

Checks

Check Oracle settings (and also OS settings and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms settings) to determine if account modification is being audited. If account modification is not being audited by Oracle, this is a finding.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL
or the following SQL query:
SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';
If Oracle returns the value 'NONE', this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data including account modification, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SELECT ' Account modification is not being audited. '
FROM dual
WHERE (SELECT Count(*)
FROM (select policy_name , audit_option from audit_unified_policies
WHERE audit_option = 'ALTER USER'
and policy_name in (select policy_name from audit_unified_enabled_policies where user_name='ALL USERS'))) = 0
OR (SELECT value
FROM v$option
WHERE parameter = 'Unified Auditing') != 'TRUE';

If Oracle returns "no rows selected", this is not a finding.

Fix

Configure Oracle to audit account modifications activities.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:
ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=<audit trail type> SCOPE=SPFILE;
Audit trail type can be 'OS', 'DB', 'DB,EXTENDED', 'XML' or 'XML,EXTENDED'.
After executing this statement, it may be necessary to shut down and restart the Oracle database.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To ensure auditable events are captured:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database. Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing. Reference V-61625 for information on how to configure a policy to audit account modification.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810
V-61571 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-002400 Rule ID: SV-76061r4_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001404

Discussion

When application accounts are disabled, user accessibility is affected. Accounts are utilized for identifying individual application users or for identifying the application processes themselves.

In order to detect and respond to events affecting user accessibility and application processing, applications must audit account disabling actions and, as required, notify the appropriate individuals so they can investigate the event.

Such a capability greatly reduces the risk that application accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Note that user authentication and account management should be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP.

However, notwithstanding how accounts are managed, Oracle auditing must always be configured to capture account-disabling actions, to the extent such information is available.

Note that some Oracle architectural details limit the ability to capture this information. There is a difference between actions taken by a user that generate an audit record and actions by the database itself, which do not generate an audit record. If an account is locked because of an expiration event, it is done by the database without involving the action of a user. Failed logins are logged user interactions, but the subsequent locking of the account, although initiated by user actions, is a function of the database.

Checks

Check Oracle settings (and also OS settings and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms settings) to determine if account disabling actions are being audited. If account disabling actions are not being audited by Oracle, this is a finding.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL
or the following SQL query:
SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';
If Oracle returns the value 'NONE', this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data including account disabling, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SELECT ' Account disabling is not being audited. '
FROM dual
WHERE (SELECT Count(*)
FROM (select policy_name , audit_option from audit_unified_policies
WHERE audit_option = 'ALTER USER'
and policy_name in (select policy_name from audit_unified_enabled_policies where user_name='ALL USERS'))) = 0
OR (SELECT value
FROM v$option
WHERE parameter = 'Unified Auditing') != 'TRUE';

If Oracle returns "no rows selected", this is not a finding.

Fix

Configure Oracle to audit account disabling actions.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:
ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=<audit trail type> SCOPE=SPFILE;
Audit trail type can be 'OS', 'DB', 'DB,EXTENDED', 'XML' or 'XML,EXTENDED'.
After executing this statement, it may be necessary to shut down and restart the Oracle database.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To ensure auditable events are captured:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database. Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing. Reference V-61625 for information on how to configure a policy to audit account disabling.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810
V-61573 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-002500 Rule ID: SV-76063r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001405

Discussion

When application accounts are terminated, user accessibility is affected. Accounts are utilized for identifying individual application users or for identifying the application processes themselves.

In order to detect and respond to events affecting user accessibility and application processing, applications must audit account terminating actions and notify the appropriate individuals so they can investigate the event. Such a capability greatly reduces the risk that application accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Note that user authentication and account management should be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP.

However, notwithstanding how accounts are managed, Oracle auditing should always be configured to capture account termination.

Checks

Check Oracle settings (and also OS settings and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms settings) to determine if account termination actions are being audited. If account termination actions are not being audited by Oracle, this is a finding.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL
or the following SQL query:
SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';
If Oracle returns the value 'NONE', this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data including account termination, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SELECT ' Account termination is not being audited. '
FROM dual
WHERE (SELECT Count(*)
FROM (select policy_name , audit_option from audit_unified_policies
WHERE audit_option = 'DROP USER'
and policy_name in (select policy_name from audit_unified_enabled_policies where user_name='ALL USERS'))) = 0
OR (SELECT value
FROM v$option
WHERE parameter = 'Unified Auditing') != 'TRUE';

If Oracle returns "no rows selected", this is not a finding.

Fix

Configure Oracle to audit account termination actions.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:
ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=<audit trail type> SCOPE=SPFILE;
Audit trail type can be 'OS', 'DB', 'DB,EXTENDED', 'XML' or 'XML,EXTENDED'.
After executing this statement, it may be necessary to shut down and restart the Oracle database.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To ensure auditable events are captured:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database. Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing. Reference V-61625 for information on how to configure a policy to audit account termination.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810
V-61575 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-002700 Rule ID: SV-76065r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000213

Discussion

Strong access controls are critical to securing application data. Access control policies (e.g., identity-based policies, role-based policies, attribute-based policies) and access enforcement mechanisms (e.g., access control lists, access control matrices, cryptography) must be employed by applications, when applicable, to control access between users (or processes acting on behalf of users) and objects (e.g., devices, files, records, processes, programs, domains) in the information system.

Consideration should be given to the implementation of an audited, explicit override of automated mechanisms in the event of emergencies or other serious events.

If the DBMS does not follow applicable policy when approving access it may be in conflict with networks or other applications in the information system. This may result in users either gaining or being denied access inappropriately and may be in conflict with applicable policy.

Checks

Check DBMS settings to determine whether users are restricted from accessing objects and data they are not authorized to access. If appropriate access controls are not implemented to restrict access to authorized users and to restrict the access of those users to objects and data they are authorized to see, this is a finding.

The easiest way to isolate access is by using the Oracle Database Vault. To check to see if the Oracle Database Vault is installed, issue the following query:

SQL> SELECT * FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Oracle Database Vault';

If Oracle Database Vault is installed, review its settings for appropriateness and completeness of the access it permits and denies to each type of user. If appropriate and complete, this is not a finding.

If Oracle Database Vault is not installed, review the roles and profiles in the database and the assignment of users to these for appropriateness and completeness of the access permitted and denied each type of user. If appropriate and complete, this is not a finding.

If the access permitted and denied each type of user is inappropriate or incomplete, this is a finding.

Following are code examples for reviewing roles, profiles, etc.

Find out what role the users have:
select * from dba_role_privs where granted_role = '<role>'

List all roles given to a user:
select * from dba_role_privs where grantee = '<username>';

List all roles for all users:
column grantee format a32
column granted_role format a32
break on grantee
select grantee, granted_role from dba_role_privs;

Use the following query to list all privileges given to a user:
select
lpad(' ', 2*level) || granted_role "User roles and privileges"
from
(
/* THE USERS */
select
null grantee,
username granted_role
from
dba_users
where
username like upper('<enter_username>')
/* THE ROLES TO ROLES RELATIONS */
union
select
grantee,
granted_role
from
dba_role_privs
/* THE ROLES TO PRIVILEGE RELATIONS */
union
select
grantee,
privilege
from
dba_sys_privs
)
start with grantee is null
connect by grantee = prior granted_role;

List which tables a certain role gives SELECT access to using the query:
select * from role_tab_privs where role='<role>' and privilege = 'SELECT';

List all tables a user can SELECT from using the query:
select * from dba_tab_privs where GRANTEE ='<username>' and privilege = 'SELECT';

List all users who can SELECT on a particular table (either through being given a relevant role or through a direct grant - e.g., grant select on a table to Joe). The result of this query should also show through which role the user has this access or whether it was a direct grant.

select
Grantee,'Granted Through Role' as Grant_Type,
role,
table_name
from role_tab_privs rtp, dba_role_privs drp
where rtp.role = drp.granted_role
and table_name = '<TABLENAME>'
union
select
Grantee,
'Direct Grant' as Grant_type,
null as role,
table_name
from dba_tab_privs
where table_name = '<TABLENAME>';

Fix

If Oracle Database Vault is in use, use it to configure the correct access privileges for each type of user.

If Oracle Database Vault is not in use, configure the correct access privileges for each type of user using Roles and Profiles.

For more information on the configuration of Database Vault, refer to the following documents:
Database Vault Administrator's Guide:
https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DVADM/toc.htm
V-61577 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-003000 Rule ID: SV-76067r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002165

Discussion

Access control policies (e.g., identity-based policies, role-based policies, attribute-based policies) and access enforcement mechanisms (e.g., access control lists, access control matrices, cryptography) are employed by organizations to control access between users (or processes acting on behalf of users) and objects (e.g., devices, files, records, processes, programs, domains).

DAC is a type of access control methodology serving as a means of restricting access to objects and data based on the identity of subjects and/or groups to which they belong. It is discretionary in the sense that application users with the appropriate permissions to access an application resource or data have the discretion to pass that permission on to another user either directly or indirectly.

Data protection requirements may result in a DAC policy being specified as part of the application design. Discretionary access controls would be employed at the application level to restrict and control access to application objects and data thereby providing increased information security for the organization.

When DAC controls are employed, those controls must limit sharing to named application users, groups of users, or both. The application DAC controls must also limit the propagation of access rights and have the ability to exclude access to data down to the granularity of a single user.

Databases using DAC must have the ability for the owner of an object or information to assign or revoke rights to view or modify the object or information. If the owner of an object or information does not have rights to exclude access to an object or information at a user level, users may gain access to objects and information they are not authorized to view/modify.

Checks

Check DBMS settings to determine if users are able to assign and revoke rights to the objects and information that they own. If users cannot assign or revoke rights to the objects and information that they own to groups, roles, or individual users, this is a finding.

Fix

Modify DBMS settings to allow users to assign or revoke access rights to objects and information owned by the user. The ability to grant or revoke rights must include the ability to grant or revoke those rights down to the granularity of a single user.

(Note: In most cases, no fix will be necessary. This is default functionality for Oracle.)
V-61579 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-003400 Rule ID: SV-76069r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Separation of duties is a prevalent Information Technology control that is implemented at different layers of the information system, including the operating system and in applications. It serves to eliminate or reduce the possibility that a single user may carry out a prohibited action. Separation of duties requires that the person accountable for approving an action is not the same person who is tasked with implementing or carrying out that action.

The DBMS must run under a custom dedicated OS account. When the DBMS is running under a shared account, users with access to that account could inadvertently or maliciously make changes to the DBMS's settings, files, or permissions.

Checks

Check OS settings to determine whether DBMS processes are running under a dedicated OS account. If the DBMS processes are running under shared accounts, this is a finding.

This is done by the default installation. The installation documentation recommends that a user account named ORACLE is created and is identified as the software owner.

Log on to the system as the software owner, typically ORACLE, the $ORACLE_HOME environment variable will point to the Oracle software. Enter the following commands to see if ORACLE is the software owner:

$ cd $ORACLE_HOME
$ ls -l (shows the directories - oracle is the owner and oinstall is the group. The example list below has been truncated)
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:42 addnode
drwxr-xr-x 8 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:41 apex
drwxr-xr-x 9 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:39 assistants
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 09:17 bin
drwxr-xr-x 7 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:42 ccr
drwxr-xr-x 3 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:42 cdata
drwxr-xr-x 5 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 09:04 cfgtoollogs
drwxr-xr-x 4 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:42 clone
drwxr-xr-x 6 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:39 crs
drwxr-xr-x 6 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:42 css
drwxr-xr-x 11 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:42 ctx
drwxr-xr-x 7 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:39 cv
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle oinstall 4096 Dec 16 13:11 dbs
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:42 dc_ocm
drwxr-xr-x 5 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:45 deinstall
drwxr-xr-x 3 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:39 demo
drwxr-xr-x 3 oracle oinstall 4096 Nov 21 08:39 diagnostics

$ ps -ef | grep ora_ (shows all of the oracle processes owned by the oracle user. The example list below has been truncated)

oracle 1786 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_pmon_stig
oracle 1788 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_psp0_stig
oracle 1790 1 1 13:11 ? 00:00:08 ora_vktm_stig
oracle 1794 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_gen0_stig
oracle 1796 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_mman_stig
oracle 1800 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_diag_stig
oracle 1802 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_dbrm_stig
oracle 1804 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_vkrm_stig
oracle 1806 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_dia0_stig
oracle 1808 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_dbw0_stig
oracle 1810 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_lgwr_stig
oracle 1812 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_ckpt_stig
oracle 1814 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_lg00_stig
oracle 1816 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_smon_stig
oracle 1818 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_lg01_stig
oracle 1820 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_reco_stig
oracle 1822 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_lreg_stig
oracle 1824 1 0 13:11 ? 00:00:00 ora_pxmn_stig
oracle 2137 2125 0 13:25 pts/1 00:00:00 grep ora_

Fix

Create an OS account dedicated to Oracle DBMS processes, and allow only Oracle DBMS processes to run under the account.
V-61581 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-003500 Rule ID: SV-76071r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Applications employ the concept of least privilege for specific duties and information systems (including specific functions, ports, protocols, and services). The concept of least privilege is also applied to information system processes, ensuring that the processes operate at privilege levels no higher than necessary to accomplish required organizational missions and/or functions. Organizations consider the creation of additional processes, roles, and information system accounts as necessary to achieve least privilege. Organizations also apply least privilege concepts to the design, development, implementation, and operations of information systems.

Unauthorized access to sensitive data may compromise the confidentiality of personnel privacy, threaten national security, or compromise a variety of other sensitive operations. Access controls are best managed by defining requirements based on distinct job functions and assigning access based on the job function assigned to the individual user.

Checks

Obtain a list of privileges assigned to user accounts. If access to sensitive information is granted to roles not authorized to access sensitive information, this is a finding.

If access to sensitive information is granted to individual accounts rather than to a role, this is a finding.

Fix

Define application user roles based on privilege and job function requirements.

Assign the required privileges to the role and assign the role to authorized application user accounts.

Revoke any privileges to sensitive information directly assigned to application user accounts.
V-61583 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-003600 Rule ID: SV-76073r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Applications employ the concept of least privilege for specific duties and information systems (including specific functions, ports, protocols, and services). The concept of least privilege is also applied to information system processes, ensuring that the processes operate at privilege levels no higher than necessary to accomplish required organizational missions and/or functions. Organizations consider the creation of additional processes, roles, and information system accounts as necessary to achieve least privilege. Organizations also apply least privilege concepts to the design, development, implementation, and operations of information systems.

Many sites distribute a single client database connection configuration file to all site database users that contains network access information for all databases on the site. Such a file provides information to access databases not required by all users that may assist in unauthorized access attempts.

Checks

Review procedures for providing database connection information to users/user workstations. If procedures do not indicate or implement restrictions to connections required by the particular user, this is a finding.

Note: This check is specific for the DBMS host system and not directed at client systems (client systems are included in the Application STIG/Checklist); however, detection of unauthorized client connections to the DBMS host system obtained through log files should be performed regularly and documented where authorized.

Fix

Implement procedures to supply database connection information to only those databases authorized for the user.
V-61585 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-003700 Rule ID: SV-76075r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Applications employ the concept of least privilege for specific duties and information systems (including specific functions, ports, protocols, and services). The concept of least privilege is also applied to information system processes, ensuring that the processes operate at privilege levels no higher than necessary to accomplish required organizational missions and/or functions. Organizations consider the creation of additional processes, roles, and information system accounts as necessary to achieve least privilege. Organizations also apply least privilege concepts to the design, development, implementation, and operations of information systems.

Developers granted elevated database and/or operating system privileges on production databases can affect the operation and/or security of the database system. Operating system and database privileges assigned to developers on production systems must not be allowed.

Checks

Check the production system to ensure no developer accounts have rights to modify the production database structure or alter production data.

If developer accounts with these rights exist, ask for documentation that shows these accounts have formal approval and risk acceptance. If this documentation does not exist, this is a finding.

If developer accounts exist with the right to create and maintain tables (or other database objects) in production tablespaces, this is a finding.

Fix

Restrict developer privileges to production objects to only objects and data where those privileges are required and authorized. Document the approval and risk acceptance.

Consider using separate accounts for a person's developer duties and production duties. At a minimum, use separate roles for developer privileges and production privileges.

If developers need the ability to create and maintain tables (or other database objects) as part of their development activities, provide dedicated tablespaces, and revoke any rights that allowed them to use production tablespaces for this purpose.
V-61587 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-003800 Rule ID: SV-76077r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Applications employ the concept of least privilege for specific duties and information systems (including specific functions, ports, protocols, and services). The concept of least privilege is also applied to information system processes, ensuring that the processes operate at privilege levels no higher than necessary to accomplish required organizational missions and/or functions. Organizations consider the creation of additional processes, roles, and information system accounts as necessary to achieve least privilege. Organizations also apply least privilege concepts to the design, development, implementation, and operations of information systems.

Developers granted elevated database and/or operating system privileges on systems that support both development and production databases can affect the operation and/or security of the production database system. Operating system and database privileges assigned to developers on shared development and production systems must be restricted.

Checks

Identify whether any hosts contain both development and production databases. If no hosts contain both production and development databases, this is NA.

For any host containing both a development and a production database, determine if developers have been granted elevated privileges on the production database or on the OS. If they have, ask for documentation that shows these accounts have formal approval and risk acceptance. If this documentation does not exist, this is a finding.

If developer accounts exist with the right to create and maintain tables (or other database objects) in production tablespaces, this is a finding.

(Where applicable, to check the number of instances on the host machine, check the /etc/oratab. The /etc/oratab file is updated by the Oracle Installer when the database is installed when the root.sh file is executed. Each line in the represents an ORACLE_SID:ORACLE_HOME:Y or N. The ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME are self-explanatory. The Y or N signals the DBSTART program to automatically start or not start that specific instance when the machine is restarted. Check with the system owner and application development team to see what each entry represents. If a system is deemed to be a production system, review the system for development users.)

Fix

Restrict developer privileges to production objects to only objects and data where those privileges are required and authorized. Document the approval and risk acceptance.

Consider using separate accounts for a person's developer duties and production duties. At a minimum, use separate roles for developer privileges and production privileges.

If developers need the ability to create and maintain tables (or other database objects) as part of their development activities, provide dedicated tablespaces, and revoke any rights that allowed them to use production tablespaces for this purpose.
V-61589 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-003900 Rule ID: SV-76079r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Applications employ the concept of least privilege for specific duties and information systems (including specific functions, ports, protocols, and services). The concept of least privilege is also applied to information system processes, ensuring that the processes operate at privilege levels no higher than necessary to accomplish required organizational missions and/or functions. Organizations consider the creation of additional processes, roles, and information system accounts as necessary to achieve least privilege. Organizations also apply least privilege concepts to the design, development, implementation, and operations of information systems.

Administrative data includes DBMS metadata and other configuration and management data. Unauthorized access to this data could result in unauthorized changes to database objects, access controls, or DBMS configuration.

Checks

Review user privileges to system tables and configuration data stored in the Oracle database.

If non-DBA users are assigned privileges to access system tables and tables containing configuration data, this is a finding.

To obtain a list of users and roles that have been granted access to any dictionary table, run the query:
SELECT unique grantee from dba_tab_privs where table_name in
(select table_name from dictionary)
order by grantee;

To obtain a list of dictionary tables and assigned privileges granted to a specific user or role, run the query:
SELECT grantee, table_name, privilege from dba_tab_privs where table_name in
(select table_name from dictionary)
and grantee = '<applicable account>';

Fix

Restrict accessibility of Oracle system tables and other configuration information or metadata to DBAs or other authorized users.
V-61591 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-004000 Rule ID: SV-76081r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Applications employ the concept of least privilege for specific duties and information systems (including specific functions, ports, protocols, and services). The concept of least privilege is also applied to information system processes, ensuring that the processes operate at privilege levels no higher than necessary to accomplish required organizational missions and/or functions. Organizations consider the creation of additional processes, roles, and information system accounts as necessary to achieve least privilege. Organizations also apply least privilege concepts to the design, development, implementation, and operations of information systems.

Privileges granted outside the context of the application user job function are more likely to go unmanaged or without oversight for authorization. Maintenance of privileges using roles defined for discrete job functions offers improved oversight of application user privilege assignments and helps to protect against unauthorized privilege assignment.

Checks

Review accounts for direct assignment of administrative privileges. Connected as SYSDBA, run the query:

SELECT grantee, privilege
FROM dba_sys_privs
WHERE grantee IN
(
SELECT username
FROM dba_users
WHERE username NOT IN
(
'XDB', 'SYSTEM', 'SYS', 'LBACSYS',
'DVSYS', 'DVF', 'SYSMAN_RO',
'SYSMAN_BIPLATFORM', 'SYSMAN_MDS',
'SYSMAN_OPSS', 'SYSMAN_STB', 'DBSNMP',
'SYSMAN', 'APEX_040200', 'WMSYS',
'SYSDG', 'SYSBACKUP', 'SPATIAL_WFS_ADMIN_USR',
'SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_US', 'GSMCATUSER',
'OLAPSYS', 'SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA',
'OUTLN', 'ORDSYS', 'ORDDATA', 'OJVMSYS',
'ORACLE_OCM', 'MDSYS', 'ORDPLUGINS',
'GSMADMIN_INTERNAL', 'MDDATA', 'FLOWS_FILES',
'DIP', 'CTXSYS', 'AUDSYS',
'APPQOSSYS', 'APEX_PUBLIC_USER', 'ANONYMOUS',
'SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_USR', 'SYSKM',
'SYSMAN_TYPES', 'MGMT_VIEW',
'EUS_ENGINE_USER', 'EXFSYS', 'SYSMAN_APM'
)
)
AND privilege NOT IN ('UNLIMITED TABLESPACE'
, 'REFERENCES', 'INDEX', 'SYSDBA', 'SYSOPER'
)
ORDER BY 1, 2;

If any administrative privileges have been assigned directly to a database account, this is a finding.

(The list of special accounts that are excluded from this requirement may not be complete. It is expected that the DBA will edit the list to suit local circumstances, adding other special accounts as necessary, and removing any that are not supposed to be in use in the Oracle deployment that is under review.)

Fix

Create roles for administrative function assignments. Assign the necessary privileges for the administrative functions to a role. Do not assign administrative privileges directly to users, except for those that Oracle does not permit to be assigned via roles.
V-61593 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-004100 Rule ID: SV-76083r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

This requirement is intended to limit exposure due to operating from within a privileged account or role. The inclusion of role is intended to address those situations where an access control policy, such as Role Based Access Control (RBAC), is being implemented and where a change of role provides the same degree of assurance in the change of access authorizations for both the user and all processes acting on behalf of the user as would be provided by a change between a privileged and non-privileged account.

To limit exposure when operating from within a privileged account or role, the application must support organizational requirements that users of information system accounts, or roles, with access to organization-defined lists of security functions or security-relevant information, use non-privileged accounts, or roles, when accessing other (non-security) system functions.

When privileged activities are not separated from non-privileged activities, the database can be subject to unauthorized changes to settings and data that a standard user would not normally have access to, outside of an authorized maintenance session.

Checks

Review permissions for objects owned by DBA or other administrative accounts.

If any objects owned by administrative accounts can be accessed by non-DBA/non-administrative users, either directly or indirectly, this is a finding.

Verify DBAs have separate administrative accounts.

If DBAs do not have a separate account for database administration purposes, this is a finding.

To list all objects owned by an administrative account that have had access granted to another account, run the query:

SELECT grantee, table_name, grantor, privilege, type from dba_tab_privs where owner= '<applicable account>';

Fix

Revoke DBA privileges, and privileges to administer DBA-owned objects, from non-DBA accounts.

Provide separate accounts to DBA for database administration.
V-61595 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-004200 Rule ID: SV-76085r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

This is intended to limit exposure, by making it possible to trace any unauthorized access, by a privileged user account or role that has permissions on security functions or security-relevant information, to other data or functionality.

Checks

Review auditing configuration.

If it is possible for a privileged user/role to access non-security functions or information without having the action recorded in the audit log, this is a finding.

To obtain a list of unified auditing policies that have been defined, run the query:
SELECT unique policy_name from AUDIT_UNIFIED_POLICIES;

To obtain a list of unified auditing policies that have been enabled and the users for which it has been enabled, run the query:
SELECT unique policy_name, user_name from AUDIT_UNIFIED_ENABLED_POLICIES;

Unless otherwise required, verify that user_name is set to 'ALL USERS' to insure that the activity of administrative users is being logged.

Fix

Configure DBMS auditing so that all use of privileged accounts is recorded in the audit log.
V-61597 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-004210 Rule ID: SV-76087r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Use of privileged accounts for non-administrative purposes puts data at risk of unintended or unauthorized loss, modification, or exposure. In particular, DBA accounts, if used for non-administration application development or application maintenance, can lead to excessive privileges where privileges are inherited by object owners. It may also lead to loss or compromise of application data where the elevated privileges bypass controls designed in and provided by applications.

Checks

Review procedures and practices. If there is not a policy requiring owners of privileged accounts to use non-privileged accounts for non-administrative activities, this is a finding. If there is evidence that owners of privileged accounts do not adhere to this policy, this is a finding.

Fix

Require that DBAs and other privileged users use non-privileged accounts for non-administrative activities.
V-61599 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-004300 Rule ID: SV-76089r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

This requirement is intended to limit exposure due to operating from within a privileged account or role. The inclusion of role is intended to address those situations where an access control policy, such as Role Based Access Control (RBAC), is being implemented and where a change of role provides the same degree of assurance in the change of access authorizations for both the user and all processes acting on behalf of the user as would be provided by a change between a privileged and non-privileged account.

Audit of privileged activity may require physical separation employing information systems on which the user does not have privileged access.

To limit exposure and provide forensic history of activity when operating from within a privileged account or role, the application must support organizational requirements that users of information system accounts, or roles, with access to organization-defined lists of security functions or security-relevant information, use non-privileged accounts, or roles, when accessing other (non-security) system functions.

If feasible, applications must provide access logging that ensures users who are granted a privileged role (or roles) have their privileged activity logged.

DBAs, if assigned excessive privileges, could perform actions that endanger the information system or hide evidence of malicious activity.

Checks

Review access permissions for objects owned by application owners or other non-administrative users.

If DBA or administrative accounts have unauthorized application roles or permissions beyond those needed for administration, this is a finding.

To obtain a list of privileges assigned to the DBMS user accounts, run the query:
SELECT * from dba_sys_privs where grantee='DBA' order by privilege;

To check to see what roles are assigned to a user, run the query:
SELECT * from dba_role_privs where grantee = '<applicable account>';

To check to see what privileges are assigned to a role, run the query:
SELECT * from role_sys_privs;

To show privileges by object, run the query:
SELECT table_name, grantee,
MAX(DECODE(privilege, 'SELECT', 'SELECT')) AS select_priv,
MAX(DECODE(privilege, 'DELETE', 'DELETE')) AS delete_priv,
MAX(DECODE(privilege, 'UPDATE', 'UPDATE')) AS update_priv,
MAX(DECODE(privilege, 'INSERT', 'INSERT')) AS insert_priv
FROM dba_tab_privs
WHERE grantee IN (SELECT role FROM dba_roles)
GROUP BY table_name, grantee
ORDER BY table_name, grantee;

This query will list the system privileges assigned to a specific user:
SELECT LPAD(' ', 2*level) || granted_role "USER PRIVS"
FROM
(
SELECT NULL grantee, username granted_role
FROM dba_users
WHERE username LIKE UPPER('%&uname%')
UNION
SELECT grantee, granted_role
FROM dba_role_privs
UNION
SELECT grantee, privilege
FROM dba_sys_privs
)
START WITH grantee IS NULL
CONNECT BY grantee = prior granted_role;

To list all administrative privileges granted to users via roles, run the query:
SELECT
username,
rp.granted_role,
privilege
FROM
dba_users u,
dba_role_privs rp,
dba_sys_privs sp
WHERE username = rp.grantee
AND rp.granted_role = sp.grantee
AND privilege NOT IN
(
'CREATE SEQUENCE', 'CREATE TRIGGER',
'SET CONTAINER', 'CREATE CLUSTER',
'CREATE PROCEDURE', 'CREATE TYPE',
'CREATE SESSION', 'CREATE OPERATOR',
'CREATE TABLE', 'CREATE INDEXTYPE'
)
AND username NOT IN
(
'XDB', 'SYSTEM', 'SYS', 'LBACSYS',
'DVSYS', 'DVF', 'SYSMAN_RO', 'SYSMAN_BIPLATFORM',
'SYSMAN_MDS', 'SYSMAN_OPSS', 'SYSMAN_STB', 'DBSNMP',
'SYSMAN', 'APEX_040200', 'WMSYS', 'SYSDG',
'SYSBACKUP', 'SPATIAL_WFS_ADMIN_USR',
'SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_US','GSMCATUSER',
'OLAPSYS', 'SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA', 'OUTLN', 'ORDSYS',
'ORDDATA', 'OJVMSYS', 'ORACLE_OCM', 'MDSYS',
'ORDPLUGINS', 'GSMADMIN_INTERNAL', 'MDDATA',
'FLOWS_FILES', 'DIP', 'CTXSYS', 'AUDSYS', 'APPQOSSYS',
'APEX_PUBLIC_USER', 'ANONYMOUS',
'SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_USR', 'SYSKM',
'SYSMAN_TYPES', 'MGMT_VIEW', 'EUS_ENGINE_USER',
'EXFSYS', 'SYSMAN_APM','IX','OWBSYS'
)
ORDER by 1, 2, 3;

(The list of special accounts that are excluded from this requirement may not be complete. It is expected that the DBA will edit the list to suit local circumstances, adding other special accounts as necessary, and removing any that are not supposed to be in use in the Oracle deployment that is under review. Similarly, the list of privileges excluded from the list may be modified according to circumstances.)

Data Dictionary Objects Related To System Privileges:
all_sys_privs
session_privs
user_sys_privs
dba_sys_privs
system_privilege_map

Fix

Remove permissions from DBAs and other administrative users beyond those required for administrative functions.
V-61601 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-004400 Rule ID: SV-76091r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

This requirement is intended to limit exposure due to operating from within a privileged account or role. The inclusion of role is intended to address those situations where an access control policy, such as Role Based Access Control (RBAC) is being implemented and where a change of role provides the same degree of assurance in the change of access authorizations for both the user and all processes acting on behalf of the user as would be provided by a change between a privileged and non-privileged account.

To limit exposure when operating from within a privileged account or role, the application must support organizational requirements that users of information system accounts, or roles, with access to organization-defined lists of security functions or security-relevant information, use non-privileged accounts, or roles, when accessing other (non-security) system functions.

Use of privileged accounts for non-administrative purposes puts data at risk of unintended or unauthorized loss, modification, or exposure. In particular, DBA accounts if used for non-administration application development or application maintenance can lead to miss-assignment of privileges where privileges are inherited by object owners. It may also lead to loss or compromise of application data where the elevated privileges bypass controls designed in and provided by applications.

External applications called or spawned by the DBMS process may be executed under OS accounts with unnecessary privileges. This can lead to unauthorized access to OS resources and compromise of the OS, the DBMS or any other services provided by the host platform.

Checks

Determine which OS accounts are used by the DBMS to run external procedures.

Validate that these OS accounts have only the privileges necessary to perform the required functionality.

If any OS accounts, utilized by the database for running external procedures, have privileges beyond those required for running the external procedures, this is a finding.

If use of the external procedure agent is authorized, ensure extproc is restricted to execution of authorized applications.

External jobs are run using the account nobody by default.

Review the contents of the file ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/externaljob.ora for the lines run_user= and run_group=.

If the user assigned to these parameters is not "nobody", this is a finding.

System views providing privilege information are:
DBA_SYS_PRIVS
DBA_TAB_PRIVS
DBA_ROLE_PRIVS

Fix

Limit privileges to DBMS-related OS accounts to those required to perform their DBMS specific functionality.
V-61603 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-004900 Rule ID: SV-76093r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002236

Discussion

Anytime an authentication method is exposed, to allow for the utilization of an application, there is a risk that attempts will be made to obtain unauthorized access.

To defeat these attempts, organizations define the number of times a user account may consecutively fail a logon attempt. The organization also defines the period of time in which these consecutive failed attempts may occur.

By limiting the number of failed logon attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Checks

The account lockout duration is defined in the profile assigned to a user.

To see what profile is assigned to a user, enter the query:

SQL>SELECT profile FROM dba_users WHERE username = '<username>'

This will return the profile name assigned to that user.

The user profile, ORA_STIG_PROFILE, has been provided (starting with Oracle 12.1.0.2) to satisfy the STIG requirements pertaining to the profile parameters. Oracle recommends that this profile be customized with any site-specific requirements and assigned to all users where applicable. Note: It remains necessary to create a customized replacement for the password validation function, ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION, if relying on this technique to verify password complexity.

Now check the values assigned to the profile returned from the query above:

column profile format a20
column limit format a20
SQL>SELECT PROFILE, RESOURCE_NAME, LIMIT FROM DBA_PROFILES WHERE PROFILE = 'ORA_STIG_PROFILE';

Check the settings for password_lock_time - this specifies how long to lock the account after the number of consecutive failed logon attempts reaches the limit. If the value is not UNLIMITED, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the DBMS settings to specify indefinite lockout duration:
ALTER PROFILE ORA_STIG_PROFILE LIMIT PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME UNLIMITED;
V-61605 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-005000 Rule ID: SV-76095r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000044

Discussion

Anytime an authentication method is exposed, to allow for the utilization of an application, there is a risk that attempts will be made to obtain unauthorized access.

To defeat these attempts, organizations define the number of times a user account may consecutively fail a logon attempt. The organization also defines the period of time in which these consecutive failed attempts may occur.

By limiting the number of failed logon attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.

More recent brute force attacks make attempts over long periods of time to circumvent intrusion detection systems and system account lockouts based entirely on the number of failed logons that are typically reset after a successful logon.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Note also that a policy that places no limit on the length of the timeframe (for counting consecutive invalid attempts) does satisfy this requirement.

Checks

(This addresses both O121-C2-005000 and O121-C2-005200.)

The limit on the number of consecutive failed logon attempts is defined in the profile assigned to a user.

To see what profile is assigned to a user, enter the following query:
SQL>SELECT profile FROM dba_users WHERE username = '&USERNAME'
This will return the profile name assigned to that user.

Now check the values assigned to the profile returned from the query above:
SQL>SELECT PROFILE, RESOURCE_NAME, LIMIT FROM DBA_PROFILES WHERE PROFILE LIKE '&PROFILE_NAME'

Check the settings for FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS - this is the number of consecutive failed logon attempts before locking the Oracle user account. If the value is greater than 3, this is a finding.

Fix

(This addresses both O121-C2-005000 and O121-C2-005200.)

Configure the DBMS settings to specify the maximum number of consecutive failed logon attempts to 3 (or less):
ALTER PROFILE ORA_STIG_PROFILE LIMIT FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 3;

(ORA_STIG_PROFILE is available in DBA_PROFILES, starting with Oracle 12.1.0.2. Note: It remains necessary to create a customized replacement for the password validation function, ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION, if relying on this technique to verify password complexity.)
V-61607 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-005200 Rule ID: SV-76097r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Anytime an authentication method is exposed, to allow for the utilization of an application, there is a risk that attempts will be made to obtain unauthorized access.

To defeat these attempts, organizations define the number of times a user account may consecutively fail a logon attempt. The organization also defines the period of time in which these consecutive failed attempts may occur.

By limiting the number of failed logon attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Checks

(This addresses both O121-C2-005000 and O121-C2-005200.)

The limit on the number of consecutive failed logon attempts is defined in the profile assigned to a user.

To see what profile is assigned to a user, enter the following query:

SQL>SELECT profile FROM dba_users WHERE username = '<username>'

This will return the profile name assigned to that user.

The user profile, ORA_STIG_PROFILE, has been provided (starting with Oracle 12.1.0.2) to satisfy the STIG requirements pertaining to the profile parameters. Oracle recommends that this profile be customized with any site-specific requirements and assigned to all users where applicable. Note: It remains necessary to create a customized replacement for the password validation function, ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION, if relying on this technique to verify password complexity.

Now check the values assigned to the profile returned from the query above:

column profile format a20
column limit format a20
SQL>SELECT PROFILE, RESOURCE_NAME, LIMIT FROM DBA_PROFILES WHERE PROFILE = 'ORA_STIG_PROFILE';

Check the settings for failed_login_attempts - this is the number of consecutive failed logon attempts before locking the Oracle user account. If the value is greater than 3, this is a finding.

Fix

(This addresses both O121-C2-005000 and O121-C2-005200.)

Configure the DBMS settings to specify the maximum number of consecutive failed logon attempts to 3 (or less):
ALTER PROFILE ORA_STIG_PROFILE LIMIT FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 3;
V-61613 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-005600 Rule ID: SV-76103r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001849

Discussion

Applications need to be cognizant of potential audit log storage capacity issues. During the installation and/or configuration process, applications should detect and determine if adequate storage capacity has been allocated for audit logs.

During the installation process, a notification may be provided to the installer indicating, based on the auditing configuration chosen and the amount of storage space allocated for audit logs, the amount of storage capacity available is not sufficient to meet storage requirements.

Logging must be configured appropriately. If the logs generated outstrip the amount of space reserved for those logs, the system may shut down or take other measures to stop processing in order to protect transactions from continuing unlogged.

Checks

Review the DBMS settings to determine whether audit logging is configured to produce logs consistent with the amount of space allocated for logging. If auditing will generate excessive logs so that they may outgrow the space reserved for logging, this is a finding.

If file-based auditing is in use, check that sufficient space is available to support the file(s). If not, this is a finding

If standard, table-based auditing is used: The audit logs are written to a table called AUD$, and if a Virtual Private Database is deployed, we also create a table called FGA_LOG$. First check the current location of the audit trail tables.

CONN / AS SYSDBA

SELECT table_name, tablespace_name
FROM dba_tables
WHERE table_name IN ('AUD$', 'FGA_LOG$')
ORDER BY table_name;

TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME
-------------- ------------------
AUD$ SYSTEM
FGA_LOG$ SYSTEM

If the tablespace_name is SYSTEM, the table needs to be relocated to its own tablespace. Ensure that adequate space is allocated to that tablespace.

If Unified Auditing is used:
Audit logs are written to tables in the AUDSYS schema. The default tablespace for AUDSYS is USERS. A separate tablespace should be created to contain audit data. Ensure that adequate space is allocated to that tablespace.

Fix

Allocate sufficient disk space for file-based audit.

Ensure that audit tables are in their own tablespaces and that the tablespaces have enough room for the volume of log data that will be produced.
V-61615 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-005700 Rule ID: SV-76105r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001849

Discussion

Applications need to be cognizant of potential audit log storage capacity issues. During the installation and/or configuration process, applications should detect and determine if adequate storage capacity has been allocated for audit logs.

During the installation process, a notification may be provided to the installer indicating, based on the auditing configuration chosen and the amount of storage space allocated for audit logs, the amount of storage capacity available is not sufficient to meet storage requirements.

When insufficient space in directories is allocated for audit records, database audit logs can fill up and begin to overwrite earlier logs, database activity can stop altogether, or auditing could fail and crucial tracking data could be lost.

Checks

Review the DBMS settings to determine whether audit logging is configured to produce logs consistent with the amount of space allocated for logging. If auditing will generate excessive logs so that they may outgrow the space reserved for logging, this is a finding.

If file-based auditing is in use, check that sufficient space is available to support the file(s). If not, this is a finding

If standard, table-based auditing is used: The audit logs are written to a table called AUD$, and if a Virtual Private Database is deployed, we also create a table called FGA_LOG$. First check the current location of the audit trail tables.

CONN / AS SYSDBA

SELECT table_name, tablespace_name
FROM dba_tables
WHERE table_name IN ('AUD$', 'FGA_LOG$')
ORDER BY table_name;

TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME
------------------------------ ------------------------------
AUD$ SYSTEM
FGA_LOG$ SYSTEM

If the tablespace name is SYSTEM, the table needs to be relocated to its own tablespace. Ensure that adequate space is allocated to that tablespace.

If Unified Auditing is used:
Audit logs are written to tables in the AUDSYS schema. The default tablespace for AUDSYS is USERS. A separate tablespace should be created to contain audit data. Ensure that adequate space is allocated to that tablespace.

Fix

Allocate sufficient disk space for file-based audit.

Ensure that audit tables are in their own tablespaces and that the tablespaces have enough room for the volume of log data that will be produced.
V-61617 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-006600 Rule ID: SV-76107r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002165

Discussion

Discretionary Access Control (DAC) is based on the premise that individual users are "owners" of objects and therefore have discretion over who should be authorized to access the object and in which mode (e.g., read or write). Ownership is usually acquired as a consequence of creating the object or via specified ownership assignment.

DAC allows the owner to determine who will have access to objects they control. An example of DAC includes user-controlled file permissions. DAC models have the potential for the access controls to propagate without limit, resulting in unauthorized access to said objects.

When applications provide a discretionary access control mechanism, the application must be able to limit the propagation of those access rights.

The DBMS must ensure the recipient of permissions possesses only the access intended. The database must enforce the ability to limit rights propagation if that is the intent of the grantor. If the propagation of access rights is not limited, users with rights to objects they do not own can continue to grant rights to those objects to other users without limit.

This is default behavior for Oracle.

Checks

Verify the DBMS has the ability to grant permissions without the grantee receiving the right to grant those same permissions to another user.

Review organization policies regarding access propagation. If an access propagation policy limiting the propagation of rights does not exist, this is a finding.

Review DBMS configuration to verify access propagation policies are enforced by the DBMS as configured. If the DBMS does not enforce the access propagation policy, this is a finding.

Fix

Create and document an access propagation policy that limits the propagation of rights.

Configure the DBMS to enforce the access propagation policy.

When a user is granted access to an object, they have access to the object. When a user is granted access to an object with the GRANT option, then they can provide permissions to others. Without the GRANT option, a user cannot grant access to an object. No configuration is required.
V-61619 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-006700 Rule ID: SV-76109r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002165

Discussion

DAC is based on the notion that individual users are "owners" of objects and therefore have discretion over who should be authorized to access the object and in which mode (e.g., read or write). Ownership is usually acquired as a consequence of creating the object or via specified ownership assignment.

DAC allows the owner to determine who will have access to objects they control. An example of DAC includes user-controlled file permissions.

Including or excluding access to the granularity of a single user means providing the capability to either allow or deny access to objects (e.g., files, folders) on a per single user basis.

Databases using DAC must have the ability for the owner of an object or information to assign or revoke rights to view or modify the object or information. If the owner of an object or information does not have rights to exclude access to an object or information at a user level, users may gain access to objects and information they are not authorized to view/modify.

Checks

Check DBMS settings and documentation to determine if users are able to assign and revoke rights to the objects and information they own. If users cannot assign or revoke rights to the objects and information they own to the granularity of a single user, this is a finding.

(This is default Oracle behavior.)

Fix

Modify DBMS settings to allow users to assign or revoke access rights to objects and information owned by the user. The ability to grant or revoke rights must include the ability to grant or revoke those rights down to the granularity of a single user.

(This is default Oracle behavior.)
V-61621 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-006800 Rule ID: SV-76111r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000169

Discussion

Audit records can be generated from various components within the information system. (e.g., network interface, hard disk, modem, etc.). From an application perspective, certain specific application functionalities may be audited as well.

The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating audit records (i.e., auditable events, timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, file names involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked).

Organizations define which application components shall provide auditable events.

The DBMS must provide auditing for the list of events defined by the organization or risk negatively impacting forensic investigations into malicious behavior in the information system. Audit records can be generated from various components within the information system, such as network interfaces, hard disks, modems, etc. From an application perspective, certain specific application functionalities may be audited, as well.

The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating audit records (i.e., auditable events, timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, file names involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked).

Organizations may define the organizational personnel accountable for determining which application components shall provide auditable events.

Auditing provides accountability for changes made to the DBMS configuration or its objects and data. It provides a means to discover suspicious activity and unauthorized changes. Without auditing, a compromise may go undetected and without a means to determine accountability.

The Department of Defense has established the following as the minimum set of auditable events. Most can be audited via Oracle settings; some - marked here with an asterisk - cannot, and may require OS settings.
- Successful and unsuccessful attempts to access, modify, or delete privileges, security objects, security levels, or categories of information (e.g. classification levels).
- Successful and unsuccessful logon attempts, privileged activities or other system level access
- Starting and ending time for user access to the system, concurrent logons from different workstations.
- Successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects.
- All program initiations.
- *All direct access to the information system.
- All account creations, modifications, disabling, and terminations.
- *All kernel module loads, unloads, and restarts.

Checks

Verify, using vendor and system documentation if necessary, that the DBMS is configured to use Oracle's auditing features, or that a third-party product or custom code is deployed and configured to satisfy this requirement.

If a third-party product or custom code is used, compare its current configuration with the audit requirements. If any of the requirements is not covered by the configuration, this is a finding.

The remainder of this Check is applicable specifically where Oracle auditing is in use.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL
or the following SQL query:
SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';
If Oracle returns the value 'NONE', this is a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing information on the required events, review the contents of the SYS.AUD$ table or the audit file, whichever is in use. If auditable events are not listed, this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SELECT * FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Unified Auditing';
If Oracle returns the value 'TRUE', this is not a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing information on the required events, review the contents of the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view. If auditable events are not listed, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the DBMS's auditing to audit organization-defined auditable events. If preferred, use a third-party tool. The tool must provide the minimum capability to audit the required events.

If using a third-party product, proceed in accordance with the product documentation. If using Oracle's capabilities, proceed as follows.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:
ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=<audit trail type> SCOPE=SPFILE;
Audit trail type can be 'OS', 'DB', 'DB,EXTENDED', 'XML' or 'XML,EXTENDED'.
After executing this statement, it may be necessary to shut down and restart the Oracle database.

If the site-specific audit requirements are not covered by the default audit options, deploy and configure Fine-Grained Auditing. For details, refer to Oracle documentation at the locations below.

If Unified Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database. Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810

If the site-specific audit requirements are not covered by the default audit options, deploy and configure Fine-Grained Auditing. For details, refer to Oracle documentation at the locations above.
V-61623 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-006900 Rule ID: SV-76113r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000171

Discussion

The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating audit records (i.e., auditable events, timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, file names involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked).

If the list of auditable events is not configurable, events that should be caught by auditing may be missed. This may allow malicious activity to be overlooked.

Checks

Check DBMS settings and documentation to determine whether designated personnel are able to select which auditable events are being audited. If designated personnel are not able to configure auditable events, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the DBMS's settings to allow designated personnel to select which auditable events are audited.

Note the following:
In Oracle, any user can configure auditing for the objects in his or her own schema by using the AUDIT statement. To undo the audit configuration for an object, the user can use the NOAUDIT statement. No additional privileges are needed to perform this task.

To audit objects in another schema, the user must have the AUDIT ANY system privilege.
To audit system privileges, the user must have the AUDIT SYSTEM privilege.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
V-61625 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-007000 Rule ID: SV-76115r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000172

Discussion

Audit records can be generated from various components within the information system, such as network interfaces, hard disks, modems, etc. From an application perspective, certain specific application functionalities may be audited, as well.

The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating audit records (i.e., auditable events, timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, file names involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked).

Organizations may define the organizational personnel accountable for determining which application components shall provide auditable events.

Auditing provides accountability for changes made to the DBMS configuration or its objects and data. It provides a means to discover suspicious activity and unauthorized changes. Without auditing, a compromise may go undetected and without a means to determine accountability.

The Department of Defense has established the following as the minimum set of auditable events. Most can be audited via Oracle settings; some - marked here with an asterisk - cannot, and may require OS settings.
- Successful and unsuccessful attempts to access, modify, or delete privileges, security objects, security levels, or categories of information (e.g. classification levels).
- Successful and unsuccessful logon attempts, privileged activities or other system level access
- Starting and ending time for user access to the system, concurrent logons from different workstations.
- Successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects.
- All program initiations.
- *All direct access to the information system.
- All account creations, modifications, disabling, and terminations.
- *All kernel module loads, unloads, and restarts.

Checks

Check DBMS settings to determine if auditing is being performed on the events on the DoD-selected list of auditable events that lie within the scope of Oracle audit capabilities:
- Successful and unsuccessful attempts to access, modify, or delete privileges, security objects, security levels, or categories of information (e.g., classification levels).
- Successful and unsuccessful logon attempts, privileged activities or other system-level access
- Starting and ending time for user access to the system, concurrent logons from different workstations.
- Successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects.
- All program initiations.
- All account creations, modifications, disabling, and terminations.

If auditing is not being performed for any of these events, this is a finding.

Notes on Oracle audit capabilities follow.

Unified Audit supports named audit policies, which are defined using the CREATE AUDIT POLICY statement. A policy specifies the actions that should be audited and the objects to which it should apply. If no specific objects are included in the policy definition, it applies to all objects.

A named policy is enabled using the AUDIT POLICY statement. It can be enabled for all users, for specific users only, or for all except a specified list of users. The policy can audit successful actions, unsuccessful actions, or both.

Verifying existing audit policy: existing Unified Audit policies are listed in the view AUDIT_UNIFIED_POLICIES. The AUDIT_OPTION column contains one of the actions specified in a CREATE AUDIT POLICY statement. The AUDIT_OPTION_TYPE column contains 'STANDARD ACTION' for a policy that applies to all objects or 'OBJECT ACTION' for a policy that audits actions on a specific object.

select POLICY_NAME from SYS.AUDIT_UNIFIED_POLICIES where AUDIT_OPTION='GRANT' and AUDIT_OPTION_TYPE='STANDARD ACTION';

To find policies that audit privilege grants on specific objects:

select POLICY_NAME,OBJECT_SCHEMA,OBJECT_NAME from SYS.AUDIT_UNIFIED_POLICIES where AUDIT_OPTION='GRANT' and AUDIT_OPTION_TYPE='OBJECT ACTION';

The view AUDIT_UNIFIED_ENABLED_POLICIES shows which Unified Audit policies are enabled. The ENABLED_OPT and USER_NAME columns show the users for whom the policy is enabled or 'ALL USERS'. The SUCCESS and FAILURE columns indicate if the policy is enabled for successful or unsuccessful actions, respectively.

select POLICY_NAME,ENABLED_OPT,USER_NAME,SUCCESS,FAILURE from SYS.AUDIT_UNIFIED_ENABLED_POLICIES where POLICY_NAME='POLICY1';

Fix

Configure the DBMS's auditing settings to include auditing of events on the DoD-selected list of auditable events.

1) Successful and unsuccessful attempts to access, modify, or delete privileges, security objects, security levels, or categories of information (e.g., classification levels)

To audit granting and revocation of any privilege:
create audit policy policy1 actions grant;
create audit policy policy2 actions revoke;

To audit grants of object privileges on a specific object:
create audit policy policy3 actions grant on <schema>.<object>;

If Oracle Label Security is enabled, this will audit all OLS administrative actions:
create audit policy policy4 actions component = OLS all;

2) Successful and unsuccessful logon attempts, privileged activities or other system-level access

To audit all user logon attempts:
create audit policy policy5 actions logon;

To audit only logon attempts using administrative privileges (e.g. AS SYSDBA):
audit policy policy5 by SYS, SYSOPER, SYSBACKUP, SYSDG, SYSKM;

3) Starting and ending time for user access to the system, concurrent logons from different workstations

This policy will audit all logon and logoff events. An individual session is identified in the UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL by the tuple (DBID, INSTANCE_ID, SESSIONID) and the start and end time will be indicated by the EVENT_TIMESTAMP of the logon and logoff events:
create audit policy policy6 actions logon, logoff;

4) Successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects

To audit all accesses to a specific table:
create audit policy policy7 actions select, insert, delete, alter on <schema>.<object>;

Different actions are defined for other object types. To audit all supported actions on a specific object:
create audit policy policy8 actions all on <schema>.<object>;

5) All program initiations

To audit execution of any PL/SQL program unit:
create audit policy policy9 actions EXECUTE;

To audit execution of a specific function, procedure, or package:
create audit policy policy10 actions EXECUTE on <schema>.<object>;

6) All direct access to the information system

[Not applicable to Database audit. Monitor using OS auditing.]

7) All account creations, modifications, disabling, and terminations

To audit all user administration actions:
create audit policy policy11 actions create user, alter user, drop user, change password;

8) All kernel module loads, unloads, and restarts

[Not applicable to Database audit. Monitor using OS auditing.]

9) All database parameter changes

To audit any database parameter changes, dynamic or static:
create audit policy policy12 actions alter database, alter system, create spfile;

Applying the Policy

The following command will enable the policy in all database sessions and audit both successful and unsuccessful actions:
audit policy policy1;

To audit only unsuccessful actions, add the WHENEVER NOT SUCCESSFUL modifier:
audit policy policy1 whenever not successful;

Either command above can be limited to only database sessions started by a specific user as follows:
audit policy policy1 by <user>;
audit policy policy1 by <user> whenever not successful;
V-61627 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-007400 Rule ID: SV-76117r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000130

Discussion

Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes: timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, file names involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked.

Database software is capable of a range of actions on data stored within the database. It is important, for accurate forensic analysis, to know exactly what actions were performed. This requires specific information regarding the event type an audit record is referring to. If event type information is not recorded and stored with the audit record, the record itself is of very limited use.

Checks

Verify, using vendor and system documentation if necessary, that the DBMS is configured to use Oracle's auditing features, or that a third-party product or custom code is deployed and configured to satisfy this requirement.

If a third-party product or custom code is used, compare its current configuration with the audit requirements. If any of the requirements is not covered by the configuration, this is a finding.

The remainder of this Check is applicable specifically where Oracle auditing is in use.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL

or the following SQL query:

SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';

If Oracle returns the value "NONE", this is a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing sufficient information to establish the identity of the user/subject or process, perform a successful auditable action and an auditable action that results in an SQL error, and then view the results in the SYS.AUD$ table or the audit file, whichever is in use.

If no ACTION#, or the wrong value, is returned for the auditable actions just performed, this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SELECT * FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Unified Auditing';

If Oracle returns the value "TRUE", this is not a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing sufficient information to establish the identity of the user/subject or process, perform a successful auditable action and an auditable action that results in an SQL error, and then view the results in the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view.

If no ACTION#, or the wrong value, is returned for the auditable actions just performed, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the DBMS's auditing to audit standard and organization-defined auditable events, the audit record to include what type of event occurred. If preferred, use a third-party or custom tool.

If using a third-party product, proceed in accordance with the product documentation. If using Oracle's capabilities, proceed as follows.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:

ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=<audit trail type> SCOPE=SPFILE;

Audit trail type can be 'OS', 'DB', 'DB,EXTENDED', 'XML' or 'XML,EXTENDED'.
After executing this statement, it may be necessary to shut down and restart the Oracle database.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To ensure auditable events are captured:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database.
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810
V-61631 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-007500 Rule ID: SV-76121r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000131

Discussion

Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes: timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, file names involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked.

Database software is capable of a range of actions on data stored within the database. It's important, for accurate forensic analysis, to know exactly when specific actions were performed. This requires the date and time an audit record is referring to. If date and time information is not recorded and stored with the audit record, the record itself is of very limited use.

Checks

Verify, using vendor and system documentation if necessary, that the DBMS is configured to use Oracle's auditing features, or that a third-party product or custom code is deployed and configured to satisfy this requirement.

If a third-party product or custom code is used, compare its current configuration with the audit requirements. If any of the requirements is not covered by the configuration, this is a finding.

The remainder of this Check is applicable specifically where Oracle auditing is in use.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL

or the following SQL query:

SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';

If Oracle returns the value 'NONE', this is a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing sufficient information to establish when events occurred, perform a successful auditable action and an auditable action that results in an SQL error, and then view the results in the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view.

If no timestamp, or the wrong value, is returned for the auditable actions just performed, this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SELECT * FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Unified Auditing';

If Oracle returns the value "TRUE", this is not a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing sufficient information to establish when events occurred, perform a successful auditable action and an auditable action that results in an SQL error, and then view the results in the SYS.AUD$ table or the audit file, whichever is in use.

If no timestamp, or the wrong value, is returned for the auditable actions just performed, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the DBMS's auditing to audit standard and organization-defined auditable events, the audit record to include the date and time of any user/subject or process associated with the event. If preferred, use a third-party or custom tool.

If using a third-party product, proceed in accordance with the product documentation. If using Oracle's capabilities, proceed as follows.

To ensure auditable events are captured:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database.
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD
V-61633 Updated
Findings ID: O121-C2-007600 Rule ID: SV-76123r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000132

Discussion

Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes: timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, file names involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked.

Without sufficient information establishing where the audit events occurred, investigation into the cause of events is severely hindered.

Checks

Verify, using vendor and system documentation if necessary, that the DBMS is configured to use Oracle's auditing features, or that a third-party product or custom code is deployed and configured to satisfy this requirement.

If a third-party product or custom code is used, compare its current configuration with the audit requirements. If any of the requirements is not covered by the configuration, this is a finding.

The remainder of this Check is applicable specifically where Oracle auditing is in use.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL

or the following SQL query:

SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';

If Oracle returns the value 'NONE', this is a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing sufficient information to establish where events occurred, perform a successful auditable action and an auditable action that results in an SQL error, and then view the results in the SYS.AUD$ table or the audit file, whichever is in use.

If no DB ID or Object Creator
(standard audit) or Object Schema (unified audit) or Object Name, or the wrong values, are returned for the auditable actions just performed, this is a finding.

If correct values for User Host and Terminal are not returned when applicable, this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SELECT * FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Unified Auditing';

If Oracle returns the value "TRUE", this is not a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing sufficient information to establish where events occurred, perform a successful auditable action and an auditable action that results in an SQL error, and then view the results in the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view.

If no DB ID or Object Creator
or Object Name, or the wrong values, are returned for the auditable actions just performed, this is a finding.

If correct values for User Host and Terminal are not returned when applicable, this is a finding.
(standard audit) or Object Schema (unified audit) or Object Name, or the wrong values,
are returned for the auditable actions just performed, this is a finding.

If correct values for User Host and Terminal are not returned when applicable, this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used, the following view can be useful for reviewing its output:

CREATE OR REPLACE FORCE VIEW SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL
(
AUDIT_TYPE,
SESSIONID,
PROXY_SESSIONID,
OS_USERNAME,
USERHOST,
TERMINAL,
INSTANCE_ID,
DBID,
AUTHENTICATION_TYPE,
DBUSERNAME,
DBPROXY_USERNAME,
EXTERNAL_USERID,
GLOBAL_USERID,
CLIENT_PROGRAM_NAME,
DBLINK_INFO,
XS_USER_NAME,
XS_SESSIONID,
ENTRY_ID,
STATEMENT_ID,
EVENT_TIMESTAMP,
ACTION_NAME,
RETURN_CODE,
OS_PROCESS,
TRANSACTION_ID,
SCN,
EXECUTION_ID,
OBJECT_SCHEMA,
OBJECT_NAME,
SQL_TEXT,
SQL_BINDS,
APPLICATION_CONTEXTS,
CLIENT_IDENTIFIER,
NEW_SCHEMA,
NEW_NAME,
OBJECT_EDITION,
SYSTEM_PRIVILEGE_USED,
SYSTEM_PRIVILEGE,
AUDIT_OPTION,
OBJECT_PRIVILEGES,
ROLE,
TARGET_USER,
EXCLUDED_USER,
EXCLUDED_SCHEMA,
EXCLUDED_OBJECT,
ADDITIONAL_INFO,
UNIFIED_AUDIT_POLICIES,
FGA_POLICY_NAME,
XS_INACTIVITY_TIMEOUT,
XS_ENTITY_TYPE,
XS_TARGET_PRINCIPAL_NAME,
XS_PROXY_USER_NAME,
XS_DATASEC_POLICY_NAME,
XS_SCHEMA_NAME,
XS_CALLBACK_EVENT_TYPE,
XS_PACKAGE_NAME,
XS_PROCEDURE_NAME,
XS_ENABLED_ROLE,
XS_COOKIE,
XS_NS_NAME,
XS_NS_ATTRIBUTE,
XS_NS_ATTRIBUTE_OLD_VAL,
XS_NS_ATTRIBUTE_NEW_VAL,
DV_ACTION_CODE,
DV_ACTION_NAME,
DV_EXTENDED_ACTION_CODE,
DV_GRANTEE,
DV_RETURN_CODE,
DV_ACTION_OBJECT_NAME,
DV_RULE_SET_NAME,
DV_COMMENT,
DV_FACTOR_CONTEXT,
DV_OBJECT_STATUS,
OLS_POLICY_NAME,
OLS_GRANTEE,
OLS_MAX_READ_LABEL,
OLS_MAX_WRITE_LABEL,
OLS_MIN_WRITE_LABEL,
OLS_PRIVILEGES_GRANTED,
OLS_PROGRAM_UNIT_NAME,
OLS_PRIVILEGES_USED,
OLS_STRING_LABEL,
OLS_LABEL_COMPONENT_TYPE,
OLS_LABEL_COMPONENT_NAME,
OLS_PARENT_GROUP_NAME,
OLS_OLD_VALUE,
OLS_NEW_VALUE,
RMAN_SESSION_RECID,
RMAN_SESSION_STAMP,
RMAN_OPERATION,
RMAN_OBJECT_TYPE,
RMAN_DEVICE_TYPE,
DP_TEXT_PARAMETERS1,
DP_BOOLEAN_PARAMETERS1,
DIRECT_PATH_NUM_COLUMNS_LOADED
)
AS
SELECT act.component,
sessionid,
proxy_sessionid,
os_user,
host_name,
terminal,
instance_id,
dbid,
authentication_type,
userid,
proxy_userid,
external_userid,
global_userid,
client_program_name,
dblink_info,
xs_user_name,
xs_sessionid,
entry_id,
statement_id,
CAST (event_timestamp AS TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE),
act.name,
return_code,
os_process,
transaction_id,
scn,
execution_id,
obj_owner,
obj_name,
sql_text,
sql_binds,
application_contexts,
client_identifier,
new_owner,
new_name,
object_edition,
system_privilege_used,
spx.name,
aom.name,
object_privileges,
role,
target_user,
excluded_user,
excluded_schema,
excluded_object,
additional_info,
unified_audit_policies,
fga_policy_name,
xs_inactivity_timeout,
xs_entity_type,
xs_target_principal_name,
xs_proxy_user_name,
xs_datasec_policy_name,
xs_schema_name,
xs_callback_event_type,
xs_package_name,
xs_procedure_name,
xs_enabled_role,
xs_cookie,

Fix

Configure the DBMS's auditing to audit standard and organization-defined auditable events, the audit record to include where the event occurred. If preferred, use a third-party or custom tool.

If using a third-party product, proceed in accordance with the product documentation. If using Oracle's capabilities, proceed as follows.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:

ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=<audit trail type> SCOPE=SPFILE;

Audit trail type can be 'OS', 'DB', 'DB,EXTENDED', 'XML' or 'XML,EXTENDED'.
After executing this statement, it may be necessary to shut down and restart the Oracle database.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To ensure auditable events are captured:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database.
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810
V-61635 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-007700 Rule ID: SV-76125r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000133

Discussion

Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control, includes, but is not limited to: timestamps, source and destination IP addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, application specific events, success/fail indications, file names involved, access control or flow control rules invoked.

Without information establishing the source of activity, the value of audit records from a forensics perspective is questionable.

Checks

Verify, using vendor and system documentation if necessary, that the DBMS is configured to use Oracle's auditing features, or that a third-party product or custom code is deployed and configured to satisfy this requirement.

If a third-party product or custom code is used, compare its current configuration with the audit requirements. If any of the requirements is not covered by the configuration, this is a finding.

The remainder of this Check is applicable specifically where Oracle auditing is in use.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL

or the following SQL query:

SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';

If Oracle returns the value 'NONE', this is a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing sufficient information to establish the source of events, perform a successful auditable action and an auditable action that results in an SQL error, and then view the results in the SYS.AUD$ table or the audit file, whichever is in use.

If correct values for User ID, User Host, and Terminal are not returned when applicable, this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SELECT * FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Unified Auditing';

If Oracle returns the value "TRUE", this is not a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing sufficient information to establish the source of events, perform a successful auditable action and an auditable action that results in an SQL error, and then view the results in the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view.

If correct values for User ID, User Host, and Terminal are not returned when applicable, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the DBMS's auditing to audit standard and organization-defined auditable events, the audit record to include the source of the event. If preferred, use a third-party or custom tool.

If using a third-party product, proceed in accordance with the product documentation. If using Oracle's capabilities, proceed as follows.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:

ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=<audit trail type> SCOPE=SPFILE;

Audit trail type can be 'OS', 'DB', 'DB,EXTENDED', 'XML' or 'XML,EXTENDED'.
After executing this statement, it may be necessary to shut down and restart the Oracle database.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To ensure auditable events are captured:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database.
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810
V-61637 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-007800 Rule ID: SV-76127r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000134

Discussion

Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes, but is not limited to: timestamps, source and destination IP addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, application specific events, success/fail indications, file names involved, access control, or flow control rules invoked.

Success and failure indicators ascertain the outcome of a particular event. As such, they also provide a means to measure the impact of an event and help authorized personnel to determine the appropriate response. Without knowing the outcome of audit events, it is very difficult to accurately recreate the series of events during forensic analysis.

Checks

Verify, using vendor and system documentation if necessary, that the DBMS is configured to use Oracle's auditing features, or that a third-party product or custom code is deployed and configured to satisfy this requirement.

If a third-party product or custom code is used, compare its current configuration with the audit requirements. If any of the requirements is not covered by the configuration, this is a finding.

The remainder of this Check is applicable specifically where Oracle auditing is in use.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL

or the following SQL query:

SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';

If Oracle returns the value 'NONE', this is a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing sufficient information to establish outcomes, perform a successful auditable action and an auditable action that results in an SQL error, and then view the results in the SYS.AUD$ table or the audit file, whichever is in use.

If no return code or other outcome information is returned for the auditable action just performed, this is a finding.

If error is indicated for the successful action, this is a finding. If no error is indicated for the unsuccessful action, this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SELECT * FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Unified Auditing';

If Oracle returns the value "TRUE", this is not a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing sufficient information to establish outcomes, perform a successful auditable action and an auditable action that results in an SQL error, and then view the results in the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view.

If no return code or other outcome information is returned for the auditable action just performed, this is a finding.

If error is indicated for the successful action, this is a finding.

If no error is indicated for the unsuccessful action, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the DBMS's auditing to audit standard and organization-defined auditable events, the audit record to include the outcome. If preferred, use a third-party or custom tool.

If using a third-party product, proceed in accordance with the product documentation. If using Oracle's capabilities, proceed as follows.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:

ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=<audit trail type> SCOPE=SPFILE;

Audit trail type can be 'OS', 'DB', 'DB,EXTENDED', 'XML' or 'XML,EXTENDED'.
After executing this statement, it may be necessary to shut down and restart the Oracle database.

If unified Auditing is used:
To ensure auditable events are captured:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database.
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810
V-61639 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-007900 Rule ID: SV-76129r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001487

Discussion

Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes: timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, file names involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked.

Database software is capable of a range of actions on data stored within the database. It is important, for accurate forensic analysis, to know exactly who performed a given action. If user identification information is not recorded and stored with the audit record, the record itself is of very limited use.

Checks

Verify, using vendor and system documentation if necessary, that the DBMS is configured to use Oracle's auditing features, or that a third-party product or custom code is deployed and configured to satisfy this requirement.

If a third-party product or custom code is used, compare its current configuration with the audit requirements. If any of the requirements is not covered by the configuration, this is a finding.

The remainder of this Check is applicable specifically where Oracle auditing is in use.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL

or the following SQL query:

SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';

If Oracle returns the value "NONE", this is a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing sufficient information to establish the identity of the user/subject or process, perform a successful auditable action and an auditable action that results in an SQL error, and then view the results in the SYS.AUD$ table or the audit file, whichever is in use.

If no user ID, or the wrong value, is returned for the auditable actions just performed, this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SELECT * FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Unified Auditing';

If Oracle returns the value "TRUE", this is not a finding.

To confirm that Oracle audit is capturing sufficient information to establish the identity of the user/subject or process, perform a successful auditable action and an auditable action that results in an SQL error, and then view the results in the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view, whichever is in use.

If no user ID, or the wrong value, is returned for the auditable actions just performed, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the DBMS's auditing to audit standard and organization-defined auditable events, the audit record to include the identity of any user/subject or process associated with the event. If preferred, use a third-party or custom tool.

If using a third-party product, proceed in accordance with the product documentation. If using Oracle's capabilities, proceed as follows.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:

ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=<audit trail type> SCOPE=SPFILE;

Audit trail type can be 'OS', 'DB', 'DB,EXTENDED', 'XML' or 'XML,EXTENDED'.
After executing this statement, it may be necessary to shut down and restart the Oracle database.

If unified Auditing is used:
To ensure auditable events are captured:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database.
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810
V-61641 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-008000 Rule ID: SV-76131r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000135

Discussion

Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes: timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, file names involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked.

In addition, the application must have the capability to include organization-defined additional, more detailed information in the audit records for audit events. These events may be identified by type, location, or subject.

An example of detailed information the organization may require in audit records is full-text recording of privileged commands or the individual identities of shared account users.

Some organizations may determine that more detailed information is required for specific database event types. If this information is not available, it could negatively impact forensic investigations into user actions or other malicious events.

Checks

Verify, using vendor and system documentation if necessary, that the DBMS is configured to use Oracle's auditing features, or that a third-party product or custom code is deployed and configured to satisfy this requirement.

If a third-party product or custom code is used, compare its current configuration with the audit requirements. If any of the requirements is not covered by the configuration, this is a finding.

The remainder of this Check is applicable specifically where Oracle auditing is in use.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL

or the following SQL query:

SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';

If Oracle returns the value "NONE", this is a finding.

Compare the organization-defined auditable events with the Oracle documentation to determine whether standard auditing covers all the requirements.

If it does, this is not a finding.

Compare those organization-defined auditable events that are not covered by the standard auditing, with the existing Fine-Grained Auditing (FGA) specifications returned by the following query:

SELECT * FROM SYS.DBA_FGA_AUDIT_TRAIL;

If any such auditable event is not covered by the existing FGA specifications, this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SELECT * FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Unified Auditing';

If Oracle returns the value "TRUE", this is not a finding.

Compare the organization-defined auditable events with the Oracle documentation to determine whether standard auditing covers all the requirements.

If it does, this is not a finding.

Compare those organization-defined auditable events that are not covered by the standard auditing, with the existing Fine-Grained Auditing (FGA) specifications returned by the following query:

SELECT * FROM SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL WHERE AUDIT_TYPE = 'FineGrainedAudit';

If any such auditable event is not covered by the existing FGA specifications, this is a finding.

Fix

Either configure the DBMS's auditing to audit organization-defined auditable events, or, if preferred, use a third-party or custom tool. The tool must provide the minimum capability to audit the required events.

If using a third-party product, proceed in accordance with the product documentation. If using Oracle's capabilities, proceed as follows.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:

ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=<audit trail type> SCOPE=SPFILE;

Audit trail type can be "OS", "DB", "DB,EXTENDED", "XML" or "XML,EXTENDED".

After executing this statement, it may be necessary to shut down and restart the Oracle database.

If the organization-defined additional audit requirements are not covered by the default audit options, deploy and configure Fine-Grained Auditing. For details, refer to Oracle documentation at the location below.

If the site-specific audit requirements are not covered by the default audit options, deploy and configure Fine-Grained Auditing. For details, refer to Oracle documentation, at the location below.

If Unified Auditing is used:
Use this process to ensure auditable events are captured:

SELECT * FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Unified Auditing';

If Oracle returns the value "TRUE", this is not a finding.

Otherwise,
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database. Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing.

If the organization-defined additional audit requirements are not covered by the default audit options, deploy and configure Fine-Grained Auditing. For details, refer to Oracle documentation at the location below.

If the site-specific audit requirements are not covered by the default audit options, deploy and configure Fine-Grained Auditing. For details, refer to Oracle documentation, at the location below.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810
V-61643 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-008200 Rule ID: SV-76133r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001855

Discussion

It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors, failures in the audit capturing mechanisms, and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded.

If audit log capacity were to be exceeded, then events subsequently occurring would not be recorded. Organizations shall define a maximum allowable percentage of storage capacity serving as an alarming threshold (e.g., application has exceeded 80% of log storage capacity allocated) at which time the application or the logging mechanism the application utilizes will provide a warning to the appropriate personnel.

A failure of database auditing will result in either the database continuing to function without auditing or in a complete halt to database operations. When audit processing fails, appropriate personnel must be alerted immediately to avoid further downtime or unaudited transactions. This can be an alert provided by the database, a log repository, or the OS when a designated log directory is nearing capacity.

Checks

Review DBMS, OS, or third-party logging application settings to determine whether a warning will be provided when a specific percentage of log storage capacity is reached.

If no warning will be provided, this is a finding.

Fix

Modify DBMS, OS, or third-party logging application settings to alert appropriate personnel when a specific percentage of log storage capacity is reached.

For ease of management, it is recommended that the audit tables be kept in a dedicated tablespace.

If Oracle Enterprise Manager is in use, the capability to issue such an alert is built in and configurable via the console so an email can be sent to a designated administrator.

If Enterprise Manager is unavailable, the following script can be used to monitor storage space; this can be combined with additional code to email the appropriate administrator so they can take action.

sqlplus connect as sysdba

set pagesize 300
set linesize 120
column sumb format 9,999,999,999,999
column extents format 999999
column bytes format 9,999,999,999,999
column largest format 9,999,999,999,999
column Tot_Size format 9,999,999,999,999
column Tot_Free format 9,999,999,999,999
column Pct_Free format 9,999,999,999,999
column Chunks_Free format 9,999,999,999,999
column Max_Free format 9,999,999,999,999
set echo off
spool TSINFO.txt
PROMPT SPACE AVAILABLE IN TABLESPACES
select a.tablespace_name,sum(a.tots) Tot_Size,
sum(a.sumb) Tot_Free,
sum(a.sumb)*100/sum(a.tots) Pct_Free,
sum(a.largest) Max_Free,sum(a.chunks) Chunks_Free
from
(
select tablespace_name,0 tots,sum(bytes) sumb,
max(bytes) largest,count(*) chunks
from dba_free_space a
group by tablespace_name
union
select tablespace_name,sum(bytes) tots,0,0,0 from
dba_data_files
group by tablespace_name) a
group by a.tablespace_name;

Sample Output

SPACE AVAILABLE IN TABLESPACES

TABLESPACE_NAME TOT_SIZE TOT_FREE PCT_FREE MAX_FREE CHUNKS_FREE
------------------------ ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------
DES2 41,943,040 30,935,040 74 30,935,040 1
DES2_I 31,457,280 23,396,352 74 23,396,352 1
RBS 60,817,408 57,085,952 94 52,426,752 16
SYSTEM 94,371,840 5,386,240 6 5,013,504 3
TEMP 563,200 561,152 100 133,120 5
TOOLS 120,586,240 89,407,488 74 78,190,592 12
USERS 1,048,576 26,624 3 26,624 1
V-61645 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-008300 Rule ID: SV-76135r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001858

Discussion

It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors, failures in the audit capturing mechanisms, and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded.

If audit log capacity were to be exceeded, then events subsequently occurring would not be recorded. Organizations shall define a maximum allowable percentage of storage capacity serving as an alarming threshold (e.g., application has exceeded 80% of log storage capacity allocated) at which time the application or the logging mechanism the application utilizes will provide a warning to the appropriate personnel.

A failure of database auditing will result in either the database continuing to function without auditing or in a complete halt to database operations. When audit processing fails, appropriate personnel must be alerted immediately to avoid further downtime or unaudited transactions. This can be an alert provided by the database, a log repository, or the OS when a designated log directory is nearing capacity.

If Oracle Enterprise Manager is in use, the capability to issue such an alert is built in and configurable via the console so an alert can be sent to a designated administrator.

Checks

Review Oracle Corp., OS, or third-party logging software settings to determine whether a real-time alert will be sent to the appropriate personnel when auditing fails for any reason.

If real-time alerts are not sent upon auditing failure, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure logging software to send a real-time alert to appropriate personnel when auditing fails for any reason.

(Oracle recommends the use of Oracle Enterprise Manager.)
V-61647 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-008500 Rule ID: SV-76137r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000139

Discussion

It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors, failures in the audit capturing mechanisms, and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded.

A failure of database auditing will result in either the database continuing to function without auditing or in a complete halt to database operations. When audit processing fails, appropriate personnel must be alerted immediately to avoid further downtime or unaudited transactions.

If Oracle Enterprise Manager is in use, the capability to issue such an alert is built in and configurable via the console so an alert can be sent to a designated administrator.

Checks

Review OS or third-party logging application settings to determine whether an alert will be sent to the designated organizational personnel when auditing fails for any reason.

If no alert will be sent, this is a finding.

Fix

Modify OS or third-party logging application settings to alert designated organizational personnel when auditing fails for any reason.

If Oracle Enterprise Manager is in use, the capability to issue such an alert is built in and configurable via the console so an alert can be sent to a designated administrator.
V-61649 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-008900 Rule ID: SV-76139r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000158

Discussion

Before a security review, information systems and/or applications with an audit reduction capability may remove many audit records known to have little security significance.

This is generally accomplished by removing records generated by specified classes of events, such as records generated by nightly backups.

An audit reduction capability provides support for near real-time audit review and analysis based on policy requirements regarding what must be audited on the system and after-the-fact investigations of security incidents. It is important to recognize audit reduction does not alter original audit records.

Audit reduction and reporting tools do not alter original audit records.

To leverage the complete capability of audit reduction, the application must possess the ability to specify and automatically process certain event criteria that are selectable in nature. In other words, a system administrator (SA) may be performing a manual review of audit data to identify a particular problem. The SA has determined that backup activity and network connections from a particular host comprise the bulk of the events. However, these events are not related to the activity being investigated. The application must be able to automatically process these audit records for audit reduction purposes rather than making the administrator manually process them.

The lack of audit reduction and reporting in a database can require the DBA, or others responsible for reviewing audit logs, to sort through large amounts of data in order to find relevant records. This can cause important audit records to be missed.

Oracle offers the choice of storing audit data internally in database tables, or in external files. The WHERE clause in the SELECT statement provides the necessary functionality for a table-based audit. For an audit based on external files (or for a table-based audit trail archived to external files) Oracle Database does not provide tools for retrieving and managing the data once written. Therefore, an external tool is needed.

Checks

Review the system (OS, applications external to Oracle, and/or a separate log aggregation and query server) to determine whether it provides the ability to automatically process audit records for events based on selectable event criteria. If the system does not provide these abilities, they may be handled by a separate application.

If the ability to automatically process audit records for events based on selectable event criteria does not exist, this is a finding.

Fix

Utilize a tool, application or service that provides the ability to automatically process audit records for events based on selectable event criteria.
V-61651 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-009000 Rule ID: SV-76141r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000158

Discussion

Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes: timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, file names involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked.

Detection of suspicious activity, including access attempts and successful access from unexpected places, during unexpected times, or other unusual indicators can support decisions to apply countermeasures to deter an attack. Without detection, malicious activity may proceed without hindrance.

Checks

Review any audit settings for:
- Unsuccessful logon attempts;
- Account locking events;
- Account disabling from a specific source location;
- Failed database object attempts or attempts to access objects that do not exist; and
- Other activities that may produce unexpected failures or trigger DBMS lockdown actions.

If any of the above events as applicable to the DBMS are not audited, this is a finding.

- - - - - -
Check the current users in the database to see what profile they are assigned. The logon attempts past a site-defined allowable number, along with account locking, is best performed using a profile that defines the limits on these activities as designed by the DBA at a specific site. Failed database object access or attempt to access objects is monitored by auditing. Checking other activities that may produce unexpected failures or trigger database lockdown procedures is possible, but the check for the existence of those procedures is not possible unless they are defined.

Check to see what profiles exist for the different users of the database.

SQL>col name format a20
col username format a21
col profile format a10
col "tmp tba" format a10
select u.username,
u.default_tablespace,
u.temporary_tablespace "TMP TBS",
u.profile,
r.granted_role,
r.admin_option,
r.default_role
from sys.dba_users u,
sys.dba_role_privs r
where u.username = r.grantee (+)
group by u.username,
u.default_tablespace,
u.temporary_tablespace,
u.profile,
r.granted_role,
r.admin_option,
r.default_role;

View existing profiles and see what their settings are.

SQL> select profile, resource_name, limit
from dba_profiles
order by profile, resource_name;

This is the audit table. Specific actions are logged in this table.

If Standard Auditing is used:
SQL> desc aud$;
Name Null? Type
----------------- ------- ------
SESSIONID NOT NULL NUMBER
ENTRYID NOT NULL NUMBER
STATEMENT NOT NULL NUMBER
TIMESTAMP# DATE
USERID VARCHAR2(30)
USERHOST VARCHAR2(128)
TERMINAL VARCHAR2(255)
ACTION# NOT NULL NUMBER
RETURNCODE NOT NULL NUMBER
OBJ$CREATOR VARCHAR2(30)
OBJ$NAME VARCHAR2(128)
AUTH$PRIVILEGES VARCHAR2(16)
AUTH$GRANTEE VARCHAR2(30)
NEW$OWNER VARCHAR2(30)
NEW$NAME VARCHAR2(128)
SES$ACTIONS VARCHAR2(19)
SES$TID NUMBER
LOGOFF$LREAD NUMBER
LOGOFF$PREAD NUMBER
LOGOFF$LWRITE NUMBER
LOGOFF$DEAD NUMBER
LOGOFF$TIME DATE
COMMENT$TEXT VARCHAR2(4000)
CLIENTID VARCHAR2(64)
SPARE1 VARCHAR2(255)
SPARE2 NUMBER
OBJ$LABEL RAW(255)
SES$LABEL RAW(255)
PRIV$USED NUMBER
SESSIONCPU NUMBER
NTIMESTAMP# TIMESTAMP(6)
PROXY$SID NUMBER
USER$GUID VARCHAR2(32)
INSTANCE# NUMBER
PROCESS# VARCHAR2(16)
XID RAW(8)
AUDITID VARCHAR2(64)
SCN NUMBER
DBID NUMBER
SQLBIND CLOB
SQLTEXT CLOB
OBJ$EDITION VARCHAR2(30)

If Unified Auditing is used:
SQL> desc unified_audit_trail;
Name Null Type
-------------- ------ ------
AUDIT_TYPE VARCHAR2(64)
SESSIONID NUMBER
PROXY_SESSIONID NUMBER
OS_USERNAME VARCHAR2(30)
USERHOST VARCHAR2(128)
TERMINAL VARCHAR2(30)
INSTANCE_ID NUMBER
DBID NUMBER
AUTHENTICATION_TYPE VARCHAR2(1024)
DBUSERNAME VARCHAR2(30)
DBPROXY_USERNAME VARCHAR2(30)
EXTERNAL_USERID VARCHAR2(1024)
GLOBAL_USERID VARCHAR2(32)
CLIENT_PROGRAM_NAME VARCHAR2(48)
DBLINK_INFO VARCHAR2(4000)
XS_USER_NAME VARCHAR2(128)
XS_SESSIONID RAW(33 BYTE)
ENTRY_ID NUMBER
STATEMENT_ID NUMBER
EVENT_TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP(6) WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE
ACTION_NAME VARCHAR2(64)
RETURN_CODE NUMBER
OS_PROCESS VARCHAR2(16)
TRANSACTION_ID RAW(8 BYTE)
SCN NUMBER
EXECUTION_ID VARCHAR2(64)
OBJECT_SCHEMA VARCHAR2(30)
OBJECT_NAME VARCHAR2(128)
SQL_TEXT CLOB
SQL_BINDS CLOB
APPLICATION_CONTEXTS VARCHAR2(4000)
CLIENT_IDENTIFIER VARCHAR2(64)
NEW_SCHEMA VARCHAR2(30)
NEW_NAME VARCHAR2(128)
OBJECT_EDITION VARCHAR2(30)
SYSTEM_PRIVILEGE_USED VARCHAR2(1024)
SYSTEM_PRIVILEGE VARCHAR2(40)
AUDIT_OPTION VARCHAR2(40)
OBJECT_PRIVILEGES VARCHAR2(19)
ROLE VARCHAR2(30)
TARGET_USER VARCHAR2(30)
EXCLUDED_USER VARCHAR2(30)
EXCLUDED_SCHEMA VARCHAR2(30)
EXCLUDED_OBJECT VARCHAR2(128)
ADDITIONAL_INFO VARCHAR2(4000)
UNIFIED_AUDIT_POLICIES VARCHAR2(4000)
FGA_POLICY_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
XS_INACTIVITY_TIMEOUT NUMBER
XS_ENTITY_TYPE VARCHAR2(32)
XS_TARGET_PRINCIPAL_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
XS_PROXY_USER_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
XS_DATASEC_POLICY_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
XS_SCHEMA_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
XS_CALLBACK_EVENT_TYPE VARCHAR2(32)
XS_PACKAGE_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
XS_PROCEDURE_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
XS_ENABLED_ROLE VARCHAR2(30)
XS_COOKIE VARCHAR2(1024)
XS_NS_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
XS_NS_ATTRIBUTE VARCHAR2(4000)
XS_NS_ATTRIBUTE_OLD_VAL VARCHAR2(4000)
XS_NS_ATTRIBUTE_NEW_VAL VARCHAR2(4000)
DV_ACTION_CODE NUMBER
DV_ACTION_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
DV_EXTENDED_ACTION_CODE NUMBER
DV_GRANTEE VARCHAR2(30)
DV_RETURN_CODE NUMBER
DV_ACTION_OBJECT_NAME VARCHAR2(128)
DV_RULE_SET_NAME VARCHAR2(90)
DV_COMMENT VARCHAR2(4000)
DV_FACTOR_CONTEXT VARCHAR2(4000)
DV_OBJECT_STATUS VARCHAR2(1)
OLS_POLICY_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
OLS_GRANTEE VARCHAR2(30)
OLS_MAX_READ_LABEL VARCHAR2(4000)
OLS_MAX_WRITE_LABEL VARCHAR2(4000)
OLS_MIN_WRITE_LABEL VARCHAR2(4000)
OLS_PRIVILEGES_GRANTED VARCHAR2(30)
OLS_PROGRAM_UNIT_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
OLS_PRIVILEGES_USED VARCHAR2(128)
OLS_STRING_LABEL VARCHAR2(4000)
OLS_LABEL_COMPONENT_TYPE VARCHAR2(12)
OLS_LABEL_COMPONENT_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
OLS_PARENT_GROUP_NAME VARCHAR2(30)
OLS_OLD_VALUE VARCHAR2(4000)
OLS_NEW_VALUE VARCHAR2(4000)
RMAN_SESSION_RECID NUMBER
RMAN_SESSION_STAMP NUMBER
RMAN_OPERATION VARCHAR2(20)
RMAN_OBJECT_TYPE VARCHAR2(20)
RMAN_DEVICE_TYPE VARCHAR2(5)
DP_TEXT_PARAMETERS1 VARCHAR2(512)
DP_BOOLEAN_PARAMETERS1 VARCHAR2(512)
DIRECT_PATH_NUM_COLUMNS_LOADED NUMBER

Fix

Configure auditing to capture the events listed below where available in the DBMS:
- Unsuccessful logon attempts
- Account locking events
- Account disabling from a specific source location
- Failed database object attempts or attempts to access objects that do not exist
- Other activities that may produce unexpected failures or trigger DBMS lockdown actions
V-61653 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-009300 Rule ID: SV-76143r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000162

Discussion

If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In addition, access to audit records provides information an attacker could potentially use to his or her advantage.

To ensure the veracity of audit data, the information system and/or the application must protect audit information from any and all unauthorized access. This includes read, write, copy, etc.

This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include ensuring log files enjoy the proper file system permissions utilizing file system protections and limiting log data location.

Additionally, applications with user interfaces to audit records must not allow for the unfettered manipulation of or access to those records via the application. If the application provides access to the audit data, the application becomes accountable for ensuring that audit information is protected from unauthorized access.

Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity.

Checks

Review locations of audit logs, both internal to the database and database audit logs located at the operating system-level. Verify there are appropriate controls and permissions to protect the audit information from unauthorized access.

If appropriate controls and permissions do not exist, this is a finding.

- - - - -
If Standard Auditing is used:
DBA_TAB_PRIVS describes all object grants in the database. Check to see who has permissions on the AUD$ table.

Related View

DBA_TAB_PRIVS describes the object grants for which the current user is the object owner, grantor, or grantee.
Column Datatype NULL Description
GRANTEE VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the user to whom access was granted
OWNER VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Owner of the object
TABLE_NAME VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the object
GRANTOR VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the user who performed the grant
PRIVILEGE VARCHAR2(40) NOT NULL Privilege on the object
GRANTABLE VARCHAR2(3) Indicates whether the privilege was granted with the GRANT OPTION (YES) or not (NO)
HIERARCHY VARCHAR2(3) Indicates whether the privilege was granted with the HIERARCHY OPTION (YES) or not (NO)
COMMON VARCHAR2(3)
TYPE VARCHAR2(24)

sqlplus connect as sysdba;

SQL> SELECT GRANTEE, TABLE_NAME, PRIVILEGE
FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS where table_name = 'AUD$';

If Unified Auditing is used:
DBA_TAB_PRIVS describes all object grants in the database. Check to see who has permissions on the AUDSYS tables.

Related View

DBA_TAB_PRIVS describes the object grants for which the current user is the object owner, grantor, or grantee.
Column Datatype NULL Description
GRANTEE VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the user to whom access was granted
OWNER VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Owner of the object
TABLE_NAME VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the object
GRANTOR VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the user who performed the grant
PRIVILEGE VARCHAR2(40) NOT NULL Privilege on the object
GRANTABLE VARCHAR2(3) Indicates whether the privilege was granted with the GRANT OPTION (YES) or not (NO)
HIERARCHY VARCHAR2(3) Indicates whether the privilege was granted with the HIERARCHY OPTION (YES) or not (NO)
COMMON VARCHAR2(3)
TYPE VARCHAR2(24)

sqlplus connect as sysdba;

SQL> SELECT GRANTEE, TABLE_NAME, PRIVILEGE
FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS where owner='AUDSYS';

Fix

Add controls and modify permissions to protect database audit log data from unauthorized access, whether stored in the database itself or at the OS level.
V-61655 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-009400 Rule ID: SV-76145r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000163

Discussion

If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve.

To ensure the veracity of audit data, the information system and/or the application must protect audit information from unauthorized modification.

This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include ensuring log files enjoy the proper file system permissions and limiting log data locations.

Applications providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights that the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the modification of audit data.

Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity.

Modification of database audit data could mask the theft of, or the unauthorized modification of, sensitive data stored in the database.

Checks

Review locations of audit logs, both internal to the database and database audit logs located at the operating system-level. Verify there are appropriate controls and permissions to protect the audit information from unauthorized modification.

If appropriate controls and permissions do not exist, this is a finding.

- - - - -
If Standard Auditing is used:
DBA_TAB_PRIVS describes all object grants in the database. Check to see who has permissions on the AUD$ table.

Related View

DBA_TAB_PRIVS describes the object grants for which the current user is the object owner, grantor, or grantee.
Column Datatype NULL Description
GRANTEE VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the user to whom access was granted
VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Owner of the object
TABLE_NA VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the object
GRANTOR VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the user who performed the grant
PRIVILEGE VARCHAR2(40) NOT NULL Privilege on the object
GRANTABLE VARCHAR2(3) Indicates whether the privilege was granted with the GRANT OPTION (YES) or not (NO)
HIERARCHY VARCHAR2(3) Indicates whether the privilege was granted with the HIERARCHY OPTION (YES) or not (NO)
COMMON VARCHAR2(3)
TYPE VARCHAR2(24)

sqlplus connect as sysdba;

SQL> SELECT GRANTEE, TABLE_NAME, PRIVILEGE
FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS where table_name = 'AUD$';

If Unified Auditing is used:
DBA_TAB_PRIVS describes all object grants in the database. Check to see who has permissions on the AUDSYS tables.

Related View

DBA_TAB_PRIVS describes the object grants for which the current user is the object owner, grantor, or grantee.
Column Datatype NULL Description
GRANTEE VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the user to whom access was granted
OWNER VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Owner of the object
TABLE_NAME VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the object
GRANTOR VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the user who performed the grant
PRIVILEGE VARCHAR2(40) NOT NULL Privilege on the object
GRANTABLE VARCHAR2(3) Indicates whether the privilege was granted with the GRANT OPTION (YES) or not (NO)
HIERARCHY VARCHAR2(3) Indicates whether the privilege was granted with the HIERARCHY OPTION (YES) or not (NO)
COMMON VARCHAR2(3)
TYPE VARCHAR2(24)

sqlplus connect as sysdba;

SQL> SELECT GRANTEE, TABLE_NAME, PRIVILEGE
FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS where owner='AUDSYS';

Fix

Add controls and modify permissions to protect database audit log data from unauthorized modification, whether stored in the database itself or at the OS level.

- - - - -
If Standard Auditing is used:
Revoke access to the AUD$ table to anyone who should not have access to it.

In the check we looked for all users who had access to the AUD$ table. To fix this, use the REVOKE command to revoke access to users who should not have access to the audit data.

REVOKE statement

Use the REVOKE statement to remove permissions from a specific user or from all users to perform actions on database objects.
The following types of permissions can be revoked:

Delete data from a specific table.
Insert data into a specific table.
Create a foreign key reference to the named table or to a subset of columns from a table.
Select data from a table, view, or a subset of columns in a table.
Create a trigger on a table.
Update data in a table or in a subset of columns in a table.
Run a specified routine (function or procedure).

If a user named FRED had access to the AUD$ table and wanting to revoke that access, use the following command. The syntax that would be used for the REVOKE statement for tables is as follows:

REVOKE privilege-type ON [ TABLE ] { table-Name | view-Name } FROM grantees

SQL>REVOKE SELECT ON TABLE AUD$ FROM FRED;

Revoking a privilege without specifying a column list revokes the privilege for all of the columns in the table.
Syntax for routines

table-privileges include

DELETE |
INSERT |
REFERENCES [column list] |
SELECT [column list] |
TRIGGER |
UPDATE [column list]

column list

( column-identifier {, column-identifier}* )

Use the ALL PRIVILEGES privilege type to revoke all of the permissions from the user for the specified table. Can also revoke one or more table privileges by specifying a privilege-list.

Use the DELETE privilege type to revoke permission to delete rows from the specified table.

Use the INSERT privilege type to revoke permission to insert rows into the specified table.

Use the REFERENCES privilege type to revoke permission to create a foreign key reference to the specified table. If a column list is specified with the REFERENCES privilege, the permission is revoked on only the foreign key reference to the specified columns.

Use the SELECT privilege type to revoke permission to perform SELECT statements on a table or view. If a column list is specified with the SELECT privilege, the permission is revoked on only those columns. If no column list is specified, then the privilege is valid on all of the columns in the table.

Use the TRIGGER privilege type to revoke permission to create a trigger on the specified table.

Use the UPDATE privilege type to revoke permission to use the UPDATE statement on the specified table. If a column list is specified, the permission is revoked only on the specified columns.
grantees

{ authorization ID | PUBLIC } [,{ authorization ID | PUBLIC } ] *

Can revoke the privileges from specific users or from all users. Use the keyword PUBLIC to specify all users. The privileges revoked from PUBLIC and from individual users are independent privileges. For example, a SELECT privilege on table t is granted to both PUBLIC and to the authorization ID harry. The SELECT privilege is later revoked from the authorization ID 'Harry', but the authorization ID 'Harry' can access the table through the PUBLIC privilege.

Restriction: Cannot revoke the privileges of the owner of an object.
routine-designator

{
qualified-name [ signature ]
}

Cascading object dependencies

For views, triggers, and constraints, if the privilege on which the object depends is revoked, the object is automatically dropped. Derby does not try to determine if there are other privileges that can replace the privileges that are being revoked. For more information, see "SQL standard authorization" in the Java DB Developer's Guide.
Limitations

The following limitations apply to the REVOKE statement:

Table-level privileges:

All of the table-level privilege types for a specified grantee and table ID are stored in one row in the SYSTABLEPERMS system table. For example, when user2 is granted the SELECT and DELETE privileges on table user1.t1, a row is added to the SYSTABLEPERMS table. The GRANTEE field contains user2 and the TABLEID contains user1.t1. The SELECTPRIV and DELETEPRIV fields are set to Y. The remaining privilege type fields are set to N.

When a grantee creates an object that relies on one of the privilege types, the Derby engine tracks the dependency of the object on the specific row in the SYSTABLEPERMS table. For example, user2 creates the view v1 by using the statement SELECT * FROM user1.t1; the dependency manager tracks the dependency of view v1 on the row in SYSTABLEPERMS for GRANTEE(user2), TABLEID(user1.t1). The dependency manager knows only that the view is dependent on a privilege type in that specific row but does not track exactly which privilege type the view is dependent on.

When a REVOKE statement for a table-level privilege is issued for a grantee and table ID, all of the objects that are dependent on the grantee and table ID are dropped. For example, if user1 revokes the DELETE privilege on table t1 from user2, the row in SYSTABLEPERMS for GRANTEE(user2), TABLEID(user1.t1) is modified by the REVOKE statement. The dependency manager sends a revoke invalidation message to the view user2.v1, and the view is dropped, even though the view is not dependent on the DELETE privilege for GRANTEE(user2), TABLEID(user1.t1).

Column-level privileges:

Only one type of privilege for a specified grantee and table ID are stored in one row in the SYSCOLPERMS system table. For example, when user2 is granted the SELECT privilege on table user1.t1 for columns c12 and c13, a row is added to the SYSCOLPERMS. The GRANTEE field contains user2, the TABLEID contains user1.t1, the TYPE field contains S, and the COLUMNS field contains c12, c13.

When a grantee creates an object that relies on the privilege type and the subset of columns in a table ID, the Derby engine tracks the dependency of the object on the specific row in the SYSCOLPERMS table. For example, user2 creates the view v1 by using the statement SELECT c11 FROM user1.t1; the dependency manager tracks the dependency of view v1 on the row in SYSCOLPERMS for GRANTEE(user2), TABLEID(user1.t1), TYPE(S). The dependency manager knows that the view is dependent on the SELECT privilege type but does not track exactly which columns the view is dependent on.

When a REVOKE statement for a column-level privilege is issued for a grantee, table ID, and type, all of the objects that are dependent on the grantee, table ID, and type are dropped. For example, if user1 revokes the SELECT privilege on column c12 on table user1.t1 from user2, the row in SYSCOLPERMS for GRANTEE(user2), TABLEID(user1.t1), TYPE(S) is modified by the REVOKE statement. The dependency manager sends a revoke invalidation message to the view user2.v1, and the view is dropped, even though the view is not dependent on the column c12 for GRANTEE(user2), TABLEID(user1.t1), TYPE(S).

If Unified Auditing is used:

Apply the same process used in standard auditing to the tables with AUDSYS as the owner.
V-61657 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-009500 Rule ID: SV-76147r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000164

Discussion

If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve.

To ensure the veracity of audit data the information system and/or the application must protect audit information from unauthorized deletion. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods which will depend upon system architecture and design.

Some commonly employed methods include: ensuring log files enjoy the proper file system permissions utilizing file system protections; restricting access; and backing up log data to ensure log data is retained.

Applications providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order make access decisions regarding the deletion of audit data.

Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity.

Deletion of database audit data could mask the theft of, or the unauthorized modification of, sensitive data stored in the database.

Checks

Review locations of audit logs, both internal to the database and database audit logs located at the operating system-level. Verify there are appropriate controls and permissions to protect the audit information from unauthorized deletion.

If appropriate controls and permissions do not exist, this is a finding.

- - - - -
If Standard Auditing is used:
DBA_TAB_PRIVS describes all object grants in the database. Check to see who has permissions on the AUD$ table.

Related View

DBA_TAB_PRIVS describes the object grants for which the current user is the object owner, grantor, or grantee.

Column Datatype NULL Description
GRANTEE VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the user to whom access was granted
OWNER VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Owner of the object
TABLE_NAME VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the object
GRANTOR VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the user who performed the grant
PRIVILEGE VARCHAR2(40) NOT NULL Privilege on the object
GRANTABLE VARCHAR2(3) Indicates whether the privilege was granted with the GRANT OPTION (YES) or not (NO)
HIERARCHY VARCHAR2(3) Indicates whether the privilege was granted with the HIERARCHY OPTION (YES) or not (NO)
COMMON VARCHAR2(3)
TYPE VARCHAR2(24)

sqlplus connect as sysdba;

SQL> SELECT GRANTEE, TABLE_NAME, PRIVILEGE
FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS where table_name = 'AUD$';

If Unified Auditing is used:
DBA_TAB_PRIVS describes all object grants in the database. Check to see who has permissions on the AUDSYS tables.

Related View

DBA_TAB_PRIVS describes the object grants for which the current user is the object owner, grantor, or grantee.

Column Datatype NULL Description
GRANTEE VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the user to whom access was granted
OWNER VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Owner of the object
TABLE_NAME VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the object
GRANTOR VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL Name of the user who performed the grant
PRIVILEGE VARCHAR2(40) NOT NULL Privilege on the object
GRANTABLE VARCHAR2(3) Indicates whether the privilege was granted with the GRANT OPTION (YES) or not (NO)
HIERARCHY VARCHAR2(3) Indicates whether the privilege was granted with the HIERARCHY OPTION (YES) or not (NO)
COMMON VARCHAR2(3)
TYPE VARCHAR2(24)

sqlplus connect as sysdba;

SQL> SELECT GRANTEE, TABLE_NAME, PRIVILEGE
FROM DBA_TAB_PRIVS where owner='AUDSYS';

Fix

Add controls and modify permissions to protect database audit log data from unauthorized deletion, whether stored in the database itself or at the OS-level.

- - - - -
If Standard Auditing is used:
Revoke access to the AUD$ table to anyone who should not have access to it.

In the check we looked for all users who had access to the AUD$ table. To fix this, use the REVOKE command to revoke access to users who should not have access to the audit data.

REVOKE statement

Use the REVOKE statement to remove permissions from a specific user or from all users to perform actions on database objects.
The following types of permissions can be revoked:

Delete data from a specific table.
Insert data into a specific table.
Create a foreign key reference to the named table or to a subset of columns from a table.
Select data from a table, view, or a subset of columns in a table.
Create a trigger on a table.
Update data in a table or in a subset of columns in a table.
Run a specified routine (function or procedure).

If a user named FRED had access to the AUD$ table and wanting to revoke that access, use the following command. The syntax that would be used for the REVOKE statement for tables is as follows:

REVOKE privilege-type ON [ TABLE ] { table-Name | view-Name } FROM grantees

SQL>REVOKE SELECT ON TABLE AUD$ FROM FRED;

Revoking a privilege without specifying a column list revokes the privilege for all of the columns in the table.
Syntax for routines

table-privileges include

DELETE |
INSERT |
REFERENCES [column list] |
SELECT [column list] |
TRIGGER |
UPDATE [column list]

column list

( column-identifier {, column-identifier}* )

Use the ALL PRIVILEGES privilege type to revoke all of the permissions from the user for the specified table. Can also revoke one or more table privileges by specifying a privilege-list.

Use the DELETE privilege type to revoke permission to delete rows from the specified table.

Use the INSERT privilege type to revoke permission to insert rows into the specified table.

Use the REFERENCES privilege type to revoke permission to create a foreign key reference to the specified table. If a column list is specified with the REFERENCES privilege, the permission is revoked on only the foreign key reference to the specified columns.

Use the SELECT privilege type to revoke permission to perform SELECT statements on a table or view. If a column list is specified with the SELECT privilege, the permission is revoked on only those columns. If no column list is specified, then the privilege is valid on all of the columns in the table.

Use the TRIGGER privilege type to revoke permission to create a trigger on the specified table.

Use the UPDATE privilege type to revoke permission to use the UPDATE statement on the specified table. If a column list is specified, the permission is revoked only on the specified columns.
grantees

{ authorization ID | PUBLIC } [,{ authorization ID | PUBLIC } ] *

Can revoke the privileges from specific users or from all users. Use the keyword PUBLIC to specify all users. The privileges revoked from PUBLIC and from individual users are independent privileges. For example, a SELECT privilege on table t is granted to both PUBLIC and to the authorization ID harry. The SELECT privilege is later revoked from the authorization ID 'Harry', but the authorization ID 'Harry' can access the table through the PUBLIC privilege.

Restriction: Cannot revoke the privileges of the owner of an object.
routine-designator

{
qualified-name [ signature ]
}

Cascading object dependencies

For views, triggers, and constraints, if the privilege on which the object depends is revoked, the object is automatically dropped. Derby does not try to determine if there are other privileges that can replace the privileges that are being revoked. For more information, see "SQL standard authorization" in the Java DB Developer's Guide.
Limitations

The following limitations apply to the REVOKE statement:

Table-level privileges:

All of the table-level privilege types for a specified grantee and table ID are stored in one row in the SYSTABLEPERMS system table. For example, when user2 is granted the SELECT and DELETE privileges on table user1.t1, a row is added to the SYSTABLEPERMS table. The GRANTEE field contains user2 and the TABLEID contains user1.t1. The SELECTPRIV and DELETEPRIV fields are set to Y. The remaining privilege type fields are set to N.

When a grantee creates an object that relies on one of the privilege types, the Derby engine tracks the dependency of the object on the specific row in the SYSTABLEPERMS table. For example, user2 creates the view v1 by using the statement SELECT * FROM user1.t1; the dependency manager tracks the dependency of view v1 on the row in SYSTABLEPERMS for GRANTEE(user2), TABLEID(user1.t1). The dependency manager knows only that the view is dependent on a privilege type in that specific row but does not track exactly which privilege type the view is dependent on.

When a REVOKE statement for a table-level privilege is issued for a grantee and table ID, all of the objects that are dependent on the grantee and table ID are dropped. For example, if user1 revokes the DELETE privilege on table t1 from user2, the row in SYSTABLEPERMS for GRANTEE(user2), TABLEID(user1.t1) is modified by the REVOKE statement. The dependency manager sends a revoke invalidation message to the view user2.v1, and the view is dropped, even though the view is not dependent on the DELETE privilege for GRANTEE(user2), TABLEID(user1.t1).

Column-level privileges:

Only one type of privilege for a specified grantee and table ID are stored in one row in the SYSCOLPERMS system table. For example, when user2 is granted the SELECT privilege on table user1.t1 for columns c12 and c13, a row is added to the SYSCOLPERMS. The GRANTEE field contains user2, the TABLEID contains user1.t1, the TYPE field contains S, and the COLUMNS field contains c12, c13.

When a grantee creates an object that relies on the privilege type and the subset of columns in a table ID, the Derby engine tracks the dependency of the object on the specific row in the SYSCOLPERMS table. For example, user2 creates the view v1 by using the statement SELECT c11 FROM user1.t1; the dependency manager tracks the dependency of view v1 on the row in SYSCOLPERMS for GRANTEE(user2), TABLEID(user1.t1), TYPE(S). The dependency manager knows that the view is dependent on the SELECT privilege type but does not track exactly which columns the view is dependent on.

When a REVOKE statement for a column-level privilege is issued for a grantee, table ID, and type, all of the objects that are dependent on the grantee, table ID, and type are dropped. For example, if user1 revokes the SELECT privilege on column c12 on table user1.t1 from user2, the row in SYSCOLPERMS for GRANTEE(user2), TABLEID(user1.t1), TYPE(S) is modified by the REVOKE statement. The dependency manager sends a revoke invalidation message to the view user2.v1, and the view is dropped, even though the view is not dependent on the column c12 for GRANTEE(user2), TABLEID(user1.t1), TYPE(S).

If Unified Auditing is used:

Apply the same process used in standard auditing to the tables with AUDSYS as the owner.
V-61659 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-009600 Rule ID: SV-76149r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001493

Discussion

Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data.

Depending upon the log format and application, system and application log tools may provide the only means to manipulate and manage application and system log data. It is, therefore, imperative that access to audit tools be controlled and protected from unauthorized access.

Applications providing tools to interface with audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the tools and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order make access decisions regarding the access to audit tools.

Audit tools include, but are not limited to, OS-provided audit tools, vendor-provided audit tools, and open source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records.

If an attacker were to gain access to audit tools, he could analyze audit logs for system weaknesses or weaknesses in the auditing itself. An attacker could also manipulate logs to hide evidence of malicious activity.

Checks

Review access permissions to tools used to view or modify audit log data. These tools may include the DBMS itself or tools external to the database.

If appropriate permissions and access controls to prevent unauthorized access are not applied to these tools, this is a finding.

Fix

Add or modify access controls and permissions to tools used to view or modify audit log data. Tools must be accessible by authorized personnel only.
V-61661 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-009700 Rule ID: SV-76151r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001494

Discussion

Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data.

Depending upon the log format and application, system and application log tools may provide the only means to manipulate and manage application and system log data.

If the tools are compromised it could provide attackers with the capability to manipulate log data. It is, therefore, imperative that audit tools be controlled and protected from unauthorized modification.

Audit tools include, but are not limited to, OS provided audit tools, vendor provided audit tools, and open source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records.

If an attacker were to gain access to audit tools he could analyze audit logs for system weaknesses or weaknesses in the auditing itself. An attacker could also manipulate logs to hide evidence of malicious activity.

Checks

Review access permissions to tools used to view or modify audit log data. These tools may include the DBMS itself or tools external to the database.

If appropriate permissions and access controls are not applied to prevent unauthorized modification of these tools, this is a finding.

Fix

Add or modify access controls and permissions to tools used to view or modify audit log data. Tools must be modifiable by authorized personnel only.
V-61663 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-009800 Rule ID: SV-76153r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001495

Discussion

Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data.

Depending upon the log format and application, system and application log tools may provide the only means to manipulate and manage application and system log data.

It is, therefore, imperative that access to audit tools be controlled and protected from unauthorized access.

Applications providing tools to interface with audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the tools and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order make access decisions regarding the access to audit tools.

Audit tools include, but are not limited to, OS-provided audit tools, vendor-provided audit tools, and open source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records.

If an attacker were to gain access to audit tools, he could analyze audit logs for system weaknesses or weaknesses in the auditing itself. An attacker could also manipulate logs to hide evidence of malicious activity.

Checks

Review access permissions to tools used to view or modify audit log data. These tools may include the DBMS itself or tools external to the database.

If appropriate permissions and access controls are not applied to prevent unauthorized deletion of these tools, this is a finding.

Fix

Add or modify access controls and permissions to tools used to view or modify audit log data. Only authorized personnel must be able to delete these tools.
V-61665 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-010000 Rule ID: SV-76155r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001348

Discussion

Protection of log data includes assuring log data is not accidentally lost or deleted. Backing up audit records to a different system or onto media separate from the system being audited on an organizational-defined frequency helps to assure, in the event of a catastrophic system failure, the audit records will be retained.

Checks

Check with the database administrator, storage administrator or system administrator, as applicable at the site, to verify that Oracle is configured EITHER to perform backups of the audit data specifically, OR, with appropriate permissions granted, to permit a third-party tool to do so. Test the backup process. Test the restore process (using a non-production system as the target).

If Oracle is not so configured, this is a finding.

If the test run of the backup and restore fails, this is a finding.

Fix

Utilize DBMS features or other software that supports the ability to back up audit data and records onto a system or media different from the system being audited on an organization-defined frequency.

EITHER use Oracle features (such as Backup or Data Pump) to perform backups of the audit data specifically, OR grant appropriate permissions to permit a third-party tool to do so.
V-61667 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-010100 Rule ID: SV-76157r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001350

Discussion

Protection of audit records and audit data is of critical importance. Cryptographic mechanisms are the industry-established standard used to protect the integrity of audit data. An example of a cryptographic mechanism is the computation and application of a cryptographic-signed hash using asymmetric cryptography.

Non-repudiation protects individuals against later claims by an author of not having performed a particular action, a sender of not having transmitted a message, a receiver of not having received a message, or a signatory of not having signed a document.

Checks

Review the DBMS settings to determine whether audit logging is configured to produce logs consistent with the amount of space allocated for logging.

If auditing will generate excessive logs so that they may outgrow the space reserved for logging, this is a finding.

If file-based auditing is in use, check that the file(s) is/are encrypted by the operating system/file system.

If not, this is a finding

If standard, table-based auditing is used: The audit logs are written to a table called AUD$, and if a Virtual Private Database is deployed, we also create a table called FGA_LOG$. First check the current location of the audit trail tables.

CONN / AS SYSDBA

SELECT table_name, tablespace_name
FROM dba_tables
WHERE table_name IN ('AUD$', 'FGA_LOG$')
ORDER BY table_name;

TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME
------------------------------ ------------------------------
AUD$ SYSTEM
FGA_LOG$ SYSTEM

If the tablespace name is SYSTEM, the table needs to be relocated to its own tablespace. Ensure that adequate space is allocated to that tablespace.

If Unified Auditing is used:
Audit logs are written to tables in the AUDSYS schema. The default tablespace for AUDSYS is USERS. A separate tablespace should be created to contain audit data. Ensure that adequate space is allocated to that tablespace.

Fix

For file-based auditing (OS, XML, or XML,EXTENDED), implement operating system/file system encryption for the audit file.

For table-based auditing, deploy the audit tables in an encrypted tablespace.

- - - - -
If auditing is not enabled, use the following steps to enable auditing.

sqlplus connect as sysdba

Turn on Oracle audit

a. If the database uses an spfile

SQL> alter system set audit_trail=DB,EXTENDED scope=spfile ;
System altered.

b. if database uses pfile, modify init<Sid>.ora directly.
For these changes to take place, the database must be restarted.

Next we create an encrypted tablespace. Before tablespaces can be encrypted or decrypted, a master encryption key must be generated or set. The tablespace master encryption key is stored in an external security module and is used to encrypt the TDE tablespace encryption keys.

- - - - -

Caution: Do not attempt to encrypt Oracle internal objects such as the SYSTEM, SYSAUX, UNDO, or TEMP tablespaces. Oracle does not support this with TDE. When moving AUD$ to a new tablespace, be aware that associated LOB objects will also need to be moved. Finally, when upgrading, the AUD$ table and LOBs will need to be moved back to the SYSTEM tablespace or the upgrade will fail.

- - - - -

Check to ensure that the ENCRYPTION_WALLET_LOCATION (or WALLET_LOCATION) parameter in the sqlnet.ora file points to the correct software wallet location. (Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.) For example:

ENCRYPTION_WALLET_LOCATION=
(SOURCE=(METHOD=FILE)(METHOD_DATA=
(DIRECTORY=/app/wallet)))

If the ENCRYPTION_WALLET_LOCATION parameter is not set, then it attempts to use the keystore in the location that is specified by the parameter WALLET_LOCATION.

If the WALLET_LOCATION parameter is also not set, then Oracle Database looks for a keystore at the default database location, which is ORACLE_BASE/admin/DB_UNIQUE_NAME/wallet or ORACLE_HOME/admin/DB_UNIQUE_NAME/wallet. (DB_UNIQUE_NAME is the unique name of the database specified in the initialization parameter file.) When the keystore location is not set in the sqlnet.ora file, then the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view displays the default location. Can check the location and status of the keystore in the V$ENCRYPTION_WALLET view.

Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) uses the same master encryption key for both TDE column encryption and TDE tablespace encryption. When issuing the ALTER SYSTEM SET ENCRYPTION KEY command, a unified master encryption key is created for both TDE column encryption and TDE tablespace encryption.

Resetting the Tablespace Master Encryption Key

Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) uses a unified master encryption key for both TDE column encryption and TDE tablespace encryption. When resetting (rekeying) the master encryption key for TDE column encryption, the master encryption key for TDE tablespace encryption also gets reset. The ALTER SYSTEM SET ENCRYPTION KEY command resets the tablespace master encryption key. Before creating an encrypted tablespace, the Oracle wallet containing the tablespace master encryption key must be open. The wallet must also be open before accessing data in an encrypted tablespace. The security administrator needs to open the Oracle wallet after starting the Oracle instance. A restart of the Oracle instance requires the security administrator to open the wallet again. The security administrator also needs to open the wallet before performing database recovery operations. This is because background processes may require access to encrypted redo and undo logs. When performing database recovery, the wallet must be opened before opening the database. This is illustrated in the following statements:

SQL> STARTUP MOUNT;
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET ENCRYPTION WALLET OPEN IDENTIFIED BY "password";
SQL> ALTER DATABASE OPEN;

Can also choose to use auto logon wallets if the environment does not require the extra security provided by a wallet that needs to be explicitly opened; however, this is not the recommended practice.

Creating the wallet/keystore

SQL> ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE KEYSTORE '/app/wallet' IDENTIFIED BY password;

keystore altered.

Set the TDE Master Encryption Key in the Software Keystore

SQL> ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT SET KEY IDENTIFIED BY password WITH BACKUP USING 'backup_identifier';

keystore altered.

Creating an Encrypted Tablespace

The CREATE TABLESPACE command enables the creation of an encrypted tablespace. The permanent_tablespace_clause enables choosing the encryption algorithm and the key length for encryption. The ENCRYPT keyword in the storage_clause encrypts the tablespace. The following syntax illustrates this:

CREATE
[ BIGFILE | SMALLFILE ]
{ permanent_tablespace_clause
| temporary_tablespace_clause
| undo_tablespace_clause
} ;

Where, permanent_tablespace_clause=TABLESPACE , ENCRYPTION [USING algorithm] storage_clause
Where, storage_clause=[ENCRYPT] where:

The encryption algorithm can have one of the following values:

3DES168
AES128
AES192
AES256

The key lengths are included in the names of the algorithms themselves. If no encryption algorithm is specified, the default encryption algorithm is used. The default encryption algorithm is AES128.

Note: The ENCRYPTION keyword in the permanent_tablespace_clause is used to specify the encryption algorithm. The ENCRYPT keyword in the storage_clause actually encrypts the tablespace. For security reasons, a tablespace cannot be encrypted with the NO SALT option.

Commands to create Encrypted Tablespace

CREATE TABLESPACE securespace
DATAFILE '/home/user/oradata/secure01.dbf'
SIZE 150M
ENCRYPTION USING '3DES168'
DEFAULT STORAGE(ENCRYPT);

This creates a tablespace called securespace2 using an algorithm of 3DES168.

Cannot encrypt an existing tablespace. However, can import data into an encrypted tablespace using the Oracle Data Pump utility. Can also use SQL commands like CREATE TABLE...AS SELECT...or ALTER TABLE...MOVE... to move data into an encrypted tablespace. The CREATE TABLE...AS SELECT... command enables the creation of a table from an existing table. The ALTER TABLE...MOVE... command enables the move of a table into the encrypted tablespace.

Then we move the sys.aud$ from system tablespace to securespace tablespace.

SQL> exec DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.SET_AUDIT_TRAIL_LOCATION(audit_trail_type => DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT.AUDIT_TRAIL_AUD_STD, audit_trail_location_value => 'securespace');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Then check the tablespace the table is stored in.

SQL> SELECT table_name, tablespace_name FROM dba_tables WHERE table_name ='AUD$';

TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME
---------------------------- ------------------------
AUD$ SECURESPACE
V-61669 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-010200 Rule ID: SV-76159r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Protection of audit records and audit data is of critical importance. Care must be taken to ensure privileged users cannot circumvent audit protections put in place.

Auditing might not be reliable when performed by an information system which the user being audited has privileged access to.

The privileged user could inhibit auditing or directly modify audit records. To prevent this from occurring, privileged access shall be further defined between audit-related privileges and other privileges, thus limiting the users with audit-related privileges.

Reducing the risk of audit compromises by privileged users can also be achieved, for example, by performing audit activity on a separate information system where the user in question has limited access or by using storage media that cannot be modified (e.g., write-once recording devices).

If an attacker were to gain access to audit tools he could analyze audit logs for system weaknesses or weaknesses in the auditing itself. An attacker could also manipulate logs to hide evidence of malicious activity.

Checks

If Standard Auditing is used:
For table-based auditing (DB or DB,EXTENDED), review the DBMS permissions on the views and base tables holding the audit data.

For file-based auditing (OS, XML, or XML,EXTENDED), review the operating system/file system permissions on the audit file(s).

If permissions exist that enable unauthorized users to view audit data, this is a finding.

If permissions exist that enable any user (other than an account created specifically to manage log space and off-load audit records to a log management system) to modify or delete audit records, or create spurious audit records, this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
AUDIT_ADMIN role. This role enables the creation of unified and fine-grained audit policies, use the AUDIT and NOAUDIT SQL statements, view audit data, and manage the audit trail administration. Grant this role only to trusted users.

AUDIT_VIEWER role. This role enables users to view and analyze audit data. The kind of user who needs this role is typically an external auditor.

Check to ensure the authorized users have the correct roles. If permissions exist that enable unauthorized users to view audit data, this is a finding.

If permissions exist that enable any user (other than an account created specifically to manage log space and off-load audit records to a log management system) to modify or delete audit records, or create spurious audit records, this is a finding.

Fix

If Standard Auditing is used:
Add controls and modify permissions to protect database audit log records from modification, deletion, spurious creation, or unauthorized viewing.

If Unified Auditing is used:
Grant the correct Audit roles to authorized users.
V-61671 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-010300 Rule ID: SV-76161r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000345

Discussion

When dealing with access restrictions pertaining to change control, it should be noted any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can have significant effects on the overall security of the system.

Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals must be allowed to obtain access to application components for the purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications.

Modifications to the DBMS settings, the database files, database configuration files, or the underlying database application files themselves could have catastrophic consequences to the database. Modification to DBMS settings could include turning off access controls to the database, the halting of archiving, the halting of auditing, and any number of other malicious actions.

Checks

Review DBMS settings and vendor documentation to ensure the database supports and does not interfere with enforcement of logical access restrictions associated with changes to the DBMS configuration and to the database itself.

If the DBMS software in any way restricts the implementation of logical access controls implemented to protect its integrity or availability, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the DBMS to allow implementation of logical access restrictions aimed at protecting the DBMS from unauthorized changes to its configuration and to the database itself.

- - - - -
When the Oracle Database is installed on a Unix-like operating system, the required umask is 022, and the file permissions are set so that any modifications to the startup files can only be performed by the owner of the software, a member of the group DBA, or the root user. Changing the umask has caused problems when patching the environment. If changes are to be made, they should be reverted to the status they were in before the modification for patching and upgrades.
V-61673 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-011000 Rule ID: SV-76163r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001499

Discussion

Within the database, object ownership implies full privileges to the owned object including the privilege to assign access to the owned objects to other subjects. Unmanaged or uncontrolled ownership of objects can lead to unauthorized object grants and alterations, and unauthorized modifications to data.

If critical tables or other objects rely on unauthorized owner accounts, these objects can be lost when an account is removed.

It may be the case that there are accounts that are authorized to own synonyms, but no other objects. If this is so, it should be documented.

Checks

Review system documentation to identify accounts authorized to own database objects. Review accounts in DBMS that own objects.

If any database objects are found to be owned by users not authorized to own database objects, this is a finding.

- - - - -
Query the object DBA_OBJECTS to show the users who own objects in the database. The query below will return all of the users who own objects.

sqlplus connect as sysdba

SQL>select owner, object_type, count(*) from dba_objects
group by owner, object_type
order by owner, object_type;

If these owners are not authorized owners, select all of the objects these owners have generated and decide who they should belong to. To make a list of all of the objects, the unauthorized owner has to perform the following query.

SQL>select * from dba_objects where owner =&unauthorized_owner;

Fix

Update system documentation to include list of accounts authorized for object ownership.

Re-assign ownership of authorized objects to authorized object owner accounts.
V-61675 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-011400 Rule ID: SV-76165r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Applications that provide remote access to information systems must be able to enforce remote access policy requirements or work in conjunction with enterprise tools designed to enforce policy requirements. Examples of policy requirements include, but are not limited to, authorizing remote access to the information system, limiting access based on authentication credentials, and monitoring for unauthorized access.

If databases allowing remote connections do not enforce requirements for remote access, an attacker may gain access to the database and may, through the database, gain access to other components of the information system.

Checks

Review organization's access control policies and procedures addressing remote access to the information system.

If remote connections are not allowed by the organization, this is NA. (Note that "remote" means "from outside the DoD Information Network (DoDIN)" and that connections via approved Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are considered to be inside the DoDIN.)

Review the DBMS, OS, and/or enterprise account management settings to verify access controls and auditing settings exist and they enforce the requirements for remote access defined by the organization.

If access controls and auditing do not exist or do not fully enforce the requirements defined in the organization's policies and procedures, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure DBMS settings to ensure access control and auditing requirements for remote connections are enforced by the DBMS.
V-61677 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-011500 Rule ID: SV-76167r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000381

Discussion

Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions).

It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Examples include, but are not limited to, installing advertising software, demonstrations, or browser plugins not related to requirements or providing a wide array of functionality not required for the mission.

Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities.

Demonstration and sample database objects and applications present publicly known attack points for malicious users. These demonstration and sample objects are meant to provide simple examples of coding specific functions and are not developed to prevent vulnerabilities from being introduced to the DBMS and host system.

Checks

If Oracle is hosted on a server that does not support production systems, and is designated for the deployment of samples and demonstrations, this is not applicable (NA).

Review documentation and websites from Oracle and any other relevant vendors for vendor-provided demonstration or sample databases, database applications, schemas, objects, and files.

Review the Oracle DBMS to determine if any of the demonstration and sample databases, schemas, database applications, or files are installed in the database or are included with the DBMS application. If any are present in the database or are included with the DBMS application, this is a finding.

The Oracle Default Sample Schema User Accounts are:

BI
Owns the Business Intelligence schema included in the Oracle Sample Schemas.

HR
Manages the Human Resources schema. Schema stores information about the employees and the facilities of the company.

OE
Manages the Order Entry schema. Schema stores product inventories and sales of the company's products through various channels.

PM
Manages the Product Media schema. Schema contains descriptions and detailed information about each product sold by the company.

IX
Manages the Information Exchange schema. Schema manages shipping through business-to-business (B2B) applications database.

SH
Manages the Sales schema. Schema stores statistics to facilitate business decisions.

SCOTT
A demonstration account with a simple schema.

Connect to Oracle as SYSDBA; run the following SQL to check for presence of Oracle Default Sample Schema User Accounts:
select distinct(username) from dba_users where username in
('BI','HR','OE','PM','IX','SH','SCOTT');

If any of the users listed above is returned it means that there are demo programs installed, so this is a finding.

Fix

Remove any demonstration and sample databases, database applications, objects, and files from the DBMS.

To remove an account and all objects owned by that account (using BI as an example):
DROP USER BI CASCADE;

To remove objects without removing their owner, use the appropriate DROP statement (DROP TABLE, DROP VIEW, etc.).
V-61679 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-011600 Rule ID: SV-76169r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000381

Discussion

Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions).

It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Examples include, but are not limited to, installing advertising software, demonstrations, or browser plug-ins not related to requirements or providing a wide array of functionality not required for the mission.

Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities.

Demonstration and sample database objects and applications present publicly known attack points for malicious users. These demonstration and sample objects are meant to provide simple examples of coding specific functions and are not developed to prevent vulnerabilities from being introduced to the DBMS and host system.

Unused and unnecessary DBMS components increase the attack vector for the DBMS by introducing additional targets for attack. By minimizing the services and applications installed on the system, the number of potential vulnerabilities is reduced.

Checks

Run this query to produce a list of components and features installed with the database:

SELECT comp_id, comp_name, version, status from dba_registry
where comp_id not in ('CATALOG','CATPROC','XDB');

Review the list. If unused components are installed and are not documented and authorized, this is a finding.

Starting with releases 11.1.0.7.x and above, all products are installed by default and the option to customize the product/component selection is no longer possible with the exception of those listed here:

Oracle JVM,
Oracle Text,
Oracle Multimedia,
Oracle OLAP,
Oracle Spatial,
Oracle Label Security,
Oracle Application Express,
Oracle Database Vault

Fix

If any components are required for operation of applications that will be accessing the DBMS, include them in the system documentation.

One cannot remove components, either via Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) or manually once the database has been created, either from a container or a non-container database.

One can, however, use DBCA to create a non-container database and remove components during the creation process, before the database is created.

When using DBCA to create a custom non-container database, select
creation mode = advanced
Database Template = Custom
Database Options..Database Component.

Components that can be selected or de-selected are:
Oracle JVM, Oracle Text, Oracle Multimedia, Oracle OLAP, Oracle Spatial, Oracle Label Security, Oracle Application Express, Oracle Database Vault

For a container database (CDB), the CDB$ROOT must have all possible database components available. This is because, when a pluggable database (PDB) is plugged into the CDB, the CDB must have the same components installed as the PDB. Since we do not know what components the PDBS may have, the CDB must be able to support all possible PDB configurations.

Components installed in the CDB$ROOT do not need to be licensed. Components are only considered to be used if they are installed in the PDB.

To configure a PDB to only use specific components, do the following:

1) Create a non-CDB 12.1 database and configure that database with the components desired.

2) Plug the non-CDB database into a CDB database, creating a new PDB. If wanted, can then create additional clones from the new PDB.
V-61681 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-011700 Rule ID: SV-76171r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000381

Discussion

Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions).

It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Examples include, but are not limited to, installing advertising software, demonstrations, or browser plug-ins not related to requirements or providing a wide array of functionality not required for the mission.

Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities.

Unused, unnecessary DBMS components increase the attack vector for the DBMS by introducing additional targets for attack. By minimizing the services and applications installed on the system, the number of potential vulnerabilities is reduced. Components of the system that are unused and cannot be uninstalled must be disabled.

Checks

Run this query to check to see what integrated components are installed in the database:

SELECT parameter, value
from v$option
where parameter in
(
'Data Mining',
'Oracle Database Extensions for .NET',
'OLAP',
'Partitioning',
'Real Application Testing'
);

This will return all of the relevant database options and their status. TRUE means that the option is installed. If the option is not installed, the option will be set to FALSE.

Review the options and check the system documentation to see what is required. If all listed components are authorized to be in use, this is not a finding.

If any unused components or features are listed by the query as TRUE, this is a finding.

Fix

In the system documentation list the integrated components required for operation of applications that will be accessing the DBMS.

For Oracle Database 12.1, only the following components can be enabled/disabled:

Oracle Data Mining (dm)
Oracle Database Extensions for .NET (ode_net)
Oracle OLAP (olap)
Oracle Partitioning (partitioning)
Real Application Testing (rat)

Use the chopt utility (an Oracle-supplied operating system command that resides in the <Oracle Home path>/bin directory) to disable each option that should not be available. The command format is

chopt <enable|disable> <option>
where <option> is any of the abbreviations in parentheses in the list above. For example, to disable Real Application Testing, issue the following command at an OS prompt:

chopt disable rat

Restart the Oracle service.

(See My Oracle Support Document 948061.1 for more on the chopt command.)
V-61683 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-011800 Rule ID: SV-76173r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000381

Discussion

Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions).

It is detrimental for applications to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. Examples include, but are not limited to, installing advertising software, demonstrations, or browser plugins not related to requirements or providing a wide array of functionality not required for the mission.

Applications must adhere to the principles of least functionality by providing only essential capabilities.

DBMS's may spawn additional external processes to execute procedures that are defined in the DBMS, but stored in external host files (external procedures). The spawned process used to execute the external procedure may operate within a different OS security context than the DBMS and provide unauthorized access to the host system.

Checks

Review the database for definitions of application executable objects stored external to the database.

Determine if there are methods to disable use or access, or to remove definitions for external executable objects.

Verify any application executable objects listed are authorized by the ISSO.

If any are not, this is a finding.

- - - - -
To check for external procedures, execute the following query which will provide the libraries containing external procedures, the owners of those libraries, users that have been granted access to those libraries, and the privileges they have been granted. If there are owners other than the owners that Oracle provides, then there may be executable objects stored either in the database or external to the database that are called by objects in the database. Check to see that those owners are authorized to access those libraries. If there are users that have been granted access to libraries provided by Oracle, check to see that they are authorized to access those libraries.

(connect as sysdba)
set linesize 130
column library_name format a25
column name format a15
column owner format a15
column grantee format a15
column privilege format a15
select library_name,owner, '' grantee, '' privilege
from dba_libraries where file_spec is not null
minus
(
select library_name,o.name owner, '' grantee, '' privilege
from dba_libraries l,
sys.user$ o,
sys.user$ ge,
sys.obj$ obj,
sys.objauth$ oa
where l.owner=o.name
and obj.owner#=o.user#
and obj.name=l.library_name
and oa.obj#=obj.obj#
and ge.user#=oa.grantee#
and l.file_spec is not null
)
union all
select library_name,o.name owner, --obj.obj#,oa.privilege#,
ge.name grantee,
tpm.name privilege
from dba_libraries l,
sys.user$ o,
sys.user$ ge,
sys.obj$ obj,
sys.objauth$ oa,
sys.table_privilege_map tpm
where l.owner=o.name
and obj.owner#=o.user#
and obj.name=l.library_name
and oa.obj#=obj.obj#
and ge.user#=oa.grantee#
and tpm.privilege=oa.privilege#
and l.file_spec is not null
/

Fix

Disable use of or remove any external application executable object definitions that are not authorized.

Revoke privileges granted to users that are not authorized access to external applications.
V-61685 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-011810 Rule ID: SV-76175r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000381

Discussion

The Oracle external procedure capability provides use of the Oracle process account outside the operation of the DBMS process. You can use it to submit and execute applications stored externally from the database under operating system controls. The external procedure process is the subject of frequent and successful attacks as it allows unauthenticated use of the Oracle process account on the operating system. As of Oracle version 11.1, the external procedure agent may be run directly from the database and not require use of the Oracle listener. This reduces the risk of unauthorized access to the procedure from outside of the database process.

Checks

Review the System Security Plan to determine if the use of the external procedure agent is authorized.

Review the ORACLE_HOME/bin directory or search the ORACLE_BASE path for the executable extproc (UNIX) or extproc.exe (Windows).

If external procedure agent is not authorized for use in the System Security Plan and the executable file does not exist or is restricted, this is not a finding.

If external procedure agent is not authorized for use in the System Security Plan and the executable file exists and is not restricted, this is a finding.

If use of the external procedure agent is authorized, ensure extproc is restricted to execution of authorized applications.

External jobs are run using the account nobody by default.

Review the contents of the file ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/externaljob.ora for the lines run_user= and run_group=.

If the user assigned to these parameters is not "nobody", this is a finding.

For versions 11.1 and later, the external procedure agent (extproc executable) is available directly from the database and does not require definition in the listener.ora file for use.

Review the contents of the file ORACLE_HOME/hs/admin/extproc.ora.

If the file does not exist, this is a finding.

If the following entry does not appear in the file, this is a finding:

EXTPROC_DLLS=ONLY:[dll full file name1]:[dll full file name2]:..

[dll full file name] represents a full path and file name.

This list of file names is separated by ":".

Note: If "ONLY" is specified, then the list is restricted to allow execution of only the DLLs specified in the list and is not a finding. If "ANY" is specified, then there are no restrictions for execution except what is controlled by operating system permissions and is a finding. If no specification is made, any files located in the %ORACLE_HOME%\bin directory on Windows systems or $ORACLE_HOME/lib directory on UNIX systems can be executed (the default) and is a finding.

Ensure that EXTPROC is not accessible from the listener.

Review the listener.ora file. If any entries reference "extproc", this is a finding.

Determine if the external procedure agent is in use per Oracle 10.x conventions.

Review the listener.ora file.

If any entries reference "extproc", then the agent is in use.

If external procedure agent is not authorized for use in the System Security Plan and references to "extproc" exist, this is a finding.

Sample listener.ora entries with extproc included:

LISTENER =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 127.0.0.1)(PORT = 1521))
)
EXTLSNR =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC))
)
SID_LIST_LISTENER =
(SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC =
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = ORCL)
(ORACLE_HOME = /home/oracle/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1)
(SID_NAME = ORCL)
)
)
SID_LIST_EXTLSNR =
(SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC =
(PROGRAM = extproc)
(SID_NAME = PLSExtProc)
(ORACLE_HOME = /home/oracle/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1)
(ENVS="EXTPROC_DLLS=ONLY:/home/app1/app1lib.so:/home/app2/app2lib.so,
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/private/app2/lib:/private/app1,
MYPATH=/usr/fso:/usr/local/packages")
)
)

Sample tnsnames.ora entries with extproc included:

ORCL =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 127.0.0.1)(PORT = 1521))
)
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVICE_NAME = ORCL)
)
)
EXTPROC_CONNECTION_DATA =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = extproc))
)
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = PLSExtProc)
)
)

If EXTPROC is in use, confirm that a listener is dedicated to serving the external procedure agent (as shown above).

View the protocols configured for the listener.

For the listener to be dedicated, the only entries will be to specify extproc.

If there is not a dedicated listener in use for the external procedure agent, this is a finding.

If the PROTOCOL= specified is other than IPC, this is a finding.

Verify and ensure extproc is restricted executing authorized external applications only and extproc is restricted to execution of authorized applications.

Review the listener.ora file.

If the following entry does not exist, this is a finding:

EXTPROC_DLLS=ONLY:[dll full file name1]:[dll full file name2]:...

Note: [dll full file name] represents a full path and file name. This list of file names is separated by ":".

Note: If "ONLY" is specified, then the list is restricted to allow execution of only the DLLs specified in the list and is not a finding. If "ANY" is specified, then there are no restrictions for execution except what is controlled by operating system permissions and is a finding. If no specification is made, any files located in the %ORACLE_HOME%\bin directory on Windows systems or $ORACLE_HOME/lib directory on UNIX systems can be executed (the default) and is a finding.

View the listener.ora file (usually in ORACLE_HOME/network/admin or directory specified by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable).

If multiple listener processes are running, then the listener.ora file for each must be viewed.

For each process, determine the directory specified in the ORACLE_HOME or TNS_ADMIN environment variable defined for the process account to locate the listener.ora file.

Fix

If use of the external procedure agent is required, then authorize and document the requirement in the System Security Plan.

If the external procedure agent must be accessible to the Oracle listener, then specify this and authorize it in the System Security Plan.

If use of the Oracle External Procedure agent is not required:

- Stop the Oracle Listener process
- Remove all references to extproc in the listener.ora and tnsnames.ora files
- Alter the permissions on the executable files:
UNIX - Remove read/write/execute permissions from owner, group and world
Windows - Remove Groups/Users from the executable (except groups SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATORS) and allow READ [only] for SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATORS groups

If required:

- Restrict extproc execution to only authorized applications.
- Specify EXTPROC_DLLS=ONLY: [list of authorized DLLS] in the extproc.ora and the listener.ora files
- Create a separate, dedicated listener for use by the external procedure agent

See the Oracle Net Services Administrators Guides, External Procedures section for detailed configuration information.
V-61687 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-011900 Rule ID: SV-76177r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000382

Discussion

Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions).

Additionally, it is sometimes convenient to provide multiple services from a single component of an information system (e.g., email and web services), but doing so increases risk by constraining the ability to restrict the use of functions, ports, protocols, and/or services.

To support the requirements and principles of least functionality, the application must support the organizational requirements providing only essential capabilities and limiting the use of ports, protocols, and/or services to only those required, authorized, and approved to conduct official business or to address authorized quality of life issues.

Database Management Systems using ports, protocols, and services deemed unsafe are open to attack through those ports, protocols, and services. This can allow unauthorized access to the database and through the database to other components of the information system.

Checks

Review the DBMS settings for functions, ports, protocols, and services that are not approved.

If any are found, this is a finding.

(For definitive information on Ports, Protocols and Services Management (PPSM), refer to http://www.disa.mil/Services/Network-Services/Enterprise-Connections/PPSM)

- - - - -
In the Oracle database, the communications with the database and incoming requests are performed by the Oracle Listener. The Oracle Listener listens on a specific port or ports for connections to a specific database. The Oracle Listener has configuration files located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory. To check the ports and protocols in use, go to that directory and review the SQLNET.ora, LISTENER.ora, and the TNSNAMES.ora. If protocols or ports are in use that are not authorized, this is a finding.

Fix

Disable functions, ports, protocols, and services that are not approved.

- - - - -
Change the SQLNET.ora, LISTENER.ora, and TNSNAMES.ora files to reflect the proper use of ports, protocols, and services that are approved at the site.

If changes to the Listener are made, the files associated with the Listener must be reloaded. Do that by issuing the following commands at the Unix/Linux or Windows prompt.
First - issue the command to see what the current status is
$ lsnrctl stat
Then load the new file that was corrected to reflect site-specific requirements.
$ lsnrctl reload
Then check the status again to see that the changes have taken place.
$ lsnrctl stat
V-61689 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-012000 Rule ID: SV-76179r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000553

Discussion

Application recovery and reconstitution constitutes executing an information system contingency plan comprised of activities that restore essential missions and business functions.

Database management systems and transaction-based processing systems are examples of information systems that are transaction-based. Transaction rollback and transaction journaling are examples of mechanisms supporting transaction recovery.

A DBMS may be vulnerable to use of compromised data or other critical files during recovery. Use of compromised files could introduce maliciously altered application code, relaxed security settings or loss of data integrity. Where available, DBMS mechanisms to ensure use of only trusted files can help protect the database from this type of compromise during DBMS recovery.

Checks

Review DBMS recovery procedures and technical system features to determine if mechanisms exist and are in place to specify use of trusted files during DBMS recovery.

If recovery procedures do not exist or are not sufficient to ensure recovery is done in a secure and verifiable manner, this is a finding.

If system features exist and are not employed or not employed sufficiently, this is a finding.

If circumstances that can inhibit a trusted recovery are not documented and appropriate mitigating procedures have not been put in place, this is a finding.

Review the database backup strategy with the system administrator. Consider using Oracle RMAN with an encrypted backup to insure the backed up files can be trusted not to be compromised.

Fix

Implement DBMS recovery procedures and employ technical system features to specify trusted files during DBMS recovery. Test the solution and review the site-specific criteria to ensure that the backup and recovery process uses trusted files.

Ensure circumstances that can inhibit a trusted recovery are documented and appropriate mitigating procedures have been put in place.

Oracle recommends using RMAN Backup and encrypting backup files. With encrypted files stored on a mount point with limited access, the integrity of the files can be trusted.

- - - - -
Notes on Oracle Backup and Recovery Solutions

When implementing a backup and recovery strategy, have the following solutions available:

-- Recovery Manager (RMAN)
Recovery Manager is fully integrated with the Oracle database to perform a range of backup and recovery activities, including maintaining an RMAN repository of historical data about backups. Can access RMAN through the command line or through Oracle Enterprise Manager.

-- User-managed backup and recovery
In this solution, perform backup and recovery with a mixture of host operating system commands and SQL*Plus recovery commands. Responsible for determining all aspects of when and how backups and recovery are done.

-- Media management
If not wanting to use RMAN with an encrypted backup, consider configuring RMAN to make backups to a media manager. On most platforms, to back up to and restore from sequential media such as tape, must integrate a media manager with the Oracle database. Can use Oracle Secure Backup, which supports both database and file system backups to tape, as the media manager. See Oracle Secure Backup Administrator's Guide to learn how to set up RMAN for use specifically with Oracle Secure Backup.

These solutions are supported by Oracle and are fully documented, but RMAN is the preferred solution for database backup and recovery. RMAN provides a common interface for backup tasks across different host operating systems and offers several backup techniques not available through user-managed methods.

-- Incremental backups:
An incremental backup stores only blocks changed since a previous backup. Thus, they provide more compact backups and faster recovery, thereby reducing the need to apply redo during data file media recovery. If enabling block change tracking, then can improve performance by avoiding full scans of every input data file. Can use the BACKUP INCREMENTAL command to perform incremental backups.

-- Block media recovery:
Can repair a data file with only a small number of corrupt data blocks without taking it off-line or restoring it from backup. Can use the RECOVER BLOCK command to perform block media recovery.

-- Binary compression:
A binary compression mechanism integrated into Oracle Database reduces the size of backups.

-- Encrypted backups:
RMAN uses backup encryption capabilities integrated into Oracle Database to store backup sets in an encrypted format. To create encrypted backups on disk, the database must use the Advanced Security Option. To create encrypted backups directly on tape, RMAN must use the Oracle Secure Backup SBT interface but does not require the Advanced Security Option.

-- Automated database duplication:
Easily creates a copy of the database, supporting various storage configurations, including direct duplication between ASM databases.

-- Cross-platform data conversion:
Whether using RMAN or user-managed methods, can supplement physical backups with logical backups of schema objects made with Data Pump Export utility. Can later use Data Pump Import to re-create data after restore and recovery. Logical backups are mostly beyond the scope of the backup and recovery documentation.
V-61693 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-012200 Rule ID: SV-76183r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000535

Discussion

Information system backup is a critical step in maintaining data assurance and availability.

User-level information is data generated by information system and/or application users. In order to assure availability of this data in the event of a system failure, DoD organizations are required to ensure user-generated data is backed up at a defined frequency. This includes data stored on file systems, within databases or within any other storage media.

Applications performing backups must be capable of backing up user-level information per the DoD-defined frequency.

Databases that do not backup information regularly risk the loss of that information in the event of a system failure. Most databases contain functionality to allow regular backups; it is important that this functionality is enabled and configured correctly to prevent data loss.

Checks

Review DBMS settings and site documentation to determine whether Oracle is configured to back up user-level data according to a defined frequency.

If it is not, this is a finding.

(The V$RMAN_STATUS view displays the finished and on-going RMAN jobs. For on-going jobs, this view displays progress and status.)

Fix

Configure the Oracle DBMS to back up user-level data on a defined frequency.
V-61695 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-012300 Rule ID: SV-76185r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000535

Discussion

Information system backup is a critical step in maintaining data assurance and availability.

User-level information is data generated by information system and/or application users. In order to assure availability of this data in the event of a system failure, DoD organizations are required to ensure user-generated data is backed up at a defined frequency. This includes data stored on file systems, within databases or within any other storage media.

Applications performing backups must be capable of backing up user-level information per the DoD-defined frequency.

Database backups provide the required means to restore databases after compromise or loss. Backups help reduce the vulnerability to unauthorized access or hardware loss.

Checks

Review the database backup procedures and implementation evidence. Evidence of implementation includes records of backup events and physical review of backup media.

Evidence should match the backup plan as recorded in the system documentation.

If backup procedures do not exist or are not implemented in accordance with the procedures, this is a finding.

- - - - -
The Oracle recommended process for backup and recovery is Oracle RMAN. If Oracle RMAN is deployed, execute the following commands to ensure that the evidence of the implementation of the backup policy includes validating that the files are restorable:

Validating Database Files with BACKUP VALIDATE
--Use the BACKUP VALIDATE command to do the following:
--Check datafiles for physical and logical block corruption
--Confirm that all database files exist and are in the correct locations
--When BACKUP VALIDATE is run, RMAN reads the files to be backed up in their entirety, as it would during a real backup. RMAN does not, however, actually produce any backup sets or image copies.
--Cannot use the BACKUPSET, MAXCORRUPT, or PROXY parameters with BACKUP VALIDATE.
--To validate files with the BACKUP VALIDATE command:
1. Start RMAN and connect to a target database and recovery catalog (if used).
2. Run the BACKUP VALIDATE command.

For example, can validate that all database files and archived logs can be backed up by running a command as shown in the following example. This command checks for physical corruptions only.

BACKUP VALIDATE
DATABASE
ARCHIVELOG ALL;

To check for logical corruptions in addition to physical corruptions, run the following variation of the preceding command:

BACKUP VALIDATE
CHECK LOGICAL
DATABASE
ARCHIVELOG ALL;

In the preceding examples, the RMAN client displays the same output that it would if it were really backing up the files. If RMAN cannot back up one or more of the files, then it issues an error message.

Validating Backups Before Restoring Them

Run RESTORE ... VALIDATE to test whether RMAN can restore a specific file or set of files from a backup. RMAN chooses which backups to use. The database must be mounted or open for this command. Do not have to take datafiles off-line when validating the restore of datafiles, because validation of backups of the datafiles only reads the backups and does not affect the production datafiles. When validating files on disk or tape, RMAN reads all blocks in the backup piece or image copy. RMAN also validates off-site backups. The validation is identical to a real restore operation except that RMAN does not write output files.

To validate backups with the RESTORE command:
1. Run the RESTORE command with the VALIDATE option.

This following example illustrates validating the restore of the database and all archived redo logs:

RESTORE DATABASE VALIDATE;
RESTORE ARCHIVELOG ALL VALIDATE;

If an RMAN error stack is not generated, then skip the subsequent steps. The lack of error messages means that RMAN had confirmed that it can use these backups successfully during a real restore and recovery.

2. If error messages are seen in the output and one is the RMAN-06026 message, then investigate the cause of the problem. If possible, correct the problem that is preventing RMAN from validating the backups and retry the validation. The following error means that RMAN cannot restore one or more of the specified files from available backups:

RMAN-06026: some targets not found - aborting restore
The following sample output shows that RMAN encountered a problem reading the specified backup:

RMAN-03009: failure of restore command on c1 channel at 12-DEC-14 23:22:30
ORA-19505: failed to identify file "oracle/dbs/1fafv9gl_1_1"
ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
SVR4 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3

Fix

Develop, document, and implement database backup procedures.
V-61697 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-012400 Rule ID: SV-76187r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000535

Discussion

Information system backup is a critical step in maintaining data assurance and availability.

User-level information is data generated by information system and/or application users. In order to assure availability of this data in the event of a system failure, DoD organizations are required to ensure user-generated data is backed up at a defined frequency. This includes data stored on file systems, within databases or within any other storage media.

Applications performing backups must be capable of backing up user-level information per the DoD-defined frequency.

Problems with backup procedures or backup media may not be discovered until after a recovery is needed. Testing and verification of procedures provides the opportunity to discover oversights, conflicts, or other issues in the backup procedures or use of media designed to be used.

Checks

Review the testing and verification procedures documented in the system documentation. Review evidence of implementation of testing and verification procedures by reviewing logs from backup and recovery implementation. Logs may be in electronic form or hardcopy and may include email or other notification.

If testing and verification of backup and recovery procedures is not documented in the system documentation, this is a finding.

If evidence of testing and verification of backup and recovery procedures does not exist, this is a finding.

Fix

Develop, document, and implement testing and verification procedures for database backup and recovery. Include requirements for documenting database backup and recovery testing and verification activities in the procedures.
V-61699 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-012500 Rule ID: SV-76189r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000535

Discussion

Information system backup is a critical step in maintaining data assurance and availability.

User-level information is data generated by information system and/or application users. In order to assure availability of this data in the event of a system failure, DoD organizations are required to ensure user-generated data is backed up at a defined frequency. This includes data stored on file systems, within databases or within any other storage media.

Applications performing backups must be capable of backing up user-level information per the DoD-defined frequency.

Lost or compromised DBMS backup and restoration files may lead to not only the loss of data, but also the unauthorized access to sensitive data. Backup files need the same protections against unauthorized access when stored on backup media as when online and actively in use by the database system. In addition, the backup media needs to be protected against physical loss. Most DBMS's maintain online copies of critical control files to provide transparent or easy recovery from hard disk loss or other interruptions to database operation.

Checks

Review file protections assigned to online backup and restoration files. Review access protections and procedures for off-line backup and restoration files.

If backup or restoration files are subject to unauthorized access, this is a finding.

It may be necessary to review backup and restoration procedures to determine ownership and access during all phases of backup and recovery.

Fix

Implement protection for backup and restoration files. Document personnel and the level of access authorized for each to the backup and restoration files in the system documentation.
V-61701 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-012600 Rule ID: SV-76191r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000537

Discussion

Information system backup is a critical step in maintaining data assurance and availability.

System-level information includes: system-state information, operating system and application software, and licenses.

Backups shall be consistent with organizational recovery time and recovery point objectives.

Databases that do not back up information regularly risk the loss of that information in the event of a system failure. Most databases contain functionality to allow regular backups; it is important that this functionality is enabled and configured correctly to prevent data loss.

Checks

Review DBMS and OS backup configuration to determine that system-level data is backed up in according with organization-defined frequency.

If the system-level data of the DBMS is not backed up to the organization-defined frequency, this is a finding.

Fix

Utilize DBMS, OS, or third-party product(s) to meet the requirement of backing up system data according to the organization-defined frequency.
V-61703 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-012900 Rule ID: SV-76193r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000765

Discussion

Multifactor authentication is defined as using two or more factors to achieve authentication.

Factors include:
(i) Something a user knows (e.g., password/PIN);
(ii) Something a user has (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or
(iii) Something a user is (e.g., biometric).

A privileged account is defined as an information system account with authorizations of a privileged user.

Network access is defined as access to an information system by a user (or a process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through a network (e.g., local area network, wide area network, Internet).

The lack of multifactor authentication makes it much easier for an attacker to gain unauthorized access to a system.

Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the successor protocol to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Although the Oracle configuration parameters have names including 'SSL', such as SSL_VERSION and SSL_CIPHER_SUITES, they refer to TLS.

Checks

Review DBMS settings, OS settings, and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism settings to determine whether users logging on to privileged accounts via a network are required to use multifactor authentication.

If users logging on to privileged accounts via a network are not required to use multifactor authentication, this is a finding.

Use authentication to prove the identities of users who are attempting to log on to the database. Authenticating user identity is imperative in distributed environments, without which there can be little confidence in network security. Passwords are the most common means of authentication. Oracle Database enables strong authentication with Oracle authentication adapters that support various third-party authentication services, including TLS with digital certificates, as well as Smart Cards (CAC, PIV).

If the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora contains entries similar to the following, TLS is enabled. (Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.)

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES= (BEQ, TCPS)
SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION = TRUE
WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE =
(METHOD = FILE)
(METHOD_DATA =
(DIRECTORY = /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/owm/wallets)
)
)

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES= (SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384)
ADR_BASE = /u01/app/oracle

Note: "SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1" is the actual value, not a suggestion to use one or the other.

Fix

Configure DBMS, OS and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism to require multifactor authentication for network users logging on to privileged accounts.

If appropriate, enable support for Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols and multifactor authentication through the use of Smart Cards (CAC/PIV).
V-61705 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-013000 Rule ID: SV-76195r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000766

Discussion

Multifactor authentication is defined as using two or more factors to achieve authentication.

Factors include:
(i) Something a user knows (e.g., password/PIN);
(ii) Something a user has (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or
(iii) Something a user is (e.g., biometric).

A non-privileged account is defined as an information system account with authorizations of a regular or non-privileged user.

Network access is defined as access to an information system by a user (or a process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through a network (e.g., local area network, wide area network, Internet).

The lack of multifactor authentication makes it much easier for an attacker to gain unauthorized access to a system.

Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the successor protocol to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Although the Oracle configuration parameters have names including 'SSL', such as SSL_VERSION and SSL_CIPHER_SUITES, they refer to TLS.

Checks

Review DBMS settings, OS settings, and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism settings to determine whether users logging on to non-privileged accounts via a network are required to use multifactor authentication.

If users logging on to non-privileged accounts via a network are not required to use multifactor authentication, this is a finding.

Use authentication to prove the identities of users who are attempting to log on to the database. Authenticating user identity is imperative in distributed environments, without which there can be little confidence in network security. Passwords are the most common means of authentication. Oracle Database enables strong authentication with Oracle authentication adapters that support various third-party authentication services, including TLS with digital certificates.

If the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora contains entries similar to the following, TLS is enabled.
(Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.)

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES= (BEQ, TCPS)
SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION = TRUE
WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE =
(METHOD = FILE)
(METHOD_DATA =
(DIRECTORY = /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/owm/wallets)
)
)

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES= (SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384)
ADR_BASE = /u01/app/oracle

Note: "SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1" is the actual value, not a suggestion to use one or the other.

Fix

Configure DBMS, OS and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism to require multifactor authentication for network users logging on to non-privileged accounts.

If appropriate, enable support for Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols and multifactor authentication through the use of Smart Cards (CAC/PIV).
V-61707 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-013100 Rule ID: SV-76197r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000767

Discussion

Multifactor authentication is defined as using two or more factors to achieve authentication.

Factors include:
(i) Something a user knows (e.g., password/PIN);
(ii) Something a user has (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or
(iii) Something a user is (e.g., biometric).

A privileged account is defined as an information system account with authorizations of a privileged user.

Local Access is defined as access to an organizational information system by a user (or process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through a direct connection without the use of a network.

The lack of multifactor authentication makes it much easier for an attacker to gain unauthorized access to a system.

Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the successor protocol to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Although the Oracle configuration parameters have names including 'SSL', such as SSL_VERSION and SSL_CIPHER_SUITES, they refer to TLS.

Checks

Review DBMS settings, OS settings, and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism settings to determine whether users logging on to privileged accounts locally are required to use multifactor authentication.

If users logging on to privileged accounts locally are not required to use multifactor authentication, this is a finding.

Use authentication to prove the identities of users who are attempting to log on to the database. Authenticating user identity is imperative in distributed environments, without which there can be little confidence in network security. Passwords are the most common means of authentication. Oracle Database enables strong authentication with Oracle authentication adapters that support various third-party authentication services, including TLS with digital certificates.

If the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora contains entries similar to the following, TLS is enabled.
(Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.)

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES= (BEQ, TCPS)
SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION = TRUE
WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE =
(METHOD = FILE)
(METHOD_DATA =
(DIRECTORY = /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/owm/wallets)
)
)

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES= (SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384)
ADR_BASE = /u01/app/oracle

Note: "SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1" is the actual value, not a suggestion to use one or the other.

Fix

Configure DBMS, OS and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism to require multifactor authentication for local users logging on to privileged accounts.

If appropriate, enable support for Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols and multifactor authentication through the use of Smart Cards (CAC/PIV).
V-61709 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-013200 Rule ID: SV-76199r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000768

Discussion

Multifactor authentication is defined as using two or more factors to achieve authentication.

Factors include:
(i) Something a user knows (e.g., password/PIN);
(ii) Something a user has (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or
(iii) Something a user is (e.g., biometric).

A non-privileged account is defined as an information system account with authorizations of a regular or non-privileged user.

Local Access is defined as access to an organizational information system by a user (or process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through a direct connection without the use of a network.

The lack of multifactor authentication makes it much easier for an attacker to gain unauthorized access to a system.

Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the successor protocol to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Although the Oracle configuration parameters have names including 'SSL', such as SSL_VERSION and SSL_CIPHER_SUITES, they refer to TLS.

Checks

Review DBMS settings, OS settings, and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism settings to determine whether users logging on to non-privileged accounts locally are required to use multifactor authentication.

If users logging on to privileged accounts locally are not required to use multifactor authentication, this is a finding.

Use authentication to prove the identities of users who are attempting to log on to the database. Authenticating user identity is imperative in distributed environments, without which there can be little confidence in network security. Passwords are the most common means of authentication. Oracle Database enables strong authentication with Oracle authentication adapters that support various third-party authentication services, including TLS with digital certificates.

If the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora contains entries similar to the following, TLS is enabled.
(Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.)

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES= (BEQ, TCPS)
SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION = TRUE
WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE =
(METHOD = FILE)
(METHOD_DATA =
(DIRECTORY = /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0/dbhome_1/owm/wallets)
)
)
SSL_CIPHER_SUITES= (SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384)
ADR_BASE = /u01/app/oracle

Note: "SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1" is the actual value, not a suggestion to use one or the other.

Fix

Configure DBMS, OS and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism to require multifactor authentication for local users logging on to non-privileged accounts.

If appropriate, enable support for Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols and multifactor authentication through the use of Smart Cards (CAC/PIV).
V-61711 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-013300 Rule ID: SV-76201r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000770

Discussion

To assure individual accountability and prevent unauthorized access, application users (and any processes acting on behalf of users) must be individually identified and authenticated.

A shared authenticator is a generic account used by multiple individuals. Use of a shared authenticator alone does not uniquely identify individual users. An example of a shared authenticator is the UNIX OS 'root' user account, a Windows 'administrator' account, an 'SA' account, or a 'helpdesk' account.

For example, the UNIX and Windows operating systems offer a 'switch user' capability allowing users to authenticate with their individual credentials and, when needed, 'switch' to the administrator role. This method provides for unique individual authentication prior to using a shared authenticator.

Some applications may not have the need to provide a group authenticator; this is considered a matter of application design. In those instances where the application design includes the use of a shared authenticator, this requirement will apply.

There may also be instances when specific user actions need to be performed on the information system without unique user identification or authentication. An example of this type of access is a web server which contains publicly releasable information. These types of accesses are allowed but must be explicitly identified and documented by the organization.

When shared accounts are utilized without another means of identifying individual users, users may deny having performed a particular action.

Checks

Review DBMS settings, OS settings, and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism settings to determine whether shared accounts exist. If group accounts do not exist, this is NA.

Review DBMS settings to determine if individual authentication is required before shared authentication.

If shared authentication does not require prior individual authentication, this is a finding.

(Oracle Access Manager may be helpful in meeting this requirement. Notes on Oracle Access Manager follow.)

Oracle Access Manager is used when there is a need for multifactor authentication of applications front-ending Oracle Datasets that may use group accounts. Oracle Access Manager supports using PKI-based smart cards (CAC, PIV) for multifactor authentication. When a user authenticates to a smart card application, the smart card engine produces a certificate-based authentication token. Can configure a certificate-based authentication scheme in Oracle Access Manager that uses information from the smart card certificate. Certificate-based authentication works with any smart card or similar device that presents an X.509 certificate.

Check:
First, check that the Authentication Module is set up properly:
1) Go to Oracle Access Manager Home Screen and click the Policy Configuration tab. Select the X509Scheme.
2) Make sure the Authentication Module option is set to X509Plugin.

Second, check that the Authentication policy is using the x509Scheme:
1) Go to Oracle Access Manager Home Screen and click the Policy Configuration tab.
2) Select Application Domains. Select Search.
3) Select the application domain protecting the Oracle Database.
4) Select the Authentication Polices tab and Click Protected Resource Policy.
5) Make sure the Authentication Scheme is set to x509Scheme.

Fix

Configure DBMS, OS and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism to require individual authentication prior to authentication for shared account access.

If appropriate, install Oracle Access Manager to provide multifactor authentication of applications front-ending Oracle Databases and using shared accounts. After installation, use x509 Authentication modules provided out of the box.
V-61713 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-013600 Rule ID: SV-76203r4_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001941

Discussion

An authentication process resists replay attacks if it is impractical to achieve a successful authentication by recording and replaying a previous authentication message.

Techniques used to address this include protocols using nonces (e.g., numbers generated for a specific one-time use) or challenges (e.g., TLS, WS_Security), and time synchronous or challenge-response one-time authenticators.

Replay attacks, if successfully used against a database account, could result in unfettered access to the database settings and data. A successful replay attack against a privileged database account could result in a complete compromise of the database.

Oracle Database enables you to encrypt data that is sent over a network. There is no distinction between privileged and non-privileged accounts.

Encryption of network data provides data privacy so that unauthorized parties are not able to view plaintext data as it passes over the network. Oracle Database also provides protection against two forms of active attacks.

Data modification attack: An unauthorized party intercepting data in transit, altering it, and retransmitting it is a data modification attack. For example, intercepting a $100 bank deposit, changing the amount to $10,000, and retransmitting the higher amount is a data modification attack.

Replay attack: Repetitively retransmitting an entire set of valid data is a replay attack, such as intercepting a $100 bank withdrawal and retransmitting it ten times, thereby receiving $1,000.

AES and Triple-DES operate in outer Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode.

The DES algorithm uses a 56-bit key length.

SHA-1 is in the process of being removed from service within the DoD and it's use is to be limited during the transition to SHA-2. Use of SHA-1 for digital signature generation is prohibited. Allowable uses during the transition include CHECKSUM usage and verification of legacy certificate signatures. SHA-1 is considered a temporary solution during legacy application transitionary periods and should not be engineered into new applications. SHA-2 is the path forward for DoD.

Checks

Review DBMS settings, OS settings, and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism settings to determine whether organization-defined replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts exist.

If these mechanisms do not exist, this is a finding.

To check that network encryption is enabled and using site-specified encryption procedures, look in SQLNET.ORA, located at $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora. (Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.) If encryption is set, entries like the following will be present:

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER= (SHA384)SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER= (AES256)SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER = required

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT= (SHA384)
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT= (AES256)
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT = requested

(The values assigned to the parameters may be different, the combination of parameters may be different, and not all of the example parameters will necessarily exist in the file.)

Fix

Configure DBMS, OS and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism to utilize replay-resistant authentication mechanisms such as nonces (e.g., numbers generated for a specific one-time use) or challenges (e.g., TLS, WS_Security), and time synchronous or challenge-response one-time authenticators.

If appropriate, apply Oracle Data Network Encryption to protect against replay mechanisms.
V-61715 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-013700 Rule ID: SV-76205r4_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001942

Discussion

An authentication process resists replay attacks if it is impractical to achieve a successful authentication by recording and replaying a previous authentication message.

Techniques used to address this include protocols using nonces (e.g., numbers generated for a specific one-time use) or challenges (e.g., TLS, WS_Security), and time synchronous or challenge-response one-time authenticators.

Replay attacks, if successfully used against a database account, could result in access to database data. A successful replay attack against a non-privileged database account could result in a compromise of data stored on the database.

Oracle Database enables you to encrypt data that is sent over a network. There is no distinction between privileged and non-privileged accounts.

Encryption of network data provides data privacy so that unauthorized parties are not able to view plaintext data as it passes over the network. Oracle Database also provides protection against two forms of active attacks.

Data modification attack: An unauthorized party intercepting data in transit, altering it, and retransmitting it is a data modification attack. For example, intercepting a $100 bank deposit, changing the amount to $10,000, and retransmitting the higher amount is a data modification attack.

Replay attack: Repetitively retransmitting an entire set of valid data is a replay attack, such as intercepting a $100 bank withdrawal and retransmitting it ten times, thereby receiving $1,000.

AES and Triple-DES operate in outer Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode.

The DES algorithm uses a 56-bit key length.

SHA-1 is in the process of being removed from service within the DoD and it's use is to be limited during the transition to SHA-2. Use of SHA-1 for digital signature generation is prohibited. Allowable uses during the transition include CHECKSUM usage and verification of legacy certificate signatures. SHA-1 is considered a temporary solution during legacy application transitionary periods and should not be engineered into new applications. SHA-2 is the path forward for DoD.

Checks

Review DBMS settings to determine whether organization-defined replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to non-privileged accounts exist.

If these mechanisms do not exist, this is a finding.

To check that network encryption is enabled and using site-specified encryption procedures, look in SQLNET.ORA, located at $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora. (Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.) If encryption is set, entries like the following will be present:

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER= (SHA384)SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER= (AES256)SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER = required

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT= (SHA384)
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT= (AES256)
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT = requested

(The values assigned to the parameters may be different, the combination of parameters may be different, and not all of the example parameters will necessarily exist in the file.)

Fix

Configure DBMS, OS and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism to require organization-defined replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to non-privileged accounts.

If appropriate, apply Oracle Data Network Encryption to protect against replay mechanisms.
V-61717 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-013800 Rule ID: SV-76207r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000795

Discussion

Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

To meet password policy requirements, passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals.

If the information system or application allows the user to consecutively reuse their password when that password has exceeded its defined lifetime, the end result is a password that is not changed as per policy requirements.

Unused or expired DBMS accounts provide a means for undetected, unauthorized access to the database.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Checks

If all user accounts are managed and authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

For accounts managed by Oracle, check DBMS settings to determine if accounts can be automatically disabled by the system after 35 days of inactivity. Also, ask the DBA if an alternative method, such as a stored procedure run daily, to disable Oracle-managed accounts inactive for more than 35 days, has been deployed.

If the ability to disable accounts after 35 days of inactivity, by either of these means, does not exist, this is a finding.

- - - - -

Check to see what profile each user is associated with, if any, with this query:

select username, profile from dba_users order by 1,2;

Then check the profile to see what the password_life_time is set to in the table dba_profiles; the password_life_time is a value stored in the LIMIT column, and identified by the value PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME in the RESOURCE_NAME column.

SQL>select profile, resource_name, resource_type, limit from dba_profiles where upper(resource_name) = 'PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME';

Fix

For accounts managed by Oracle, determine if it is practical and acceptable to require a password change every 35 days or fewer, rather than the standard 60 days (as specified in SRG-APP-000174-DB-000080). If it is, issue the statement:

ALTER PROFILE PPPPPP LIMIT PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 35;
(See the Oracle-provided $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/secconf.sql script for examples.)

If password changes every 35 days or fewer are unacceptable or impractical, implement an alternative method, such as a stored procedure run daily, to disable accounts inactive for more than 35 days.
V-61719 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-013900 Rule ID: SV-76209r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000205

Discussion

Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

To meet password policy requirements, passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals.

If the information system or application allows the user to consecutively reuse their password when that password has exceeded its defined lifetime, the end result is a password that is not changed as per policy requirements.

Weak passwords are a primary target for attack to gain unauthorized access to databases and other systems. Where username/password is used for identification and authentication to the database, requiring the use of strong passwords can help prevent simple and more sophisticated methods for guessing at passwords.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Checks

If all user accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

For each profile that can be applied to accounts where authentication is under Oracle's control, determine the password verification function, if any, that is in use:

SELECT * FROM SYS.DBA_PROFILES
WHERE RESOURCE_NAME = 'PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION'
[AND PROFILE NOT IN (<list of non-applicable profiles>)]
ORDER BY PROFILE;

Bearing in mind that a profile can inherit from another profile, and the root profile is called DEFAULT, determine the name of the password verification function effective for each profile.

If, for any profile, the function name is null, this is a finding.

For each password verification function, examine its source code.

If it does not enforce the DoD-defined minimum length (15 unless otherwise specified), this is a finding.

Fix

If all user accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, no fix to the DBMS is required.

If any user accounts are managed by Oracle: Develop, test and implement a password verification function that enforces DoD requirements.

(Oracle supplies a sample function called ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION, in the script file
<oracle_home>/RDBMS/ADMIN/utlpwdmg.sql. This can be used as the starting point for a customized function.)
V-61721 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-014000 Rule ID: SV-76211r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000200

Discussion

Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

To meet password policy requirements, passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals.

If the information system or application allows the user to consecutively reuse their password when that password has exceeded its defined lifetime, the end result is a password that is not changed as per policy requirements.

Password reuse restrictions protect against bypass of password expiration requirements and help protect accounts from password guessing attempts.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Checks

If all user accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

For each profile that can be applied to accounts where authentication is under Oracle's control, determine the password reuse rule, if any, that is in effect:
SELECT * FROM SYS.DBA_PROFILES
WHERE RESOURCE_NAME IN ('PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX', 'PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME')
[AND PROFILE NOT IN (<list of non-applicable profiles>)]
ORDER BY PROFILE, RESOURCE_NAME;
Bearing in mind that a profile can inherit from another profile, and the root profile is called DEFAULT, determine the value of the PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX effective for each profile.

If, for any profile, the PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX value does not enforce the DoD-defined minimum number of password changes before a password may be repeated (five or greater), this is a finding.

PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX is effective if and only if PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME is specified, so if both are UNLIMITED, this is a finding.

Fix

If all user accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, no fix to the DBMS is required.

If any user accounts are managed by Oracle: For each profile, set the PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX to enforce the DoD-defined minimum number of password changes before a password may be repeated (five or greater).

PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX is effective if and only if PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME is specified, so ensure also that it has a meaningful value. Since the minimum password lifetime is 1 day, the smallest meaningful value is the same as the PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX value.

Using PPPPPP as an example, the statement to do this is:
ALTER PROFILE PPPPPP LIMIT PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX 5 PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME 5;
V-61723 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-014100 Rule ID: SV-76213r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000192

Discussion

Password complexity or strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password is, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Checks

If all user accounts are managed and authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

For each profile that can be applied to accounts where authentication is under Oracle's control, determine the password verification function, if any, that is in use:

SELECT * FROM SYS.DBA_PROFILES
WHERE RESOURCE_NAME = 'PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION'
[AND PROFILE NOT IN (<list of non-applicable profiles>)]
ORDER BY PROFILE;
Bearing in mind that a profile can inherit from another profile, and the root profile is called DEFAULT, determine the name of the password verification function effective for each profile.

If, for any profile, the function name is null, this is a finding.

For each password verification function, examine its source code. If it does not enforce the organization-defined minimum number of upper-case characters (1 unless otherwise specified), this is a finding.

Fix

If all user accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, no fix to the DBMS is required.

If any user accounts are managed by Oracle: Develop, test and implement a password verification function that enforces DoD requirements.

(Oracle supplies a sample function called ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION, in the script file
<oracle_home>/RDBMS/ADMIN/utlpwdmg.sql. This can be used as the starting point for a customized function.)
V-61725 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-014200 Rule ID: SV-76215r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000193

Discussion

Password complexity or strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password is, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Checks

If all user accounts are managed and authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

For each profile that can be applied to accounts where authentication is under Oracle's control, determine the password verification function, if any, that is in use:

SELECT * FROM SYS.DBA_PROFILES
WHERE RESOURCE_NAME = 'PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION'
[AND PROFILE NOT IN (<list of non-applicable profiles>)]
ORDER BY PROFILE;

Bearing in mind that a profile can inherit from another profile, and the root profile is called DEFAULT, determine the name of the password verification function effective for each profile.

If, for any profile, the function name is null, this is a finding.

For each password verification function, examine its source code.

If it does not enforce the organization-defined minimum number of lower-case characters (1 unless otherwise specified), this is a finding.

Fix

If all user accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, no fix to the DBMS is required.

If any user accounts are managed by Oracle: Develop, test and implement a password verification function that enforces DoD requirements.

(Oracle supplies a sample function called ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION, in the script file
<oracle_home>/RDBMS/ADMIN/utlpwdmg.sql. This can be used as the starting point for a customized function.)
V-61727 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-014300 Rule ID: SV-76217r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000194

Discussion

Password complexity or strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password is, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Checks

If all user accounts are managed and authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

For each profile that can be applied to accounts where authentication is under Oracle's control, determine the password verification function, if any, that is in use:

SELECT * FROM SYS.DBA_PROFILES
WHERE RESOURCE_NAME = 'PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION'
[AND PROFILE NOT IN (<list of non-applicable profiles>)]
ORDER BY PROFILE;
Bearing in mind that a profile can inherit from another profile, and the root profile is called DEFAULT, determine the name of the password verification function effective for each profile.

If, for any profile, the function name is null, this is a finding.

For each password verification function, examine its source code.

If it does not enforce the organization-defined minimum number of numeric characters (1 unless otherwise specified), this is a finding.

Fix

If all user accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, no fix to the DBMS is required.

If any user accounts are managed by Oracle: Develop, test and implement a password verification function that enforces DoD requirements.

(Oracle supplies a sample function called ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION, in the script file
<oracle_home>/RDBMS/ADMIN/utlpwdmg.sql. This can be used as the starting point for a customized function.)
V-61729 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-014400 Rule ID: SV-76219r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001619

Discussion

Password complexity or strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password is, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Checks

If all user accounts are managed and authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

For each profile that can be applied to accounts where authentication is under Oracle's control, determine the password verification function, if any, that is in use:

SELECT * FROM SYS.DBA_PROFILES
WHERE RESOURCE_NAME = 'PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION'
[AND PROFILE NOT IN (<list of non-applicable profiles>)]
ORDER BY PROFILE;
Bearing in mind that a profile can inherit from another profile, and the root profile is called DEFAULT, determine the name of the password verification function effective for each profile.

If, for any profile, the function name is null, this is a finding.

For each password verification function, examine its source code.

If it does not enforce the organization-defined minimum number of special characters (1 unless otherwise specified), this is a finding.

Fix

If all user accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, no fix to the DBMS is required.

If any user accounts are managed by Oracle: Develop, test and implement a password verification function that enforces DoD requirements.

(Oracle supplies a sample function called ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION, in the script file
<oracle_home>/RDBMS/ADMIN/utlpwdmg.sql. This can be used as the starting point for a customized function.)
V-61731 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-014500 Rule ID: SV-76221r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000195

Discussion

Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals.

If the information system or application allows the user to consecutively reuse extensive portions of their password when they change their password, the end result is a password that has not had enough elements changed to meet the policy requirements.

Changing passwords frequently can thwart password-guessing attempts or re-establish protection of a compromised DBMS account. Minor changes to passwords may not accomplish this since password guessing may be able to continue to build on previous guesses, or the new password may be easily guessed using the old password.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Checks

If all user accounts are managed and authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

For each profile that can be applied to accounts where authentication is under Oracle's control, determine the password verification function, if any, that is in use:

SELECT * FROM SYS.DBA_PROFILES
WHERE RESOURCE_NAME = 'PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION'
[AND PROFILE NOT IN (<list of non-applicable profiles>)] ORDER BY PROFILE;

Bearing in mind that a profile can inherit from another profile, and the root profile is called DEFAULT, determine the name of the password verification function effective for each profile.

If, for any profile, the function name is null, this is a finding.

For each password verification function, examine its source code.

If it does not enforce the organization-defined minimum number of characters by which the password must differ from the previous password (eight of the characters unless otherwise specified), this is a finding.

Fix

If any user accounts are managed by Oracle: Develop, test and implement a password verification function that enforces DoD requirements.

(Oracle supplies a sample function called ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION, in the script file <oracle_home>/RDBMS/ADMIN/utlpwdmg.sql. This can be used as the starting point for a customized function.)
V-61733 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-014600 Rule ID: SV-76223r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000196

Discussion

Applications must enforce password encryption when storing passwords. Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read and easily compromised.

Database passwords stored in clear text are vulnerable to unauthorized disclosure. Database passwords must always be encoded or encrypted when stored internally or externally to the DBMS.

Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the successor protocol to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Although the Oracle configuration parameters have names including 'SSL', such as SSL_VERSION and SSL_CIPHER_SUITES, they refer to TLS.

Checks

(Oracle stores and displays its passwords in encrypted form. Nevertheless, this should be verified by reviewing the relevant system views, along with the other items to be checked here.)

Ask the DBA to review the list of DBMS database objects, database configuration files, associated scripts, and applications defined within and external to the DBMS that access the database. The list should also include files, tables, or settings used to configure the operational environment for the DBMS and for interactive DBMS user accounts.

Ask the DBA and/or ISSO to determine if any DBMS database objects, database configuration files, associated scripts, and applications defined within or external to the DBMS that access the database, and DBMS/user environment files/settings/tables, contain database passwords. If any do, confirm that DBMS passwords stored internally or externally to the DBMS are encoded or encrypted.

If any passwords are stored in clear text, this is a finding.

Ask the DBA/SA/Application Support staff if they have created an external password store for applications, batch jobs, and scripts to use. Verify that all passwords stored there are encrypted.

If a password store is used and any password is not encrypted, this is a finding.

- - - - -
The following are notes on implementing a Secure External Password Store using Oracle Wallet.

You can store password credentials for connecting to databases by using a client-side Oracle wallet. An Oracle wallet is a secure software container that stores authentication and signing credentials.

This wallet usage can simplify large-scale deployments that rely on password credentials for connecting to databases. When this feature is configured, application code, batch jobs, and scripts no longer need embedded user names and passwords. This reduces risk because the passwords are no longer exposed, and password management policies are more easily enforced without changing application code whenever user names or passwords change.

The external password store of the wallet is separate from the area where public key infrastructure (PKI) credentials are stored. Consequently, you cannot use Oracle Wallet Manager to manage credentials in the external password store of the wallet. Instead, use the command-line utility mkstore to manage these credentials.

How Does the External Password Store Work?

Typically, users (and applications, batch jobs, and scripts) connect to databases by using a standard CONNECT statement that specifies a database connection string. This string can include a user name and password, and an Oracle Net service name identifying the database on an Oracle Database network. If the password is omitted, the connection prompts the user for the password.

For example, the service name could be the URL that identifies that database, or a TNS alias entered in the tnsnames.ora file in the database. Another possibility is a host:port:sid string.

The following examples are standard CONNECT statements that could be used for a client that is not configured to use the external password store:

CONNECT [email protected]_db.us.example.com
Enter password: password

CONNECT [email protected]
Enter password: password

CONNECT [email protected]:1527:DB17
Enter password: password

In these examples, salesapp is the user name, with the unique connection string for the database shown as specified in three different ways. Could use its URL sales_db.us.example.com, or its TNS alias, orasales, from the tnsnames.ora file, or its host:port:sid string.

However, when clients are configured to use the secure external password store, applications can connect to a database with the following CONNECT statement syntax, without specifying database logon credentials:

CONNECT /@db_connect_string

CONNECT /@db_connect_string AS SYSDBA

CONNECT /@db_connect_string AS SYSOPER

In this specification, db_connect_string is a valid connection string to access the intended database, such as the service name, URL, or alias as shown in the earlier examples. Each user account must have its own unique connection string; cannot create one connection string for multiple users.

In this case, the database credentials, user name and password, are securely stored in an Oracle wallet created for this purpose. The autologon feature of this wallet is turned on, so the system does not need a password to open the wallet. From the wallet, it gets the credentials to access the database for the user they represent.

Fix

Develop, document, and maintain a list of DBMS database objects, database configuration files, associated scripts, and applications defined within or external to the DBMS that access the database, and DBMS/user environment files/settings in the System Security Plan.

Record whether they do or do not contain DBMS passwords. If passwords are present, ensure they are encoded or encrypted and protected by host system security.

- - - - -
The following are notes on implementing a Secure External Password Store using Oracle Wallet.

Oracle provides the capability to provide for a secure external password facility. Use the Oracle mkstore to create a secure storage area for passwords for applications, batch jobs, and scripts to use, or deploy a site-authorized facility to perform this function.

Check to see what has been stored in the Oracle External Password Store

To view all contents of a client wallet external password store, check specific credentials by viewing them. Listing the external password store contents provides information that can be used to decide whether to add or delete credentials from the store. To list the contents of the external password store, enter the following command at the command line:

$ mkstore -wrl wallet_location -listCredential

For example: $ mkstore -wrl c:\oracle\product\12.1.0\db_1\wallets -listCredential

The wallet_location specifies the path to the directory where the wallet, whose external password store contents is to be viewed, is located. This command lists all of the credential database service names (aliases) and the corresponding user name (schema) for that database. Passwords are not listed.

Configuring Clients to Use the External Password Store

If the client is already configured to use external authentication, such as Windows native authentication or Transport Layer Security (TLS), then Oracle Database uses that authentication method. The same credentials used for this type of authentication are typically also used to log on to the database.

For clients not using such authentication methods or wanting to override them for database authentication, can set the SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE parameter in sqlnet.ora to TRUE. The default value for SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE is FALSE, allowing standard use of authentication credentials as before.

If wanting a client to use the secure external password store feature, then perform the following configuration task:

1. Create a wallet on the client by using the following syntax at the command line:

mkstore -wrl wallet_location -create

For example: mkstore -wrl c:\oracle\product\12.1.0\db_1\wallets -create
Enter password: password

The wallet_location is the path to the directory where the wallet is to be created and stored. This command creates an Oracle wallet with the autologon feature enabled at the location specified. The autologon feature enables the client to access the wallet contents without supplying a password.

The mkstore utility -create option uses password complexity verification.

2. Create database connection credentials in the wallet by using the following syntax at the command line:

mkstore -wrl wallet_location -createCredential db_connect_string username
Enter password: password

For example: mkstore -wrl c:\oracle\product\12.1.0\db_1\wallets -createCredential oracle system
Enter password: password

In this specification, the wallet_location is the path to the directory where the wallet was created. The db_connect_string used in the CONNECT /@db_connect_string statement must be identical to the db_connect_string specified in the -createCredential command. The db_connect_string is the TNS alias used to specify the database in the tnsnames.ora file or any service name used to identify the database on an Oracle network. By default, tnsnames.ora is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory on UNIX systems and in ORACLE_HOME\network\admin on Windows. The username is the database logon credential. When prompted, enter the password for this user.

3. In the client sqlnet.ora file, enter the WALLET_LOCATION parameter and set it to the directory location of the wallet created in Step 1. For example, if created the wallet in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin and Oracle home is set to /private/ora12, then need to enter the following into client sqlnet.ora file:

WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE =
(METHOD = FILE)
(METHOD_DATA =
(DIRECTORY = /private/ora12/network/admin)
)
)

4. In the client sqlnet.ora file, enter the SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE parameter and set it to TRUE as follows:

SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE = TRUE

This setting causes all CONNECT /@db_connect_string statements to use the information in the wallet at the specified location to authenticate to databases.

When external authentication is in use, an authenticated user with such a wallet can use the CONNECT /@db_connect_string syntax to access the previously specified databases without providing a user name and password. However, if a user fails that external authentication, then these connect statements also fail.

Below is a sample sqlnet.ora file with the WALLET_LOCATION and the SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE parameters set as described in Steps 3 and 4.

WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE =
(METHOD = FILE)
(METHOD_DATA =
(DIRECTORY = /private/ora12/network/admin)
)
)
SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE = TRUE
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION = FALSE
SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1

Note: "SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1" is the actual value, not a suggestion to use one or the other.

(Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.)
V-61735 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-014900 Rule ID: SV-76225r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000199

Discussion

Password maximum lifetime is the maximum period of time, (typically in days) a user's password may be in effect before the user is forced to change it.

Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals as per policy. Any password, no matter how complex, can eventually be cracked.

One method of minimizing this risk is to use complex passwords and periodically change them. If the application does not limit the lifetime of passwords and force users to change their passwords, there is the risk that the system and/or application passwords could be compromised.

New accounts authenticated by passwords that are created without a password or with an easily guessed password are vulnerable to unauthorized access. Procedures for creating new accounts with passwords should include the required assignment of a temporary password to be modified by the user upon first use.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP With respect to Oracle, this requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Checks

If all user accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

Where accounts are authenticated using passwords, review procedures and implementation evidence for creation of temporary passwords.

If the procedures or evidence do not exist or do not enforce passwords to meet DoD password requirements, this is a finding.

Fix

Implement procedures for assigning temporary passwords to user accounts.

Procedures should include instructions to meet current DoD password length and complexity requirements and provide a secure method to relay the temporary password to the user.
V-61737 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-015100 Rule ID: SV-76227r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000199

Discussion

Password maximum lifetime is the maximum period of time, (typically in days) a user's password may be in effect before the user is forced to change it.

Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals as per policy. Any password, no matter how complex, can eventually be cracked.

One method of minimizing this risk is to use complex passwords and periodically change them. If the application does not limit the lifetime of passwords and force users to change their passwords, there is the risk that the system and/or application passwords could be compromised.

The storage of passwords in application source or batch job code that is compiled, encoded, or encrypted prevents compliance with password expiration and other management requirements, as well as provides another means for potential discovery.

This requirement applies equally to those accounts managed by Oracle and those managed and authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-wide mechanism.

This requirement should not be construed as prohibiting or discouraging the encryption of source code, which remains an advisable precaution.

Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the successor protocol to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Although the Oracle configuration parameters have names including 'SSL', such as SSL_VERSION and SSL_CIPHER_SUITES, they refer to TLS.

This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed and must document what has been discovered.

Checks

Review application source code required to be encoded or encrypted for database accounts used by applications or batch jobs to access the database.

Review source batch job code prior to compiling, encoding, or encrypting for database accounts used by applications or the batch jobs themselves to access the database.

Determine if the compiled, encoded, or encrypted application source code or batch jobs contain passwords used for authentication to the database.

If any of the identified compiled, encoded, or encrypted application source code or batch job code do contain passwords used for authentication to the database, this is a finding.

- - - - -
The check would depend on the information provided by the DBA. In a default Oracle installation, all passwords are stored in an encrypted manner. Ask the DBA if they have created an External Password Store for applications, batch jobs, and scripts to use.

Secure External Password Store

Can store password credentials for connecting to databases by using a client-side Oracle wallet. An Oracle wallet is a secure software container that stores authentication and signing credentials.

This wallet usage can simplify large-scale deployments that rely on password credentials for connecting to databases. When this feature is configured, application code, batch jobs, and scripts no longer need embedded user names and passwords. This reduces risk because the passwords are no longer exposed, and password management policies are more easily enforced without changing application code whenever user names or passwords change.

The external password store of the wallet is separate from the area where public key infrastructure (PKI) credentials are stored. Consequently, cannot use Oracle Wallet Manager to manage credentials in the external password store of the wallet. Instead, use the command-line utility mkstore to manage these credentials.

How Does the External Password Store Work?

Typically, users (and as applications, batch jobs, and scripts) connect to databases by using a standard CONNECT statement that specifies a database connection string. This string can include a user name and password, and an Oracle Net service name identifying the database on an Oracle Database network. If the password is omitted, the connection prompts the user for the password.

For example, the service name could be the URL that identifies that database, or a TNS alias entered in the tnsnames.ora file in the database. Another possibility is a host:port:sid string.

The following examples are standard CONNECT statements that could be used for a client that is not configured to use the external password store:

CONNECT [email protected]_db.us.example.com
Enter password: password

CONNECT [email protected]
Enter password: password

CONNECT [email protected]:1527:DB17
Enter password: password

In these examples, salesapp is the user name, with the unique connection string for the database shown as specified in three different ways. Could use its URL sales_db.us.example.com, or its TNS alias, orasales, from the tnsnames.ora file, or its host:port:sid string.

However, when clients are configured to use the secure external password store, applications can connect to a database with the following CONNECT statement syntax, without specifying database logon credentials:

CONNECT /@db_connect_string

CONNECT /@db_connect_string AS SYSDBA

CONNECT /@db_connect_string AS SYSOPER

In this specification, db_connect_string is a valid connection string to access the intended database, such as the service name, URL, or alias as shown in the earlier examples. Each user account must have its own unique connection string; cannot create one connection string for multiple users.

In this case, the database credentials, user name and password, are securely stored in an Oracle wallet created for this purpose. The autologon feature of this wallet is turned on, so the system does not need a password to open the wallet. From the wallet, it gets the credentials to access the database for the user they represent.

Fix

Design DBMS application code and batch job code that is compiled, encoded or encrypted, to NOT contain passwords.

- - - - -
Oracle provides the capability to provide for a secure external password facility. Use the Oracle mkstore to create a secure storage area for passwords for applications, batch jobs, and scripts to use or deploy a site-authorized facility to perform this function.

Check to see what has been stored in the Oracle External Password Store

To view all contents of a client wallet external password store, check specific credentials by viewing them. Listing the external password store contents provides information can use to decide whether to add or delete credentials from the store. To list the contents of the external password store, enter the following command at the command line:

$ mkstore -wrl wallet_location -listCredential

For example:

$ mkstore -wrl c:\oracle\product\12.1.0\db_1\wallets -listCredential

The wallet_location specifies the path to the directory where the wallet, whose external password store contents is to be viewed, is located. This command lists all of the credential database service names (aliases) and the corresponding user name (schema) for that database. Passwords are not listed.

Configuring Clients to Use the External Password Store

If the client is already configured to use external authentication, such as Windows native authentication or Transport Layer Security (TLS), then Oracle Database uses that authentication method. The same credentials used for this type of authentication are typically also used to log on to the database.

For clients not using such authentication methods or wanting to override them for database authentication, can set the SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE parameter in sqlnet.ora to TRUE. The default value for SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE is FALSE, allowing standard use of authentication credentials as before.

If wanting a client to use the secure external password store feature, then perform the following configuration task:

1. Create a wallet on the client by using the following syntax at the command line:

mkstore -wrl wallet_location -create

For example:

mkstore -wrl c:\oracle\product\12.1.0\db_1\wallets -create
Enter password: password

The wallet_location is the path to the directory where the wallet is to be created and stored. This command creates an Oracle wallet with the autologon feature enabled at the location specified. The autologon feature enables the client to access the wallet contents without supplying a password.

The mkstore utility -create option uses password complexity verification.

2. Create database connection credentials in the wallet by using the following syntax at the command line:

mkstore -wrl wallet_location -createCredential db_connect_string username
Enter password: password

For example:

mkstore -wrl c:\oracle\product\12.1.0\db_1\wallets -createCredential oracle system
Enter password: password

In this specification:

The wallet_location is the path to the directory where the wallet was created. The db_connect_string used in the CONNECT /@db_connect_string statement must be identical to the db_connect_string specified in the -createCredential command.

The db_connect_string is the TNS alias used to specify the database in the tnsnames.ora file or any service name used to identify the database on an Oracle network. By default, tnsnames.ora is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory on UNIX systems and in ORACLE_HOME\network\admin on Windows.

The username is the database logon credential. When prompted, enter the password for this user.

3. In the client sqlnet.ora file, enter the WALLET_LOCATION parameter and set it to the directory location of the wallet created in Step 1. For example, if the wallet was created in
$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin and Oracle home is set to /private/ora12, then need to enter the following into your client sqlnet.ora file:

WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE =
(METHOD = FILE)
(METHOD_DATA =
(DIRECTORY = /private/ora12/network/admin)
)
)

4. In the client sqlnet.ora file, enter the SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE parameter and set it to TRUE as follows:

SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE = TRUE

setting causes all CONNECT /@db_connect_string statements to use the information in the wallet at the specified location to authenticate to databases.

When external authentication is in use, an authenticated user with such a wallet can use the CONNECT /@db_connect_string syntax to access the previously specified databases without providing a user name and password. However, if a user fails that external authentication, then these connect statements also fail.

Below is a sample sqlnet.ora file with the WALLET_LOCATION and the SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE parameters set as described in Steps 3 and 4.

Below is a sample SQLNET.ORA File with Wallet Parameters Set

WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE =
(METHOD = FILE)
(METHOD_DATA =
(DIRECTORY = /private/ora12/network/admin)
)
)

SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE = TRUE
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION = FALSE
SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1

Note: "SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1" is the actual value, not a suggestion to use one or the other.

(Note: this assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file, "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently-located sqlnet.ora files.)
V-61739 Updated
Findings ID: O121-C2-015200 Rule ID: SV-76229r23_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000199

Discussion

Password maximum lifetime is the maximum period of time, (typically in days) a user's password may be in effect before the user is forced to change it.

Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals as per policy. Any password, no matter how complex, can eventually be cracked.

One method of minimizing this risk is to use complex passwords and periodically change them. If the application does not limit the lifetime of passwords and force users to change their passwords, there is the risk that the system and/or application passwords could be compromised.

The “PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME” parameter defines the number of days a password remains valid. This can, but must not be, set to “UNLIMITED”. Further, the “PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME” parameter, if set to “UNLIMITED”, can nullify the “PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME”. “PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME” must be set to “0” days (or another small integer).

Note: User authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. With respect to Oracle, this requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

Checks

If all user accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism, and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

Review DBMS settings to determine if passwords must be changed periodically. If not, this is a finding:

SELECT p1.profile,
CASE p1.limit WHEN 'UNLIMITED' THEN 'UNLIMITED' ELSE
CASE p2.limit WHEN 'UNLIMITED' THEN 'UNLIMITED' ELSE
CASE p3.limit WHEN 'UNLIMITED' THEN 'UNLIMITED' ELSE
CASE p4.limit WHEN 'UNLIMITED' THEN 'UNLIMITED' ELSE
TO_CHAR(DECODE(p1.limit, 'DEFAULT', p3.limit, p1.limit) + DECODE(p2.limit, 'DEFAULT', p4.limit, p2.limit))
END
END
END
END effective_life_time
FROM dba_profiles p1, dba_profiles p2, dba_profiles p3, dba_profiles p4
WHERE p1.profile=p2.profile
AND p3.profile='DEFAULT'
AND p4.profile='DEFAULT'
AND p1.resource_name='PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME'
AND p2.resource_name='PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME'
AND p3.resource_name='PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME' -- from DEFAULT profile
AND p4.resource_name='PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME' -- from DEFAULT profile
order by 1;

If the “effective_life_time” is greater than “60” for any profile applied to user accounts, and the need for this has not been documented and approved by the ISSO, this is a finding.

If the value is greater than 35 for any profile applied to user accounts, and the DBMS is configured to use Password Lifetime to disable inactive accounts
(see requirement SRG-APP-000025-DB-000004), this is a finding.

Fix

For user accounts managed by Oracle: Modify DBMS settings to force users to periodically change their passwords. For example, using PPPPPP to stand for a profile name:
ALTER PROFILE PPPPPP LIMIT PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 35 PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME 0;
Do this for each profile applied to user accounts.

(Note: Although the DoD requirement is for a password change every 60 days, using a value of “35” facilitates the use of “PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME” as a means of locking accounts inactive for 35 days
, as required by SRG-APP-000025-DB-000004. But if “35” is not a practical or acceptable limit for password lifetime, set it to the standard DoD value of “60”, and use another method to satisfy SRG-APP-000025-DB-000004.)

Where a password lifetime longer than “60” is needed, document the reasons and obtain ISSO approval.
V-61741 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-015300 Rule ID: SV-76231r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000185

Discussion

A trust anchor is an authoritative entity represented via a public key and associated data. It is used in the context of public key infrastructures, X.509 digital certificates, and DNSSEC.

When there is a chain of trust, usually the top entity to be trusted becomes the trust anchor; it can be for example a Certification Authority (CA). A certification path starts with the Subject certificate and proceeds through a number of intermediate certificates up to a trusted root certificate, typically issued by a trusted CA.

Path validation is necessary for a relying party to make an informed trust decision when presented with any certificate not already explicitly trusted.

Status information for certification paths includes certificate revocation lists or online certificate status protocol responses.

Database Management Systems that do not validate certificates to a trust anchor are in danger of accepting certificates that are invalid and/or counterfeit. This could allow unauthorized access to the database.

Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the successor protocol to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Although the Oracle configuration parameters have names including 'SSL', such as SSL_VERSION and SSL_CIPHER_SUITES, they refer to TLS.

Checks

If PKI is not enabled in the Oracle Database, this is not a finding.

If all accounts are authenticated by the OS or an enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism and not by Oracle, this is not a finding.

Review DBMS configuration to verify the certificates being accepted by the DBMS have a valid certification path with status information to an accepted trust anchor.

If certification paths are not being validated back to a trust anchor, this is a finding.

- - - - -
The database supports PKI-based authentication by using digital certificates over TLS in addition to the native encryption and data integrity capabilities of these protocols.

Oracle provides a complete PKI that is based on RSA Security, Inc., Public-Key Cryptography Standards, and which interoperates with Oracle servers and clients. The database uses a wallet that is a container that is used to store authentication and signing credentials, including private keys, certificates, and trusted certificates needed by TLS. In an Oracle environment, every entity that communicates over TLS must have a wallet containing an X.509 version 3 certificate, private key, and list of trusted certificates.

If the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora contains the following entries, TLS is installed.

WALLET_LOCATION = (SOURCE=
(METHOD = FILE)
(METHOD_DATA =
DIRECTORY=/wallet)

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES=(SSL_cipher_suiteExample)
SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=TRUE

(Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.)

Note: "SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1" is the actual value, not a suggestion to use one or the other.

Fix

Configure the DBMS to validate certificates by constructing a certification path with status information to an accepted trust anchor.

Configure the database to support Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols and the Oracle Wallet to store authentication and signing credentials, including private keys.
V-61743 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-015500 Rule ID: SV-76233r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000187

Discussion

The cornerstone of the PKI is the private key used to encrypt or digitally sign information. The key by itself is a cryptographic value that does not contain specific user information.

When including the DBMS in the Private Key Infrastructure, the authenticated user must map directly to a user account in the DBMS. If the user account is not directly tied to the authenticated identity, there is no way to know which, if any, database user account has been authorized.

Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the successor protocol to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Although the Oracle configuration parameters have names including 'SSL', such as SSL_VERSION and SSL_CIPHER_SUITES, they refer to TLS.

Checks

Review DBMS configuration to verify DBMS user accounts are being mapped directly to authenticated identity information being passed via the PKI.

If user accounts are not being mapped to authenticated identity information being passed via the PKI, this is a finding.

- - - - -
The database supports PKI-based authentication by using digital certificates over TLS in addition to the native encryption and data integrity capabilities of these protocols.

Oracle provides a complete PKI that is based on RSA Security, Inc., Public-Key Cryptography Standards, and which interoperates with Oracle servers and clients. The database uses a wallet that is a container that is used to store authentication and signing credentials, including private keys, certificates, and trusted certificates needed by TLS. In an Oracle environment, every entity that communicates over TLS must have a wallet containing an X.509 version 3 certificate, private key, and list of trusted certificates. Security administrators use Oracle Wallet Manager to manage security credentials on the server.

If the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora contains the following entries, TLS is installed. (Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.)

WALLET_LOCATION = (SOURCE=
(METHOD = FILE)
(METHOD_DATA =
DIRECTORY=/wallet)

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES=(SSL_cipher_suiteExample)
SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=FALSE/TRUE

Note: "SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1" is the actual value, not a suggestion to use one or the other.

Fix

Configure the DBMS to map the authenticated identity directly to the DBMS user account.
V-61745 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-015501 Rule ID: SV-76235r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Just as individual users must be authenticated, and just as they must use PKI-based authentication, so must any processes that connect to the DBMS.

The DoD standard for authentication of a process or device communicating with another process or device is the presentation of a valid, current, DoD-issued Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) certificate that has previously been verified as Trusted by an administrator of the other process or device.

This applies both to processes that run on the same server as the DBMS and to processes running on other computers.

The Oracle-supplied accounts, SYS, SYSBACKUP, SYSDG, and SYSKM, are exceptions. These cannot currently use certificate-based authentication. For this reason among others, use of these accounts should be restricted to where it is truly needed.

Checks

Review configuration to confirm that accounts used by processes to connect to the DBMS are authenticated using valid, current DoD-issued PKI certificates.

If any such account (other than SYS, SYSBACKUP, SYSDG, and SYSKM) is not certificate-based, this is a finding.

Fix

For each such account, use DoD certificate-based authentication.
V-61747 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-015700 Rule ID: SV-76237r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000803

Discussion

Encryption is only as good as the encryption modules utilized. Unapproved cryptographic module algorithms cannot be verified and cannot be relied upon to provide confidentiality or integrity, and DoD data may be compromised due to weak algorithms.

Applications utilizing encryption are required to use approved encryption modules that meet the requirements of applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

FIPS 140-2 is the current standard for validating cryptographic modules, and NSA Type-X (where X=1, 2, 3, 4) products are NSA-certified hardware-based encryption modules.

Authentication modules with weak encryption could allow an attacker to gain access to data stored in the database and to the administration settings of the DBMS.

Checks

Check the following settings to see if FIPS 140-2 authentication/encryption is configured. If encryption is required but not configured, check with the DBA and system administrator to see if other mechanisms or third-party cryptography products are deployed for authentication.

To see if Oracle is configured for FIPS 140-2 SSL/TLS authentication and/or Encryption:

Verify the DBMS version:
select * from V_$VERSION;
If the version displayed for Oracle Database is lower than 12.1.0.2, this is a finding.

If the operating system is Windows and the DBMS version is 12.1.0.2, use the opatch command to display the patches applied to the DBMS.

If the patches listed do not include "WINDOWS DB BUNDLE PATCH 12.1.0.2.7", this is a finding.

Open the fips.ora file in a browser or editor. (The default location for fips.ora is $ORACLE_HOME/ldap/admin/ but alternate locations are possible. An alternate location, if it is in use, is specified in the FIPS_HOME environment variable.)

If the line "SSLFIPS_140=TRUE" is not found in fips.ora, or the file does not exist, this is a finding.

Fix

Utilize NIST-validated FIPS 140-2-compliant cryptography for all authentication mechanisms.

Where not already in effect, upgrade the DBMS to version 12.1.0.2 or higher.

Where the operating system is Windows and the DBMS version is 12.1.0.2, install patch "WINDOWS DB BUNDLE PATCH 12.1.0.2.7" if not already deployed.

Open the fips.ora file in an editor. (The default location for fips.ora is $ORACLE_HOME/ldap/admin/ but alternate locations are possible. An alternate location, if it is in use, is specified in the FIPS_HOME environment variable.)
Create or modify fips.ora to include the line "SSLFIPS_140=TRUE".

- - - - -
The strength requirements are dependent upon data classification.

For unclassified data, where cryptography is required:
AES 128 for encryption
SHA 256 for hashing

NSA has established the suite B encryption requirements for protecting National Security Systems (NSS) as follows.
AES 128 for Secret
AES 256 for Top Secret
SHA 256 for Secret
SHA 384 for Top Secret

National Security System is defined as:
(OMB Circular A-130) Any telecommunications or information system operated by the United States Government, the function, operation, or use of which (1) involves intelligence activities; (2) involves cryptologic activities related to national security; (3) involves command and control of military forces; (4) involves equipment that is an integral part of a weapon or weapons system; or (5) is critical to the direct fulfillment of military or intelligence missions, but excluding any system that is to be used for routine administrative and business applications (including payroll, finance, logistics, and personnel management applications).

There is more information on this topic in the Oracle Database 12c Advanced Security Administrator's Guide, which may be found at https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/E48135-11.pdf. (Note, however, that because of changes in Oracle's licensing policy, it is no longer necessary to purchase Oracle Advanced Security to use network encryption and advanced authentication.)

FIPS 140-2 documentation can be downloaded from http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/PubsFIPS.html#140-2
V-61749 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-016000 Rule ID: SV-76239r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002890

Discussion

Non-local maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network.

The act of managing systems and applications includes the ability to access sensitive application information, such as system configuration details, diagnostic information, user information, and potentially sensitive application data.

When applications provide a remote management capability inherent to the application, the application needs to ensure the communication channels used to remotely access the system are adequately protected. If the communication channel is not adequately protected authentication information, application data, and configuration information could be compromised.

Checks

Review DBMS configuration to determine if cryptographic mechanisms are being utilized to protect the integrity and confidentiality of nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic communications.

If not, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure DBMS to utilize cryptographic mechanisms to protect the integrity and confidentiality of nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic communications.
V-61751 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-016100 Rule ID: SV-76241r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000877

Discussion

Non-local maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network.

The act of managing systems and applications includes the ability to access sensitive application information, such as system configuration details, diagnostic information, user information, and potentially sensitive application data.

When applications provide a remote management capability inherent to the application, the application needs to ensure the identification and authentication techniques used to remotely access the system are strong enough to protect the system. If the communication channel is not adequately protected, authentication information, application data, and configuration information could be compromised.

Checks

Review DBMS settings to determine whether strong identification and authentication techniques are required for nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic sessions.

If strong identification and authentication techniques are not required, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure DBMS settings to use strong identification and authentication techniques for nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic sessions.
V-61753 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-016300 Rule ID: SV-76243r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

When data is written to portable digital media, such as thumb drives, floppy diskettes, compact disks, magnetic tape, etc., there is risk of data loss.

An organizational assessment of risk guides the selection of media and associated information contained on that media requiring restricted access.

Organizations need to document in policy and procedures the media requiring restricted access, individuals authorized to access the media, and the specific measures taken to restrict access. Fewer protection measures are needed for media containing information determined by the organization to be in the public domain, to be publicly releasable, or to have limited or no adverse impact if accessed by other than authorized personnel.

In these situations, it is assumed the physical access controls where the media resides provide adequate protection. The decision whether to employ cryptography is the responsibility of the information owner/steward, who exercises discretion within the framework of applicable rules, policies, and law.

The selection of the cryptographic mechanisms used is based upon maintaining the confidentiality and integrity of the information.

The strength of mechanisms is commensurate with the classification and sensitivity of the information.

When the organization has determined the risk warrants it, data written to portable digital media must be encrypted. When information written to digital media is not encrypted, it can be compromised.

Checks

If data is written to portable media, the data must be protected and access restricted via cryptographic mechanisms.

Review system documentation and interview DBA to determine whether data is ever written directly from Oracle to portable media.

If this is the case, and cryptographic mechanisms are not used to protect data written to portable media, this is a finding.

If all data writing from Oracle to portable media is done via intermediate files, pipes, or other non-portable resources under the control of the operating system, then this is not a finding with respect to Oracle. (Note, however, that if encryption is not in use, it may be a finding with respect to the OS or the application that is used to perform the data transfer.)

Fix

Reconfigure processes that write to portable digital media so that they use cryptographic mechanisms to restrict access and protect the information.
V-61755 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-016400 Rule ID: SV-76245r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002262

Discussion

When data is written to digital media, such as hard drives, mobile computers, external/removable hard drives, personal digital assistants, flash/thumb drives, etc., there is risk of data loss and/or compromise.

An organizational assessment of risk guides the selection of media and associated information contained on that media requiring restricted access. Organizations need to document in policy and procedures the media requiring restricted access, individuals authorized to access the media, and the specific measures taken to restrict access.

Fewer protection measures are needed for media containing information determined by the organization to be in the public domain, to be publicly releasable, or to have limited or no adverse impact if accessed by other than authorized personnel. In these situations, it is assumed the physical access controls where the media resides provide adequate protection.

As part of a defense-in-depth strategy, the organization considers routinely encrypting information at rest on selected secondary storage devices. The decision whether to employ cryptography is the responsibility of the information owner/steward, who exercises discretion within the framework of applicable rules, policies, and law. The selection of the cryptographic mechanisms used is based upon maintaining the confidentiality and integrity of the information.

The strength of mechanisms is commensurate with the classification and sensitivity of the information.

Information at rest, when not encrypted, is open to compromise from attackers who have gained unauthorized access to the data files.

Checks

If encryption is not required for the database and data derived from it, this is not a finding.

Review DBMS settings to determine whether data stored on the database is encrypted according to organizational requirements.

If not, this is a finding.

Check the following settings to see if FIPS 140-2 encryption is configured. If encryption is not configured, check with the DBA and SYSTEM Administrator to see if other mechanisms or third-party products are deployed to encrypt data stored in the database.

To see if Oracle is configured for FIPS 140-2 Transparent Data Encryption and/or DBMS_CRYPTO, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SHOW PARAMETER DBFIPS_140
or the following SQL query:
SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'DBFIPS_140';
If Oracle returns the value 'FALSE', or returns no rows, this is a finding.

To see if there are encrypted tablespaces enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SELECT * FROM V$ENCRYPTED_TABLESPACES;
If no rows are returned, then there are no encrypted tablespaces.

To see if there are encrypted columns within existing tables, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SELECT * FROM DBA_ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS;
If no rows are returned, then there are no encrypted columns within existing tables.

Note: For the Solaris platform, when DBFIPS_140 is FALSE, TDE (but not DBMS_CRYPTO) can still operate
in a FIPS 140-compliant manner if FIPS 140 operation is enabled for the Solaris Cryptographic Framework.

Fix

Configure cryptographic functions to use FIPS 140-2-compliant algorithms and hashing functions.

Configure the DBMS and/or the OS to encrypt data at rest according to the requirements of the organization.

The strength requirements are dependent upon data classification.

For unclassified data, where cryptography is required:
AES 128 for encryption
SHA 256 for hashing

NSA has established the suite B encryption requirements for protecting National Security Systems (NSS) as follows.
AES 128 for Secret
AES 256 for Top Secret
SHA 256 for Secret
SHA 384 for Top Secret

National Security System is defined as:
(OMB Circular A-130) Any telecommunications or information system operated by the United States Government, the function, operation, or use of which (1) involves intelligence activities; (2) involves cryptologic activities related to national security; (3) involves command and control of military forces; (4) involves equipment that is an integral part of a weapon or weapons system; or (5) is critical to the direct fulfillment of military or intelligence missions, but excluding any system that is to be used for routine administrative and business applications (including payroll, finance, logistics, and personnel management applications).

There is more information on this topic in the Oracle Database 12c Advanced Security Administrator's Guide, which may be found at https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/E48135-11.pdf. (Note, however, that because of changes in Oracle's licensing policy, it is no longer necessary to purchase Oracle Advanced Security to use network encryption and advanced authentication.)

FIPS 140-2 documentation can be downloaded from http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/PubsFIPS.html#140-2
V-61757 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-016500 Rule ID: SV-76247r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001133

Discussion

Non-local maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network.

The act of managing systems and applications includes the ability to access sensitive application information, such as system configuration details, diagnostic information, user information, and potentially sensitive application data.

When applications provide a remote management capability inherent to the application, the application needs to ensure all sessions and network connections are terminated when non-local maintenance is completed.

When network connections are left open after the database session has closed, the network session is open to session hijacking.

The Oracle Listener inherently meets most of this SRG requirement. When a user logs off, or times out, or encounters an unrecoverable network fault, the Oracle Listener terminates all sessions and network connections. The remaining aspect of the requirement, the timeout because of inactivity, is configurable.

Checks

Review DBMS settings, OS settings, and vendor documentation to verify network connections are terminated when a database communications session is ended or after 15 minutes of inactivity.

If the network connection is not terminated, this is a finding.

The defined duration for these timeouts 15 minutes, except to fulfill documented and validated mission requirements.

Fix

Configure DBMS and/or OS settings to disconnect network sessions when database communication sessions have ended or after the DoD-defined period of inactivity.

To configure this in Oracle, modify each relevant profile. The resource name is IDLE_TIME, which is expressed in minutes. Using PPPPPP as an example of a profile, set the timeout to 15 minutes with:
ALTER PROFILE PPPPPP LIMIT IDLE_TIME 15;
V-61759 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-016600 Rule ID: SV-76249r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002450

Discussion

Use of cryptography to provide confidentiality and non-repudiation is not effective unless strong methods are employed. Many earlier encryption methods and modules have been broken and/or overtaken by increasing computing power. The NIST FIPS 140-2 cryptographic standards provide proven methods and strengths to employ cryptography effectively.

Detailed information on the NIST Cryptographic Module Validation Program (CMVP) is available at http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/STM/cmvp/index.html

Note: this does not require that all databases be encrypted. It specifies that if encryption is required, then the implementation of the encryption must satisfy the prevailing standards.

Checks

If encryption is not required for the database, this is not a finding.

If the DBMS has not implemented federally required cryptographic protections for the level of classification of the data it contains, this is a finding.

Check the following settings to see if FIPS 140-2 encryption is configured. If encryption is not configured, check with the DBA and SYSTEM Administrator to see if other mechanisms or third-party products are deployed to encrypt data during the transmission or storage of data.

For Transparent Data Encryption and DBMS_CRYPTO:

To see if Oracle is configured for FIPS 140-2 Transparent Data Encryption and/or DBMS_CRYPTO, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SHOW PARAMETER DBFIPS_140
or the following SQL query:
SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'DBFIPS_140';

If Oracle returns the value 'FALSE', or returns no rows, this is a finding.

To see if Oracle is configured for FIPS 140-2 SSL/TLS authentication and/or Encryption:

Verify the DBMS version:
select * from V_$VERSION;

If the version displayed for Oracle Database is lower than 12.1.0.2, this is a finding.

If the operating system is Windows and the DBMS version is 12.1.0.2, use the opatch command to display the patches applied to the DBMS.

If the patches listed do not include "WINDOWS DB BUNDLE PATCH 12.1.0.2.7", this is a finding.

Open the fips.ora file in a browser or editor. (The default location for fips.ora is $ORACLE_HOME/ldap/admin/ but alternate locations are possible. An alternate location, if it is in use, is specified in the FIPS_HOME environment variable.)

If the line "SSLFIPS_140=TRUE" is not found in fips.ora, or the file does not exist, this is a finding.

For (Native) Network Data Encryption:
If the line, SQLNET.FIPS_140=TRUE is not found in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora, this is a finding. (Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.)

Note: For the Solaris platform, when DBFIPS_140 is FALSE, TDE (but not DBMS_CRYPTO) can still operate in a FIPS 140-compliant manner if FIPS 140 operation is enabled for the Solaris Cryptographic Framework.

Fix

Implement required cryptographic protections using cryptographic modules complying with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

Where not already in effect, upgrade the DBMS to version 12.1.0.2 or higher.

Where the operating system is Windows and the DBMS version is 12.1.0.2, install patch "WINDOWS DB BUNDLE PATCH 12.1.0.2.7" if not already deployed.

Open the fips.ora file in an editor. (The default location for fips.ora is $ORACLE_HOME/ldap/admin/ but alternate locations are possible. An alternate location, if it is in use, is specified in the FIPS_HOME environment variable.)

Create or modify fips.ora to include the line "SSLFIPS_140=TRUE".

- - - - -
The strength requirements are dependent upon data classification.

For unclassified data, where cryptography is required:
AES 128 for encryption
SHA 256 for hashing

NSA has established the suite B encryption requirements for protecting National Security Systems (NSS) as follows:
AES 128 for Secret
AES 256 for Top Secret
SHA 256 for Secret
SHA 384 for Top Secret

National Security System is defined as:
(OMB Circular A-130) Any telecommunications or information system operated by the United States Government, the function, operation, or use of which (1) involves intelligence activities; (2) involves cryptologic activities related to national security; (3) involves command and control of military forces; (4) involves equipment that is an integral part of a weapon or weapons system; or (5) is critical to the direct fulfillment of military or intelligence missions, but excluding any system that is to be used for routine administrative and business applications (including payroll, finance, logistics, and personnel management applications).
V-61761 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-016700 Rule ID: SV-76251r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002450

Discussion

Cryptography is only as strong as the encryption modules/algorithms employed to encrypt the data.

Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data.

Data files that are not encrypted are vulnerable to theft. When data files are not encrypted they can be copied and opened on a separate system. The data can be compromised without the information owner's knowledge that the theft has even taken place.

Checks

If the database does not handle sensitive information, this is not a finding.

Review the system documentation to determine whether the database handles classified information. If the database handles classified information, upgrade the severity Category Code to I.

Review the system documentation to discover sensitive or classified data identified by the Information Owner that requires encryption.

If no sensitive or classified data is identified as requiring encryption by the Information Owner, this is not a finding.

Have the DBA use select statements in the database to review sensitive data stored in tables as identified in the system documentation.
To see if Oracle is configured for FIPS 140-2 Transparent Data Encryption and/or DBMS_CRYPTO, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SHOW PARAMETER DBFIPS_140

or the following SQL query:

SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'DBFIPS_140';

If Oracle returns the value 'FALSE', or returns no rows, this is a finding.

To see if there are encrypted tablespaces, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SELECT * FROM V$ENCRYPTED_TABLESPACES;

If no rows are returned, then there are no encrypted tablespaces.

To see if there are encrypted columns within existing tables, enter the following SQL*Plus command:

SELECT * FROM DBA_ENCRYPTED_COLUMNS;

If no rows are returned, then there are no encrypted columns within existing tables.

If all sensitive data identified is encrypted within the database objects, encryption of the DBMS data files is optional and not a finding.

If all sensitive data is not encrypted within database objects, review encryption applied to the DBMS host data files. If no encryption is applied, this is a finding.

Fix

Obtain and utilize native or third-party NIST-validated FIPS 140-2-compliant cryptography solution for the DBMS. Configure cryptographic functions to use FIPS 140-2-compliant algorithms and hashing functions.

The strength requirements are dependent upon data classification.

For unclassified data, where cryptography is required:
AES 128 for encryption
SHA 256 for hashing

NSA has established the suite B encryption requirements for protecting National Security Systems (NSS) as follows.
AES 128 for Secret
AES 256 for Top Secret
SHA 256 for Secret
SHA 384 for Top Secret

National Security System is defined as:
(OMB Circular A-130) Any telecommunications or information system operated by the United States Government, the function, operation, or use of which (1) involves intelligence activities; (2) involves cryptologic activities related to national security; (3) involves command and control of military forces; (4) involves equipment that is an integral part of a weapon or weapons system; or (5) is critical to the direct fulfillment of military or intelligence missions, but excluding any system that is to be used for routine administrative and business applications (including payroll, finance, logistics, and personnel management applications).

There is more information on this topic in the Oracle Database 12c Advanced Security Administrator's Guide, which may be found at https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ASOAG/toc.htm. (Note, however, that because of changes in Oracle's licensing policy, it is no longer necessary to purchase Oracle Advanced Security to use network encryption and advanced authentication.)

FIPS 140-2 documentation can be downloaded from http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/PubsFIPS.html#140-2
V-61763 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-017100 Rule ID: SV-76253r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The purpose of this control is to ensure organizations explicitly address the protection needs for public information and applications with such protection likely being implemented as part of other security controls.

Databases designed to contain publicly available information, though not concerned with confidentiality, must still maintain the integrity of the data they house. If data available to the public is not protected from unauthorized modification, then it cannot be trusted by those accessing it.

Checks

Determine whether the database houses and distributes information to the public. Review DBMS settings to determine whether controls exist to protect the integrity of publicly available information.

If not, this is a finding.

- - - - -
All of the permissions and policies we would employ to protect information would be in play, like access control mechanisms, auditing, and password protection. For data that is for display or download to the public for their informational needs, it may be appropriate to place the data in a read-only tablespace. This will provide the DBA with the ability to modify content as needed by modifying the tablespace from read-only to read-write in the event the content needs to be modified. Check with the Application Developer to see what tables are used to store the data and/or content that is displayed to the public. Then find the tablespace name the data objects are stored in.

$ sqlplus connect as sysdba

SQL> SELECT table_name, tablespace_name from dba_tables where upper(table_name) like &tablename_from_developer;

For better performance while accessing data in a read-only tablespace, can issue a query that accesses all of the blocks of the tables in the tablespace just before making it read-only. A simple query, such as SELECT COUNT (*), executed against each table ensures that the data blocks in the tablespace can be subsequently accessed most efficiently. This eliminates the need for the database to check the status of the transactions that most recently modified the blocks.

The following statement makes the flights tablespace read-only:

ALTER TABLESPACE flights READ ONLY;

Can issue the ALTER TABLESPACE...READ ONLY statement while the database is processing transactions. After the statement is issued, the tablespace is put into a transitional read-only state. No transactions are allowed to make further changes (using DML statements) to the tablespace.

If a transaction attempts further changes, it is terminated and rolled back. However, transactions that already made changes and that attempt no further changes are allowed to commit or roll back.

The ALTER TABLESPACE...READ ONLY statement waits for the following transactions to either commit or roll back before returning: transactions that have pending or uncommitted changes to the tablespace and that were started before the statement was issued.

If a transaction started before the statement remains active, but rolls back to a savepoint, rolling back its changes to the tablespace, then the statement no longer waits for this active transaction.

Fix

Apply appropriate controls to protect the integrity of publicly available information.

- - - - -
If the appropriate controls include placing the data in a read-only tablespace, proceed as follows.

After we figure out the tablespace the data object is stored in:
$ sqlplus connect as sysdba
SQL> SELECT table_name, tablespace_name from dba_tables where upper(table_name) like &tablename_from_developer;

Once we get the name of the tablespace where all of the important data is stored, alter the tablespace to be read-only.
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE &tablespace_where_data_is READ ONLY;

The following statement makes the flights tablespace read-only:
ALTER TABLESPACE flights READ ONLY;

Can issue the ALTER TABLESPACE...READ ONLY statement while the database is processing transactions. After the statement is issued, the tablespace is put into a transitional read-only state. No transactions are allowed to make further changes (using DML statements) to the tablespace. If a transaction attempts further changes, it is terminated and rolled back. However, transactions that already made changes and that attempt no further changes are allowed to commit or roll back.

The ALTER TABLESPACE...READ ONLY statement waits for the following transactions to either commit or roll back before returning: transactions that have pending or uncommitted changes to the tablespace and that were started before the statement was issued. If a transaction started before the statement remains active, but rolls back to a savepoint, rolling back its changes to the tablespace, then the statement no longer waits for this active transaction.
V-61765 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-017600 Rule ID: SV-76255r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001185

Discussion

This requirement focuses on communications protection at the application session, versus network packet, level.

Session IDs are tokens generated by web applications to uniquely identify an application user's session. Applications will make application decisions and execute business logic based on the session ID. Unique session identifiers or IDs are the opposite of sequentially generated session IDs, which can be easily guessed by an attacker. Unique session IDs help to reduce predictability of said identifiers. Unique session IDs address man-in-the-middle attacks, including session hijacking or insertion of false information into a session. If the attackers are unable to identify or guess the session information related to pending application traffic, they will have more difficulty in hijacking the session or otherwise manipulating valid sessions. When a user logs out, or when any other session termination event occurs, the application must terminate the user session to minimize the potential for an attacker to hijack that particular user session.

Database sessions must be terminated when no longer in use in order to prevent session hijacking.

Checks

Review DBMS settings and vendor documentation to verify user sessions are terminated upon user logout. If they are not, this is a finding.

Review system documentation and organization policy to identify other events that should result in session terminations. If other session termination events are defined, review DBMS settings to verify occurrences of these events would cause session termination.

If occurrences of defined session-terminating events do not cause session terminations, this is a finding.

When a user logs off of an Oracle session gracefully or has the session terminated for an idle timeout or any other reason, the session is terminated, and the resources are returned to the system. Check with the DBA to see what mechanism is used to disconnect the session and what events the site uses to determine if a connection needs to be terminated.

To test for timeout, open a connection and leave it idle for a period greater than the defined idle timeout setting enforced by the system. Then try to use the connection. If the connection is no longer active, then the mechanism deployed to terminate the connection is active and working.

Fix

Configure DBMS settings to terminate sessions upon user logoff. Configure DBMS settings to terminate sessions upon the occurrence of any organization or policy-defined session termination event.

- - - - -

To configure specific session termination processes, we need to define the organization or policy-defined session termination event. Below are some examples.

Oracle has several ways to disconnect idle sessions, both from within SQL*Plus via resources profiles (connect_time, idle_time) and with the SQL*net expire time parameter.

Can use profiles to set the connect time and idle time with "alter profile" statements:

alter profile senior_claim_analyst limit
connect_time 15
sessions_per_user 2
ldle_time 10;

Profiles comprise a named set of resource limits. By default, when users are created, they are given the default profile, which provides unlimited use of all resources.

The syntax to create a profile follows:

CREATE PROFILE LIMIT resource_parameters|password_parameters;
Resource_parameters:
[SESSIONS_PER_USER n|UNLIMITED|DEFAULT]
[CPU_PER_SESSION n|UNLIMITED|DEFAULT]
[CPU_PER_CALL n|UNLIMITED|DEFAULT]
[CONNECT_TIME n|UNLIMITED|DEFAULT]
[IDLE_TIME n|UNLIMITED|DEFAULT]

By setting resource limits, can prevent users from performing operations that will tie up the system and prevent other users from performing operations. Can use resource limits for security, to ensure that users log off the system, so as not to leave the session connected for long periods of time.

The system resource limits can be enforced at the session level, the call level, or both. The session level is calculated from the time the user logs on to the database until the user exits. The call level applies to each SQL command issued. Session-level limits are enforced for each connection. When a session-level limit is exceeded, only the last SQL command issued is rolled back; no further work can be performed until a commit, rollback, or exit is performed.

Using SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME

The sqlnet.expire_time parameter is used to set a time interval, in minutes, to determine how often a probe should be sent verifying that client/server connections are active. If there is a need to ensure that connections are not left open indefinitely (or up to the time set by operating system-specific parameters), set a value that is greater than 0. This protects the system from connections left open due to an abnormal client termination.

When the probe detects a terminated connection or a connection no longer in use, it signals an error, causing the server process to exit. This setting is intended for use on the database server side of the connection, which usually handles multiple connections at any one time. Limitations on using this terminated (dead) connection detection feature are:

sqlnet.expire_time cannot be used on bequeathed connections.

The SQL*Net expire_time probe packet will generate additional network traffic that may downgrade the network's performance, depending on the number of connections.

Depending on the operating system that is in use, additional server processing may need to be performed to distinguish the connection probe from other events that occur. This overhead for detection of probe events can result in downgraded network performance.

Turning-on expire_time

To set up these advanced features, simply edit the sqlnet.ora file. If a beginner, follow this procedure:

Start the Oracle Network Manager GUI.

In the GUI navigator pane, expand the icons Local >> Profile.

From the list on the right-hand pane, select General.

Click on the Advanced tab.

Next, enter the values for the fields or options to set.

When finished, choose File >> Save Network Configuration to write the changes to the sqlnet.ora file. (Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.)

The sqlnet.ora inbound_connect_timeout parameter

The sqlnet.ora inbound_connect_timeout parameter is used to limit the time, set in seconds, for a client to connect with the database server and provide the required authentication information.

Also see sqlnet.inbound_connect_timeout tips.

To limit consumption of Oracle resources by unauthorized users and enable an audit trail, should set time-limit values for the sqlnet.inbound_connect_timeout parameter in wall-clock seconds. (This parameter does not have default values.) Failure resulting from sqlnet.inbound_connect_timeout will throw an ORA-03136 inbound connection timed out error.
V-61769 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-018200 Rule ID: SV-76259r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001665

Discussion

Failure in a known state can address safety or security in accordance with the mission/business needs of the organization. Failure in a known secure state helps prevent a loss of confidentiality, integrity, or availability in the event of a failure of the information system or a component of the system.

Preserving information system state information helps to facilitate system restart and return to the operational mode of the organization with less disruption of mission/business processes.

Checks

If the database is used solely for transient data (such as one dedicated to Extract-Transform-Load (ETL)), and a clear plan exists for the recovery of the database by means other than archiving, this is not a finding.

If it has been determined that up-to-the second recovery is not necessary and this fact is recorded in the system documentation, with appropriate approval, this is not a finding.

Check DBMS settings to determine whether system state information is being preserved in the event of a system failure.

The necessary state information is defined as "information necessary to determine cause of failure and to return to operations with least disruption to mission/business processes".

Oracle creates what is known as archive logs. Archive logs contain information required to replay a transaction should something happen. The redo logs are also used to copy transactions or pieces of transactions.

Issue the following commands to check the status of archive log mode:

$ sqlplus connect as sysdba --Check current archivelog mode in database

SQL> archive log list
Database log mode Archive Mode
Automatic archival Enabled
Archive destination /home/oracle/app/oracle/arc2/ORCL
Oldest online log sequence 433
Next log sequence to archive 435
Current log sequence 435

If archive log mode is not enabled, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure DBMS settings to preserve all required system state information in the event of a system failure.

If the database is not in archive log mode, issue the following commands to put the database in archive log mode. The database must be normally shutdown and restarted before it can be placed in archive log mode.

$ sqlplus connect as sysdba -- stop and dismount database and shutdown instance.
SQL> shutdown immediate;

Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL> startup mount; -- Restart instance.

ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area 1653518336 bytes
Fixed Size 2228904 bytes
Variable Size 1325403480 bytes
Database Buffers 318767104 bytes
Redo Buffers 7118848 bytes
Database mounted.

SQL> alter database archivelog; -- Enable ArchiveLog
Database altered.

SQL> alter database open; -- Re-open database
Database altered.

Issue the following command to see the new status:
SQL> select log_mode from v$database;

LOG_MODE
------------
ARCHIVELOG

SQL> archive log list;

Database log mode Archive Mode
Automatic archival Enabled
Archive destination USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
Oldest online log sequence 294
Next log sequence to archive 296
Current log sequence 296

The database is now in archive log mode, and transactions are either being recorded to transport to another database or being re-applied if the database becomes corrupt and needs to be restored from the last backup. Use the redo logs to replay transactions not captured in the backup.
V-61771 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-018300 Rule ID: SV-76261r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001199

Discussion

This control is intended to address the confidentiality and integrity of information at rest in non-mobile devices and covers user information and system information. Information at rest refers to the state of information when it is located on a secondary storage device (e.g., disk drive, tape drive) within an organizational information system. Applications and application users generate information throughout the course of their application use.

User-generated data and application specific configuration data both need to be protected. Configurations and/or rule sets for firewalls, gateways, intrusion detection/prevention systems, and filtering routers and authenticator content are examples of system information likely requiring protection. Organizations may choose to employ different mechanisms to achieve confidentiality and integrity protections, as appropriate.

If the confidentiality and integrity of application data is not protected, the data will be open to compromise and unauthorized modification.

Checks

If the application owner and Authorizing Official have determined that encryption of data at rest is NOT required, this is not a finding.

Review DBMS settings to determine whether controls exist to protect the confidentiality and integrity of data at rest in the database.

If controls do not exist or are not enabled, this is a finding.

To ensure that the appropriate controls are in place, discuss the precautions taken with the site Database Administrators and System Administrators and try to modify data at rest.

Oracle recommends using Transparent Data Encryption to protect data.

In order to check to see if the data is encrypted, for example, upon an auditor's request, Oracle provides views that document the encryption status of the database. For TDE column encryption, use the view 'dba_encrypted_columns', which lists the owner, table name, column name, encryption algorithm, and salt for all encrypted columns. For TDE tablespace encryption, the following SQL statement lists all encrypted tablespaces with their encryption algorithm and corresponding, encrypted, data files. Issue the following commands to check to see if the data at rest is encrypted.

$ sqlplus connect as sysdba

SQL> SELECT t.name "TSName",
e.encryptionalg "Algorithm",
d.file_name "File Name"
FROM v$tablespace t,
v$encrypted_tablespaces e,
dba_data_files d
WHERE t.ts# = e.ts#
and t.name = d.tablespace_name;

The next SQL statement lists the table owner, tables within encrypted tablespaces, and the encryption algorithm:

SQL> SELECT a.owner "Owner",
a.table_name "Table Name",
e.encryptionalg "Algorithm"
FROM dba_tables a,
v$encrypted_tablespaces e
WHERE a.tablespace_name in (select t.name from v$tablespace t, v$encrypted_tablespaces e where t.ts# = e.ts#);

Fix

Apply appropriate controls to protect the confidentiality and integrity of data at rest in the database.

If no site-specific precautions are in place, use Oracle Advanced Security Option to encrypt data at rest.

If ASO is not an option, use site-specific procedures to secure data at rest.
V-61775 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-018500 Rule ID: SV-76265r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001084

Discussion

Security functions are defined as "the hardware, software, and/or firmware of the information system responsible for enforcing the system security policy and supporting the isolation of code and data on which the protection is based".

Developers and implementers can increase the assurance in security functions by employing well-defined security policy models, structured, disciplined, and rigorous hardware and software development techniques, and sound system/security engineering principles.

Database Management Systems typically separate security functionality from non-security functionality via separate databases or schemas. Database objects or code implementing security functionality must not be commingled with objects or code implementing application logic. When security and non-security functionality is commingled, users who have access to non-security functionality may be able to access security functionality.

Checks

Check DBMS settings to determine whether objects or code implementing security functionality are located in a separate security domain, such as a separate database or schema created specifically for security functionality.

If security-related database objects or code are not kept separate, this is a finding.

The Oracle elements of security functionality, such as the roles, permissions, and profiles, along with password complexity requirements, are stored in separate schemas in the database. Review any site-specific applications security modules built into the database and determine what schema they are located in and take appropriate action. The Oracle objects will be in the Oracle Data Dictionary.

Fix

Locate security-related database objects and code in a separate database, schema, or other separate security domain from database objects and code implementing application logic. (This is the default behavior for Oracle.) Review any site-specific applications security modules built into the database: determine what schema they are located in and take appropriate action.
V-61777 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-018600 Rule ID: SV-76267r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001682

Discussion

Emergency application accounts are typically created due to an unforeseen operational event or could ostensibly be used in the event of a vendor support visit where a support representative requires a temporary unique account in order to perform diagnostic testing or conduct some other support-related activity. When these types of accounts are created, there is a risk that the temporary account may remain in place and active after the support representative has left.

In the event emergency application accounts are required, the application must ensure accounts that are designated as temporary in nature shall automatically terminate these accounts after an organization-defined time period. Such a process and capability greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be misused, hijacked, or application data compromised.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where it is necessary to have accounts directly managed by Oracle.

If it is possible for any temporary emergency accounts to be created and managed by Oracle, then the DBMS or application must provide or utilize a mechanism to automatically terminate such accounts after an organization-defined time period.

Emergency database accounts must be automatically terminated after an organization-defined time period in order to mitigate the risk of the account being misused.

Checks

If the organization has a policy, consistently enforced, forbidding the creation of emergency or temporary accounts, this is not a finding.

Check DBMS settings, OS settings, and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms settings to determine if emergency accounts are being automatically terminated by the system after an organization-defined time period. Check also for custom code (scheduled jobs, procedures, triggers, etc.) for achieving this.

If emergency accounts are not being terminated after an organization-defined time period, this is a finding.

Fix

Create a profile specifically for emergency or temporary accounts. When creating the accounts, assign them to this profile. Configure DBMS, OS, and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms, or implement custom code, to terminate accounts with this profile after an organization-defined time period.
V-61779 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-018800 Rule ID: SV-76269r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001274

Discussion

Applications will typically utilize logging mechanisms for maintaining a historical log of activity that occurs within the application. This information can then be used for diagnostic purposes, forensics purposes, or other purposes relevant to ensuring the availability and integrity of the application.

While it is important to log events identified as being critical and relevant to security, it is equally important to notify the appropriate personnel in a timely manner, so they are able to respond to events as they occur.

Solutions that include a manual notification procedure do not offer the reliability and speed of an automated notification solution. Applications must employ automated mechanisms to alert security personnel of inappropriate or unusual activities that have security implications. If this capability is not built directly into the application, the application must be able to integrate with existing security infrastructure that provides this capability.

Database management systems that do not automatically alert security personnel of unusual activities run the risk of security incidents going unnoticed for long periods of time. This can allow security breaches to be ongoing and more serious.

Checks

Check DBMS settings to determine whether security personnel are alerted automatically when unusual or security-related activities (threats identified by authoritative sources (e.g., CTOs) and IAW with CJCSM 6510.01A) are detected on the database.

If security personnel are not automatically alerted, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure database to automatically alert security personnel of inappropriate or unusual activities with security implications.

Oracle provides this capability with the Audit Vault. Install and configure Oracle Audit Vault if it is available.

If Audit Vault is not available, implement custom code or deploy a third-party product to satisfy this requirement.
V-61781 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-018900 Rule ID: SV-76271r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001090

Discussion

The purpose of this control is to prevent information, including encrypted representations of information, produced by the actions of a prior user/role (or the actions of a process acting on behalf of a prior user/role) from being available to any current user/role (or current process) that obtains access to a shared system resource (e.g., registers, main memory, secondary storage) after the resource has been released back to the information system. Control of information in shared resources is also referred to as object reuse.

Data used for the development and testing of applications often involves copying data from production. It is important that specific procedures exist for this process, so copies of sensitive data are not misplaced or left in a temporary location without the proper controls.

Checks

Verify there are proper procedures in place for the refreshing of development/test data from production. Review any scripts or code that exists for the movement of production data to development/test, and verify copies of production data are not left in unprotected locations.

If there is no documented procedure for data movement from production to development/test, this is a finding.

If the code that exists for data movement does not remove any copies of production data from unprotected locations, this is a finding.

Fix

Create and document a process for moving data from production to development/test systems, and follow the process.

Modify any code used for moving data from production to development/test systems to ensure copies of production data are not left in nonsecured locations.

Moving data is only a part of the challenge of protecting the data. When the data is moved, it should also be changed so sensitive information is not made available in development environments.

With the Oracle Data Masking Pack for Oracle Enterprise Manager, organizations can comply with data privacy and protection mandates that restrict the use of actual customer data. With Oracle Data Masking Pack, sensitive information, such as credit card or social security numbers, can be replaced with realistic values, allowing production data to be safely used for development, testing, or sharing with out-source or off-shore partners for other nonproduction purposes. When used in conjunction with Oracle Enterprise Manager, it is easy to develop a secure process that is capable of obfuscating the data during the movement process.

If the Oracle Data Masking Pack and Enterprise Manager are not available, develop site-specific procedures to manage and obfuscate sensitive data.
V-61783 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-019100 Rule ID: SV-76273r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002385

Discussion

A variety of technologies exist to limit, or in some cases, eliminate the effects of DoS attacks. For example, boundary protection devices can filter certain types of packets to protect devices on an organization's internal network from being directly affected by DoS attacks.

Employing increased capacity and bandwidth combined with service redundancy may reduce the susceptibility to some DoS attacks.

Some of the ways databases can limit their exposure to DoS attacks are through limiting the number of connections that can be opened by a single user and database clustering.

Checks

Review DBMS settings to verify the DBMS implements measures to limit the effects of the organization-defined types of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks.

If measures have not been implemented, this is a finding.

Check the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/listener.ora to see if a Rate Limit has been established. A rate limit is used to prevent denial of service (DOS) attacks on a database or to control a logon storm such as may be caused by an application server reboot.

- - - - -
Example of a listener configuration with rate limiting in effect:

CONNECTION_RATE_LISTENER=10

LISTENER=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521)(RATE_LIMIT=yes))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1522)(RATE_LIMIT=yes))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1526))
)
LISTENER=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521)(RATE_LIMIT=8))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1522)(RATE_LIMIT=12))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1526))
)

Fix

Implement measures to limit the effects of organization-defined types of Denial of Service attacks.

Modify the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/listener.ora to establish a Rate Limit.
V-61785 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-019500 Rule ID: SV-76275r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001310

Discussion

Invalid user input occurs when a user inserts data or characters into an application's data entry fields and the application is unprepared to process that data. This results in unanticipated application behavior, potentially leading to an application or information system compromise. Invalid user input is one of the primary methods employed when attempting to compromise an application.

All applications need to validate the data users attempt to input to the application for processing. Rules for checking the valid syntax and semantics of information system inputs (e.g., character set, length, numerical range, acceptable values) are in place to verify inputs match specified definitions for format and content. Inputs passed to interpreters are prescreened to prevent the content from being unintentionally interpreted as commands.


This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed and must document what has been discovered.

Checks

Review DBMS code, settings, field definitions, constraints, and triggers to determine whether or not data being input into the database is validated.

If code exists that allows invalid data to be acted upon or input into the database, this is a finding.

If field definitions do not exist in the database, this is a finding.

If fields do not contain enabled constraints where required, this is a finding.

- - - - -
Oracle provides built-in processes to keep data and its integrity intact by using constraints.

Integrity Constraint States
Can specify that a constraint is enabled (ENABLE) or disabled (DISABLE). If a constraint is enabled, data is checked as it is entered or updated in the database, and data that does not conform to the constraint is prevented from being entered. If a constraint is disabled, then data that does not conform can be allowed to enter the database.

Additionally, can specify that existing data in the table must conform to the constraint (VALIDATE). Conversely, if specified NOVALIDATE, are not ensured that existing data conforms.

An integrity constraint defined on a table can be in one of the following states:
ENABLE, VALIDATE
ENABLE, NOVALIDATE
DISABLE, VALIDATE
DISABLE, NOVALIDATE

For details about the meaning of these states and an understanding of their consequences, see the Oracle Database SQL Language Reference. Some of these consequences are discussed here.

Disabling Constraints
To enforce the rules defined by integrity constraints, the constraints should always be enabled. However, consider temporarily disabling the integrity constraints of a table for the following performance reasons:

- When loading large amounts of data into a table

- When performing batch operations that make massive changes to a table (for example, changing every employee's number by adding 1000 to the existing number)

- When importing or exporting one table at a time

In all three cases, temporarily disabling integrity constraints can improve the performance of the operation, especially in data warehouse configurations.

It is possible to enter data that violates a constraint while that constraint is disabled. Thus, always enable the constraint after completing any of the operations listed in the preceding bullet list.

Enabling Constraints
While a constraint is enabled, no row violating the constraint can be inserted into the table. However, while the constraint is disabled, such a row can be inserted. This row is known as an exception to the constraint. If the constraint is in the ENABLE, NOVALIDATE state, violations resulting from data entered while the constraint was disabled remain. The rows that violate the constraint must be either updated or deleted in order for the constraint to be put in the validated state.

Can identify exceptions to a specific integrity constraint while attempting to enable the constraint. See "Reporting Constraint Exceptions". All rows violating constraints are noted in an EXCEPTIONS table, which can be examined.

ENABLE, NOVALIDATE Constraint State
When a constraint is in the ENABLE, NOVALIDATE state, all subsequent statements are checked for conformity to the constraint. However, any existing data in the table is not checked. A table with ENABLE, NOVALIDATE constraints can contain invalid data, but it is not possible to add new invalid data to it. Constraints in the ENABLE, NOVALIDATE state is most useful in data warehouse configurations that are uploading valid OLTP data.

Enabling a constraint does not require validation. Enabling a constraint novalidate is much faster than enabling and validating a constraint. Also, validating a constraint that is already enabled does not require any DML locks during validation (unlike validating a previously disabled constraint). Enforcement guarantees that no violations are introduced during the validation. Hence, enabling without validating reduces the downtime typically associated with enabling a constraint.

Efficient Use of Integrity Constraints: A Procedure

Using integrity constraint states in the following order can ensure the best benefits:
Disable state.
Perform the operation (load, export, import).
ENABLE, NOVALIDATE state.
Enable state.

Some benefits of using constraints in this order are:
No locks are held.
All constraints can go to enable state concurrently.
Constraint enabling is done in parallel.
Concurrent activity on table is permitted.

Setting Integrity Constraints Upon Definition
When an integrity constraint is defined in a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement, it can be enabled, disabled, or validated or not validated as determined by the specification of the ENABLE/DISABLE clause. If the ENABLE/DISABLE clause is not specified in a constraint definition, the database automatically enables and validates the constraint.

Disabling Constraints Upon Definition
The following CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements both define and disable integrity constraints:

CREATE TABLE emp (
empno NUMBER(5) PRIMARY KEY DISABLE, . . . ;

ALTER TABLE emp
ADD PRIMARY KEY (empno) DISABLE;

An ALTER TABLE statement that defines and disables an integrity constraint never fails because of rows in the table that violate the integrity constraint. The definition of the constraint is allowed because its rule is not enforced.

Enabling Constraints Upon Definition

The following CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements both define and enable integrity constraints:

CREATE TABLE emp (
empno NUMBER(5) CONSTRAINT emp.pk PRIMARY KEY, . . . ;

ALTER TABLE emp
ADD CONSTRAINT emp.pk PRIMARY KEY (empno);

An ALTER TABLE statement that defines and attempts to enable an integrity constraint can fail because rows of the table violate the integrity constraint. If this case, the statement is rolled back, and the constraint definition is not stored and not enabled.

When enabling a UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY constraint, an associated index is created.

Fix

Modify database code to properly validate data before it is put into the database or acted upon by the database.

Modify database to contain field definitions for each field in the database.

Modify database to contain constraints on database columns and tables that require them for data validity.

Review the application schemas implemented on the system. Check the DDL for the tables that are created for the applications to see if constraints have been enabled.

- - - - -
Enabling Constraints Upon Definition
The following CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements both define and enable integrity constraints:
CREATE TABLE emp (
empno NUMBER(5) CONSTRAINT emp.pk PRIMARY KEY, . . . ) ;
ALTER TABLE emp
ADD CONSTRAINT emp.pk PRIMARY KEY (empno);

An ALTER TABLE statement that defines and attempts to enable an integrity constraint can fail because existing rows of the table violate the integrity constraint. In this case, the statement is rolled back, and the constraint definition is not stored and not enabled.

When enabling a UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY constraint, an associated index is created.
V-61787 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-019600 Rule ID: SV-76277r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002716

Discussion

Organizations are required to employ integrity verification applications on information systems to look for evidence of information tampering, errors, and omissions. The organization is also required to employ good software engineering practices with regard to commercial off-the-shelf integrity mechanisms (e.g., parity checks, cyclical redundancy checks, and cryptographic hashes), and to use tools to automatically monitor the integrity of the information system and the applications it hosts.

The DBMS opens data files and reads configuration files at system startup, system shutdown, and during abort recovery efforts. If the DBMS does not verify the trustworthiness of these files, it is vulnerable to malicious alterations of its configuration or unauthorized replacement of data.

Checks

Verify the DBMS system initialization/parameter files and software is included in the configuration of any third-party software or custom scripting at the OS level to perform integrity verification.

If neither a third-party application nor the OS is performing integrity verification of DBMS system files, this is a finding.

Fix

Utilize the OS or a third-party product to perform file verification of DBMS system file integrity.

(Using Oracle Configuration Manager with Enterprise Manager, configured to perform this verification, is one possible way of satisfying this requirement.)
V-61789 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-019800 Rule ID: SV-76279r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The structure and content of error messages need to be carefully considered by the organization and development team. The extent to which the application is able to identify and handle error conditions is guided by organizational policy and operational requirements.

Database logs can be monitored for specific security-related errors. Any error that can have a negative effect on database security should be quickly identified and forwarded to the appropriate personnel. If security-relevant error conditions are not identified by the DBMS, they may be overlooked by the personnel responsible for addressing them.

Checks

Check DBMS settings to determine whether security-related error conditions are monitored for, and whether appropriate personnel are notified.

If security-related error conditions are not being monitored for, this is a finding.

If appropriate personnel are not alerted when a security-related error condition is found, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure DBMS to monitor for security-related error conditions.

Configure DBMS to alert appropriate personnel when security-related error conditions are found.

This can be accomplished by using Oracle Audit Vault and/or Oracle Enterprise Manager. If neither of these products is deployed, then develop a site-specific solution.

- - - - -
Notes to assist in developing a site-specific solution:

The AUD$ table has a column called RETURNCODE. That column provides the return code; so, for example, if the security-related condition is someone trying to select data from a table that is not there, it would show up in the AUD$ table as an ORA-00942 - table or view does not exist. Since the RETURNCODE column is only numeric, only the 00942 would be stored. If the query for the information returned a row, the process would then need to form and send an email message.

Oracle recommends the use of Oracle Audit Vault to fill this requirement without creating a custom solution. It is possible to set up notifications and alerts in Enterprise Manager as well, and if either of these alternatives is not available, a custom solution will be necessary.
V-61791 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-019900 Rule ID: SV-76281r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001312

Discussion

Any application providing too much information in error logs and in administrative messages to the screen risks compromising the data and security of the application and system. The structure and content of error messages needs to be carefully considered by the organization and development team.

The extent to which the application is able to identify and handle error conditions is guided by organizational policy and operational requirements. Sensitive information includes account numbers, social security numbers, and credit card numbers.

Databases can inadvertently provide a wealth of information to an attacker through improperly handled error messages. In addition to sensitive business or personal information, database errors can provide host names, IP addresses, user names, and other system information not required for troubleshooting but very useful to someone targeting the system.

This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed and must document what has been discovered.

Checks

Check DBMS settings and custom database and application code to verify error messages do not contain information beyond what is needed for troubleshooting the issue.

If database errors contain PII data, sensitive business data, or information useful for identifying the host system, this is a finding.

Notes on Oracle's approach to this issue: Out of the box, Oracle covers this. For example, if a user does not have access to a table, the error is just that the table or view does not exist. The Oracle database is not going to display a Social Security Number in an error code unless an application is programmed to do so. Oracle applications will not expose the actual transactional data to a screen. The only way Oracle will capture this information is to enable specific logging levels. Custom code would require a review to ensure compliance.

Fix

Configure DBMS and custom database and application code not to divulge sensitive information or information useful for system identification in error information.
V-61793 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-020000 Rule ID: SV-76283r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001314

Discussion

If the application provides too much information in error logs and administrative messages to the screen, this could lead to compromise. The structure and content of error messages need to be carefully considered by the organization and development team. The extent to which the information system is able to identify and handle error conditions is guided by organizational policy and operational requirements.

Some default DBMS error messages can contain information that could aid an attacker in, among others things, identifying the database type, host address, or state of the database. Custom errors may contain sensitive customer information. It is important that error messages are displayed only to those who are authorized to view them.

This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed and must document what has been discovered.

Checks

Check DBMS settings and custom database code to determine if error messages are ever displayed to unauthorized individuals:

i) Review all end-user-facing applications that use the database, to determine whether they display any DBMS-generated error messages to general users. If they do, this is a finding.

ii) Review whether the database is accessible to users who are not authorized system administrators or database administrators, via the following types of software:
iia) Oracle SQL*Plus
iib) Reporting and analysis tools
iic) Database management and/or development tools, such as, but not limited to, Toad.
iid) Application development tools, such as, but not limited to, Oracle JDeveloper, Microsoft Visual Studio, PowerBuilder, or Eclipse.

If the answer to the preceding question (iia through iid) is Yes, inquire whether, for each role or individual with respect to each tool, this access is required to enable the user(s) to perform authorized job duties. If No, this is a finding. If Yes, continue:

For each tool in use, determine whether it is capable of suppressing DBMS-generated error messages, and if it is, whether it is configured to do so.

Determine whether the role or individual, with respect to each tool, needs to see detailed DBMS-generated error messages.

If No, and if the tool is not configured to suppress such messages, this is a finding.

If Yes, determine whether the role/user's need to see such messages is documented in the System Security Plan. If so, this is not a finding. If not, this is a finding.

Fix

i) For each end-user-facing application that displays DBMS-generated error messages, configure or recode it to suppress these messages.

If the application is coded in Oracle PL/SQL, the EXCEPTION block can be used to suppress or divert error messages. Most other programming languages provide comparable facilities, such as TRY ... CATCH.

ii) For each unauthorized user of each tool, remove the ability to access it. For each tool where access to DBMS error messages is not required and can be configured, suppress the messages. For each role/user that needs access to the error messages, or needs a tool where the messages cannot be suppressed, document the need in the system security plan.
V-61795 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-020300 Rule ID: SV-76285r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001670

Discussion

System availability is a key tenet of system security. Organizations need to have the flexibility to be able to define the automated actions taken in response to an identified incident. This includes being able to define a least disruptive action the application takes to terminate suspicious events. A least disruptive action may include initiating a request for human response rather than blocking traffic or disrupting system operation.

In order to preserve availability, it is important for the DBMS to terminate suspicious events with the least disruptive action possible. If suspicious events are not terminated, an attacker may gain entry into the system; however, if the system overreacts to a suspicious event and takes an overly disruptive action, a Denial of Service (DoS) may occur.

Checks

Obtain the CC/S/A/FA's list of suspicious event types and the actions to be taken in response, ordered from least disruptive to last resort.

If the list does not exist, this is a finding.

For each event type in the list, review the measures in place in the DBMS/database configuration that are designed to detect and/or counter the event. (Alerting an administrator or operator to the problem is a valid measure.)

If, for any event type defined in the list, no means of detecting the event exists, this is a finding.

For each event type where an automatic countermeasure is defined, verify that its implementation is congruent with the list of defined actions. If not, this is a finding.

Verify that administrators/operators are familiar with the list and the notification mechanism and are equipped to follow the instructions in the list. If not, this is a finding.

Fix

If the list does not exist, create it.

For any event type defined in the list where no means of detecting the event exists, either create the means of detection or modify the list.

For each event type where an automatic countermeasure is defined but its implementation differs from its description in the list, either modify the countermeasure or amend the list.

If any administrators/operators are unfamiliar with the list or the notification mechanism, train them.

If any administrators/operators are not equipped to follow the instructions in the list, provide them with the means to do so.

Ensure the list is incorporated into, or referenced by, the System Security Plan.

Note that Oracle Audit Vault and Oracle Database Vault are optional products that can be of considerable use in implementing active protection measures of this kind.
V-61797 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-020400 Rule ID: SV-76287r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001683

Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, they often attempt to create a persistent method of re-establishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply create a new account.

Notification of account creation is one method and best practice for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of application user accounts and notifies administrators and/or application owners exist. Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where accounts are directly managed by Oracle.

Notwithstanding how accounts are normally managed, the DBMS must support the requirement to notify appropriate individuals upon account creation within Oracle. Indeed, in a configuration where accounts are managed externally, the creation of an account within Oracle may indicate hostile activity.

Checks

Check DBMS settings to determine whether it will notify appropriate individuals when accounts are created.

If the DBMS does not notify appropriate individuals when accounts are created, this is a finding.

Fix

Working with the DBA and site management, determine the appropriate individuals (by job role) to be notified.

If Oracle Audit Vault is available, configure it to notify the appropriate individuals when accounts are created.

If Oracle Audit Vault is not available, configure the Oracle DBMS's auditing feature to record account-creation activity.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Create and deploy a mechanism, such as a frequently-run job, to monitor the SYS.AUD$ table for these records and notify the appropriate individuals.

If unified Auditing is used:
Create and deploy a mechanism, such as a frequently-run job, to monitor the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view for these records and notify the appropriate individuals.
V-61799 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-020500 Rule ID: SV-76289r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001684

Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, they often attempt to create a persistent method of re-establishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to modify an existing account for later use.

Notification of account creation is one method and best practice for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of application user accounts and notifies administrators and/or application owners that they exist. Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where accounts are directly managed by Oracle.

Notwithstanding how accounts are normally managed, the DBMS must support the requirement to notify appropriate individuals upon account modification within Oracle. Indeed, in a configuration where accounts are managed externally, the manipulation of an account within Oracle may indicate hostile activity.

Checks

Check DBMS settings to determine whether it will notify appropriate individuals when accounts are modified.

If the DBMS does not notify appropriate individuals when accounts are modified, this is a finding.

Fix

Working with the DBA and site management, determine the appropriate individuals (by job role) to be notified.

If Oracle Audit Vault is available, configure it to notify the appropriate individuals when accounts are modified.

If Oracle Audit Vault is not available, configure the Oracle DBMS's auditing feature to record account-modification activity.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Create and deploy a mechanism, such as a frequently-run job, to monitor the SYS.AUD$ table for these records and notify the appropriate individuals.

If unified Auditing is used:
Create and deploy a mechanism, such as a frequently-run job, to monitor the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view for these records and notify the appropriate individuals.
V-61801 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-020600 Rule ID: SV-76291r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001685

Discussion

When application accounts are disabled, user accessibility is affected. Accounts are utilized for identifying individual application users or for identifying the application processes themselves.

In order to detect and respond to events that affect user accessibility and application processing, applications must audit account disabling actions and, as required, notify the appropriate individuals so they can investigate the event. Such a capability greatly reduces the risk that application accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and also provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where accounts are directly managed by Oracle.

Notwithstanding how accounts are normally managed, the DBMS must support the requirement to notify appropriate individuals upon the disabling of an account within Oracle. Indeed, in a configuration where accounts are managed externally, the manipulation of an account within Oracle may indicate hostile activity.

Checks

Check DBMS settings to determine whether it will notify appropriate individuals when account disabling actions are taken.

If the DBMS does not notify appropriate individuals when account disabling actions are taken, this is a finding.

Fix

Working with the DBA and site management, determine the appropriate individuals (by job role) to be notified.

If Oracle Audit Vault is available, configure it to notify the appropriate individuals when accounts are disabled.

If Oracle Audit Vault is not available, configure the Oracle DBMS's auditing feature to record disabling of accounts.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Create and deploy a mechanism, such as a frequently-run job, to monitor the SYS.AUD$ table for these records and notify the appropriate individuals.

If unified Auditing is used:
Create and deploy a mechanism, such as a frequently-run job, to monitor the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view for these records and notify the appropriate individuals.
V-61803 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-020700 Rule ID: SV-76293r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001686

Discussion

When application accounts are terminated, user accessibility is affected. Accounts are utilized for identifying individual application users or for identifying the application processes themselves.

In order to detect and respond to events that affect user accessibility and application processing, applications must notify the appropriate individuals when an account is terminated so they can investigate the event. Such a capability greatly reduces the risk that application accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Note that user authentication and account management must be done via an enterprise-wide mechanism whenever possible. Examples of enterprise-level authentication/access mechanisms include, but are not limited to, Active Directory and LDAP. This requirement applies to cases where accounts are directly managed by Oracle.

Notwithstanding how accounts are normally managed, the DBMS must support the requirement to notify appropriate individuals upon account termination within Oracle. Indeed, in a configuration where accounts are managed externally, the manipulation of an account within Oracle may indicate hostile activity.

Checks

Check DBMS settings to determine whether it will notify appropriate individuals when accounts are terminated.

If the DBMS does not notify appropriate individuals when accounts are terminated, this is a finding.

Fix

Working with the DBA and site management, determine the appropriate individuals (by job role) to be notified.

If Oracle Audit Vault is available, configure it to notify the appropriate individuals when accounts are terminated.

If Oracle Audit Vault is not available, configure the Oracle DBMS's auditing feature to record termination of accounts.

If Standard Auditing is used:
Create and deploy a mechanism, such as a frequently-run job, to monitor the SYS.AUD$ table for these records and notify the appropriate individuals.

If unified Auditing is used:
Create and deploy a mechanism, such as a frequently-run job, to monitor the SYS.UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL view for these records and notify the appropriate individuals.
V-61809 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C3-003300 Rule ID: SV-76299r3_rule Severity: low CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Separation of duties is a prevalent Information Technology control that is implemented at different layers of the information system, including the operating system and in applications. It serves to eliminate or reduce the possibility that a single user may carry out a prohibited action. Separation of duties requires that the person accountable for approving an action is not the same person who is tasked with implementing or carrying out that action.

Additionally, the person or entity accountable for monitoring the activity must be separate as well. To meet this requirement, applications, when applicable, shall be divided where functionality is based on roles and duties. Examples of separation of duties include: (i) mission functions and distinct information system support functions are divided among different individuals/roles; (ii) different individuals perform information system support functions (e.g., system management, systems programming, configuration management, quality assurance and testing, network security); (iii) security personnel who administer access control functions do not administer audit functions; and (iv) different administrator accounts for different roles.

Privileges granted outside the context of the application user job function are more likely to go unmanaged or without oversight for authorization. Maintenance of privileges using roles defined for discrete job functions offers improved oversight of application user privilege assignments and helps to protect against unauthorized privilege assignment.

Checks

Obtain a list of privileges assigned to the DBMS user accounts. If any direct privilege assignments exist that can be assigned to a role, this is a finding.

SELECT
'User '
|| grantee
|| ' is directly granted '
|| privilege
|| ' privilege on '
|| table_name value
FROM dba_tab_privs
WHERE grantee NOT IN (SELECT role FROM dba_roles)
AND grantee NOT IN
(
'XDB', 'SYSTEM', 'SYS', 'LBACSYS',
'DVSYS', 'DVF', 'SYSMAN_RO', 'SYSMAN_BIPLATFORM',
'SYSMAN_MDS', 'SYSMAN_OPSS', 'SYSMAN_STB', 'PUBLIC',
'DBSNMP', 'SYSMAN', 'APEX_040200', 'WMSYS',
'SYSDG', 'SYSBACKUP', 'SPATIAL_WFS_ADMIN_USR',
'SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_US',
'SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA', 'OUTLN', 'ORDSYS', 'ORDDATA',
'OJVMSYS', 'ORACLE_OCM', 'MDSYS', 'ORDPLUGINS',
'GSMADMIN_INTERNAL', 'FLOWS_FILES', 'DIP', 'CTXSYS',
'AUDSYS', 'APPQOSSYS', 'APEX_PUBLIC_USER', 'ANONYMOUS',
'SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_USR', 'SYSKM', 'SYSMAN_TYPES',
'MGMT_VIEW', 'EUS_ENGINE_USER', 'GSMCATUSER', 'OLAPSYS',
'CLOUD_SWLIB_USER', 'GSMUSER', 'MDDATA', 'XS$NULL', 'CLOUD_ENGINE_USER'
)
UNION
SELECT
'User '
|| grantee
|| ' is directly granted '
|| privilege
|| ' privilege ' value
FROM dba_sys_privs
WHERE grantee NOT IN (SELECT role FROM dba_roles)
AND privilege NOT IN
(
'CREATE SEQUENCE',
'CREATE TRIGGER',
'CREATE CLUSTER',
'CREATE INDEXTYPE',
'CREATE PROCEDURE',
'CREATE TYPE',
'CREATE SESSION',
'CREATE OPERATOR',
'CREATE TABLE',
'UNLIMITED TABLESPACE' )
AND grantee NOT IN
(
'XDB', 'SYSTEM', 'SYS', 'LBACSYS',
'DVSYS', 'DVF', 'SYSMAN_RO', 'SYSMAN_BIPLATFORM',
'SYSMAN_MDS', 'SYSMAN_OPSS', 'SYSMAN_STB', 'PUBLIC',
'DBSNMP', 'SYSMAN', 'APEX_040200', 'WMSYS',
'SYSDG', 'SYSBACKUP', 'SPATIAL_WFS_ADMIN_USR',
'SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_US',
'SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA', 'OUTLN', 'ORDSYS', 'ORDDATA',
'OJVMSYS', 'ORACLE_OCM', 'MDSYS', 'ORDPLUGINS',
'GSMADMIN_INTERNAL', 'FLOWS_FILES', 'DIP', 'CTXSYS',
'AUDSYS', 'APPQOSSYS', 'APEX_PUBLIC_USER', 'ANONYMOUS',
'SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_USR', 'SYSKM', 'SYSMAN_TYPES',
'MGMT_VIEW', 'EUS_ENGINE_USER', 'GSMCATUSER', 'OLAPSYS',
'CLOUD_SWLIB_USER',
'GSMUSER', 'MDDATA', 'XS$NULL', 'CLOUD_ENGINE_USER'
)
UNION
SELECT
'User '
|| username
|| ' is granted '
|| privilege
|| ' privilege via role '
|| rp.granted_role value
FROM dba_users u,
dba_role_privs rp,
dba_sys_privs sp
WHERE username = rp.grantee
AND rp.granted_role = sp.grantee
AND privilege NOT IN
(
'CREATE SEQUENCE',
'CREATE TRIGGER',
'SET CONTAINER',
'CREATE CLUSTER',
'CREATE PROCEDURE',
'CREATE TYPE',
'CREATE SESSION',
'CREATE OPERATOR',
'CREATE TABLE',
'CREATE INDEXTYPE'
)
AND username NOT IN
(
'XDB', 'SYSTEM', 'SYS', 'LBACSYS',
'DVSYS', 'DVF', 'SYSMAN_RO', 'SYSMAN_BIPLATFORM',
'SYSMAN_MDS', 'SYSMAN_OPSS', 'SYSMAN_STB', 'DBSNMP',
'SYSMAN', 'APEX_040200', 'WMSYS', 'SYSDG',
'SYSBACKUP', 'SPATIAL_WFS_ADMIN_USR',
'SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_US','GSMCATUSER',
'OLAPSYS', 'SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA', 'OUTLN', 'ORDSYS',
'ORDDATA', 'OJVMSYS', 'ORACLE_OCM', 'MDSYS',
'ORDPLUGINS', 'GSMADMIN_INTERNAL', 'MDDATA',
'FLOWS_FILES', 'DIP', 'CTXSYS', 'AUDSYS', 'APPQOSSYS',
'APEX_PUBLIC_USER', 'ANONYMOUS',
'SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_USR','SYSKM',
'SYSMAN_TYPES', 'MGMT_VIEW', 'EUS_ENGINE_USER',
'EXFSYS','SYSMAN_APM' )
AND rp.granted_role NOT IN
(
'EXP_FULL_DATABASE','AQ_ADMINISTRATOR_ROLE','DV_REALM_RESOURCE',
'DBA','CDB_DBA','OEM_ADVISOR','RECOVERY_CATALOG_OWNER',
'EM_EXPRESS_ALL','SCHEDULER_ADMIN','OLAP_USER',
'RESOURCE','EM_EXPRESS_BASIC','IMP_FULL_DATABASE','CONNECT',
'AUDIT_ADMIN','DATAPUMP_EXP_FULL_DATABASE','GSMADMIN_ROLE',
'DV_REALM_OWNER','OLAP_DBA','JAVADEBUGPRIV',
'DATAPUMP_IMP_FULL_DATABASE','OEM_MONITOR',
'APEX_GRANTS_FOR_NEW_USERS_ROLE'
)
UNION
SELECT
'User '
||grantee
||' is granted '
||privilege
||' on '
||owner
||'.'
||table_name
||'.'
||column_name
||' by '
||grantor
FROM dba_col_privs
WHERE grantee NOT IN
(
'XDB', 'SYSTEM', 'SYS', 'LBACSYS',
'DVSYS', 'DVF', 'SYSMAN_RO', 'SYSMAN_BIPLATFORM',
'SYSMAN_MDS', 'SYSMAN_OPSS', 'SYSMAN_STB', 'DBSNMP',
'SYSMAN', 'APEX_040200', 'WMSYS', 'SYSDG',
'SYSBACKUP', 'SPATIAL_WFS_ADMIN_USR',
'SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_US','GSMCATUSER',
'OLAPSYS', 'SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA', 'OUTLN', 'ORDSYS',
'ORDDATA', 'OJVMSYS', 'ORACLE_OCM', 'MDSYS',
'ORDPLUGINS', 'GSMADMIN_INTERNAL', 'MDDATA',
'FLOWS_FILES', 'IMP_FULL_DATABASE',
'DIP', 'CTXSYS', 'AUDSYS', 'APPQOSSYS',
'APEX_PUBLIC_USER', 'ANONYMOUS',
'SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_USR','SYSKM',
'SYSMAN_TYPES', 'MGMT_VIEW', 'EUS_ENGINE_USER',
'EXFSYS','SYSMAN_APM'
)
;

(The lists of special accounts that are excluded from this requirement may not be complete. It is expected that the DBA will edit the lists to suit local circumstances, adding other special accounts as necessary, and removing any that are not supposed to be in use in the Oracle deployment that is under review. Similarly, the lists of privileges and roles excluded from the subqueries may be modified according to circumstances.)

Fix

Define DBMS user roles based on privilege and job function requirements.

Assign the required privileges to the role, and assign the role to authorized DBMS user accounts.

Revoke any privileges directly assigned to DBMS user accounts, and assign them to a role the DBMS user already has assigned.
V-61813 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C3-008700 Rule ID: SV-76303r1_rule Severity: low CCI: CCI-001875

Discussion

Audit reduction is used to reduce the volume of audit records in order to facilitate manual review. Before a security review, information systems and/or applications with an audit reduction capability may remove many audit records known to have little security significance.

This is generally accomplished by removing records generated by specified classes of events, such as records generated by nightly backups. Audit reduction does not alter original audit records.

An audit reduction capability provides support for near real-time audit review and analysis requirements and after-the-fact investigations of security incidents.

The lack of audit reduction in a database can require the DBA, or others responsible for reviewing audit logs, to sort through large amounts of data in order to find relevant records. This can cause important audit records to be missed.

Checks

Verify that audit reduction capabilities are in place for the Oracle audit data. Since Oracle has no reduction capability per se, a third-party tool or in-house-developed software must be in place to provide this functionality.

If this capability has not been implemented, this is a finding.

Fix

Deploy software capable of performing audit data reduction.
V-61815 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C3-019200 Rule ID: SV-76305r4_rule Severity: low CCI: CCI-001094

Discussion

When it comes to DoS attacks, most of the attention is paid to ensuring that systems and applications are not victims of these attacks.

While it is true that those accountable for systems want to ensure they are not affected by a DoS attack, they also need to ensure their systems and applications are not used to launch such an attack against others. To that extent, a variety of technologies exist to limit, or in some cases, eliminate the effects of DoS attacks.

For example, boundary protection devices can filter certain types of packets to protect devices from being directly affected by DoS attacks. Limiting system resources that are allocated to any user to a bare minimum may also reduce the ability of users to launch some DoS attacks.

Applications and application developers must take the steps needed to ensure users cannot use these applications to launch DoS attacks against other systems and networks. An example would be designing applications to include mechanisms that throttle network traffic so users are not able to generate unlimited network traffic via the application.

The methods employed to counter this risk will be dependent upon the potential application layer methods that can be used to exploit it.

This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed and must document what has been discovered.

Checks

Review DBMS settings and custom database code to determine whether the DBMS or database application code could be used to launch DoS attacks.

If the DBMS or custom database code would facilitate DoS-style attacks against other information systems, this is a finding.

The Listener is the key for a denial of service attack. Check to insure the appropriate steps to secure the Oracle Listener are in place at the site. (Refer to the Fix for more detail on implementing these protections.)

Fix

Configure DBMS settings to restrict functionality that could be used to initiate DoS attacks.

Securing the Network Connection:
Protecting the network and its traffic from inappropriate access or modification is the essence of network security. You should consider all paths the data travels, and assess the threats on each path and node. Then, take steps to lessen or eliminate those threats and the consequences of a security breach. In addition, monitor and audit to detect either increased threat levels or penetration attempts.

The following practices improve network security:

1. Disable the Default Listener.
All listeners have a unique name instead of the name LISTENER and have startup protection.

LISTENER=(DESCRIPTION =(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST=)(PORT = 0)))

This configuration prevents the default listener from starting.

2. Prevent online administration by requiring the administrator to have the write privilege on the listener.ora file on the server.
a. Add or alter this line in the listener.ora file:

ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_LISTENER=ON

b. Use RELOAD to reload the configuration.

3. Set Protection against crafted network packets on database level.

SEC_PROTOCOL_ERROR_TRACE_ACTION specifies the action that the database should take when bad packets are received from a possibly malicious client.

SEC_PROTOCOL_ERROR_TRACE_ACTION = { NONE | TRACE | LOG | ALERT } (TRACE is the default)

NONE: The database server ignores the bad packets and does not generate any trace files or log messages. (Not recommended)

TRACE: A detailed trace file is generated when bad packets are received, which can be used to debug any problems in client/server communication.

LOG: A minimal log message is printed in the alert logfile and in the server trace file. A minimal amount of disk space is used.

ALERT: An alert message is sent to a DBA or monitoring console.

SEC_PROTOCOL_ERROR_FURTHER_ACTION specifies the further execution of a server process when receiving bad packets from a possibly malicious client.

SEC_PROTOCOL_ERROR_FURTHER_ACTION = { CONTINUE | (DELAY,integer) | (DROP,integer) } (DROP,3 is the default)

CONTINUE: The server process continues execution. The database server may be subject to a Denial of Service (DoS) if bad packets continue to be sent by a malicious client. (Not recommended)

(DELAY, integer) :The client experiences a delay of integer seconds before the server process accepts the next request from the same client connection. Malicious clients are prevented from excessive consumption of server resources while legitimate clients experience degradation in performance but can continue to function.

(DROP, integer) : The server forcefully terminates the client connection after integer bad packets. The server protects itself at the expense of the client (for example, a client transaction may be lost). The client may reconnect and attempt the same operation.

SEC_MAX_FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS specifies the number of authentication attempts that can be made by a client on a connection to the server process. After the specified number of failure attempts, the connection will be automatically dropped by the server process.

SEC_MAX_FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS = n (3 is the default) Values range from 1 to unlimited. (A value of 1 to 3 is recommended)

For more information about the parameters in listener.ora, see https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/NETRF/listener.htm#NETRF008

4. When a host computer has multiple IP addresses associated with multiple network interface controller (NIC) cards, configure the listener to the specific IP address.

You can restrict the listener to listen on a specific IP address. Oracle recommends that you specify the specific IP addresses on these types of computers, rather than allowing the listener to listen on all IP addresses. Restricting the listener to specific IP addresses helps to prevent an intruder from stealing a TCP end point from under the listener process.

5. Restrict the privileges of the listener, so that it cannot read or write files in the database or the Oracle server address space.

The default configuration for external procedures does not require a network listener to work with Oracle Database and the extproc agent. The extproc agent is spawned directly by Oracle Database and eliminates the risks that the extproc agent might be spawned by Oracle Listener unexpectedly. This default configuration is recommended for maximum security. For more information about securing external procedures see
https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/app_devs.htm#DBSEG656
However, the extproc agent can be configured to be spawned by a listener. In that case (not recommended) the listener should have restricted privileges.

6. Use a firewall, IAW DoD network policy and guidance.

Appropriately placed and configured firewalls can prevent outside access to your databases.

7. Prevent unauthorized administration of the Oracle listener.

Local administration of the listener is secure by default through the local operating system. Therefore configuring a password is neither required nor recommended for secure local administration. However, a password can be configured for the listener to provide security for administrative operations, such as starting or stopping the listener, viewing a list of supported services, or saving changes to the Listener Control configuration.

By default, Oracle Net Listener permits only local administration for security reasons. As a policy, the listener can be administered only by the user who started it. This is enforced through local operating system authentication. For example, if user1 starts the listener, then only user1 can administer it. Any other user trying to administer the listener gets an error. The super user is the only exception.

Oracle recommends that you perform listener administration in the default mode (secure by means of local operating system authentication), and access the system remotely using a remote logon. Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control can also be used for remote administration.

8. Encrypt network traffic. (Mandatory for sensitive data and optional for non-sensitive, as covered in other STIG requirements.)

Where applicable, use Oracle network data encryption to encrypt network traffic among clients, databases, and application servers.

9. Set Connect Rate to organization defined limit. (Also required by O121-C2-019100/SRG-APP-000245-DB-000132)

The connection rate limiter feature in Oracle Net Listener enables a database administrator to limit the number of new connections handled by the listener. When this feature is enabled, Oracle Net Listener imposes a user-specified maximum limit on the number of new connections handled by the listener every second.

CONNECTION_RATE_LISTENER=10
LISTENER=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521)(RATE_LIMIT=yes))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1522)(RATE_LIMIT=yes))
(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1526))
)

10. Setup Valid Node Checking.
(See also O121-BP-025600.)

Valid node checking is a security feature that protects DBMS instances from malevolent or errant Oracle Net connections over TCP/IP, without the need for a firewall or IP address filtering at the operating system-level. The feature is controlled by the three parameters; tcp.validnode_checking, tcp.invited_nodes, and tcp.excluded_nodes.

Modify the sqlnet.ora file manually
TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING=yes
(Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.)

If this parameter is set to yes, then incoming connections are allowed only if they originate from a node that conforms to the list specified by TCP.INVITED_NODES or TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES parameters.

The TCP.INVITED_NODES and TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES parameters are valid only when the TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING parameter is set to yes (no is the default).

The TCP.INVITED_NODES and TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES parameters are valid only when the TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING parameter is set to yes.

Modify the listener.ora file manually

TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES Syntax:
TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES=(hostname | ip_address, hostname | ip_address, ...)

Example:
TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES=(finance.us.example.com, mktg.us.example.com, 192.0.2.25, 172.30.*, 2001:DB8:200C:417A/32)

TCP.INVITED_NODES Syntax:
TCP.INVITED_NODES=(hostname | ip_address, hostname | ip_address, ...)

Example:
TCP.INVITED_NODES=(sales.us.example.com, hr.us.example.com, 192.0.*, 2001:DB8:200C:433B/32)

Usage Notes:

Use TCP.INVITED_NODES to specify which clients are allowed access to the database. This list takes precedence over the TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES parameter if both lists are present. These parameters can use wildcards for IPv4 addresses and CIDR notation for IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.

11. Apply Listener Security Patches.
(See also O121-C1-011100/SRG-APP-000133-DB-000205.)

Critical Patch Updates are cumulative. Therefore, the latest patch will contain all previous security patches for the Listener.

12. Ensure that listener logging is turned on.

Listener logging is on by default. If logging is not on, configure logging for all listeners in order to capture Listener commands and brute force password attacks.

13. Monitor the listener logfile.

The logfile may contain TNS-01169, TNS-01189, TNS-01190, or TNS-12508 errors, which may signify attacks or inappropriate activity. Monitor the logfile and generate an alert whenever these errors are encountered.
V-61817 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C3-019300 Rule ID: SV-76307r3_rule Severity: low CCI: CCI-001095

Discussion

In the case of application DoS incidents, care must be taken when designing the application to ensure the application makes the best use of system resources. SQL queries have the potential to consume large amounts of CPU cycles if they are not tuned for optimal performance. Web services containing complex calculations requiring large amounts of time to complete can bog down if too many requests for the service are encountered within a short period of time.

The methods employed to meet this requirement will vary depending upon the technology the application utilizes. However, a variety of technologies exist to limit, or in some cases, eliminate the effects of application-related DoS incidents. Employing increased capacity and bandwidth combined with specialized application layer protection devices and service redundancy may reduce the susceptibility to some DoS problems.

Databases are particularly susceptible to SQL-related DoS issues. Databases that do not protect against resource-intensive SQL queries may experience dramatic slowdowns from malicious attacks or accidental DoS incidents related to SQL queries. What constitutes a resource-intensive query has to be determined locally, taking into account the purpose of the database and the needs of the various classes of user.

Checks

Review Oracle user profiles. Connect to Oracle as SYSDBA. Use the following query to determine the established profiles and the users and resource limits assigned to them.

select a.username, a.profile, b.resource_name, b.resource_type, b.limit
from dba_users a, dba_profiles b
where a.profile = b.profile and resource_type='KERNEL'
order by a.profile;

If the configuration does not include profile limits on resource-intensive SQL queries, or if users are not assigned to profiles appropriate to their needs, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure Oracle profile(s) to set resource limits appropriate to each class of user.

SESSIONS_PER_USER
Specify the number of concurrent sessions to which you want to limit the user.

CPU_PER_SESSION
Specify the CPU time limit for a session, expressed in hundredth of seconds.

CPU_PER_CALL
Specify the CPU time limit for a call (a parse, execute, or fetch), expressed in hundredths of seconds.

CONNECT_TIME
Specify the total elapsed time limit for a session, expressed in minutes.

IDLE_TIME
Specify the permitted periods of continuous inactive time during a session, expressed in minutes. Long-running queries and other operations are not subject to this limit.

LOGICAL_READS_PER_SESSION
Specify the permitted number of data blocks read in a session, including blocks read from memory and disk.

LOGICAL_READS_PER_CALL
Specify the permitted number of data blocks read for a call to process a SQL statement (a parse, execute, or fetch).

PRIVATE_SGA
Specify the amount of private space a session can allocate in the shared pool of the system global area (SGA). Refer to size_clause for information on that clause.

COMPOSITE_LIMIT
(This limit applies only when using shared server architecture. The private space for a session in the SGA includes private SQL and PL/SQL areas, but not shared SQL and PL/SQL areas.) Specify the total resource cost for a session, expressed in service units. Oracle Database calculates the total service units as a weighted sum of CPU_PER_SESSION, CONNECT_TIME, LOGICAL_READS_PER_SESSION, and PRIVATE_SGA.


The user profile, ORA_STIG_PROFILE, has been provided (starting with Oracle 12.1.0.2) to satisfy the STIG requirements pertaining to the profile parameters. Oracle recommends that this profile be customized with any site-specific requirements and assigned to all users where applicable. Note: It remains necessary to create a customized replacement for the password validation function, ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION, if relying on this technique to verify password complexity.
V-61819 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C3-019400 Rule ID: SV-76309r2_rule Severity: low CCI: CCI-002394

Discussion

Priority protection helps prevent a lower-priority process from delaying or interfering with the information system servicing any higher-priority process. This control does not apply to components in the information system for which there is only a single user/role. The application must limit the use of resources by priority.

The DBMS is often running queries for multiple users. If lower-priority processes are utilizing a disproportionately high amount of database resources, this can severely impact higher-priority processes.

Checks

Review DBMS settings and documentation to determine if the DBMS restricts resource usage by priority.

If the DBMS does not restrict resource usage by priority, this is a finding.

- - - - -
This capability is available in Oracle at both the user and database level.

At the user level, we create resource profiles for users of the database.

Resource Parameters
SESSIONS_PER_USER - Specify the number of concurrent sessions to which to limit the user.
CPU_PER_SESSION - Specify the CPU time limit for a session, expressed in hundredths of seconds.
CPU_PER_CALL - Specify the CPU time limit for a call (a parse, execute, or fetch), expressed in hundredths of seconds.
CONNECT_TIME - Specify the total elapsed time limit for a session, expressed in minutes.
IDLE_TIME - Specify the permitted periods of continuous inactive time during a session, expressed in minutes. Long-running queries and other operations are not subject to this limit.
LOGICAL_READS_PER_SESSION - Specify the permitted number of data blocks read in a session, including blocks read from memory and disk.
LOGICAL_READS_PER_CALL - Specify the permitted number of data blocks read for a call to process a SQL statement (a parse, execute, or fetch).
PRIVATE_SGA - Specify the amount of private space a session can allocate in the shared pool of the system global area (SGA).
COMPOSITE_LIMIT - Specify the total resource cost for a session, expressed in service units.

To check the resource controls assigned to a user, query the DBA_PROFILES and DBA_USERS tables in the following manner.

set linesize 121
col username format a20
col profile format a20
col resource_name format a25
col resource_type format a14
col limit format a10
select a.username,
a.profile,
b.resource_name,
b.limit
from dba_users a,
dba_profiles b
where b.resource_type is not null and
a.profile = b.profile order by username;

The output should look like the output below and display the users and the contents of their profiles.

USERNAME PROFILE RESOURCE NAME LIMIT
-------- ------- ------------- -----
SCOTT DEFAULT SESSIONS_PER_USER UNLIMITED
SCOTT DEFAULT CPU_PER_SESSION UNLIMITED

Fix

Implement measures to restrict the usage of resources by priority.

- - - - -
To implement security at the user level, assign users a profile that limits their resources:

The user profile, ORA_STIG_PROFILE, has been provided (starting with Oracle 12.1.0.2) to satisfy the STIG requirements pertaining to the profile parameters. Oracle recommends that this profile be customized with any site-specific requirements and assigned to all users where applicable. Note: It remains necessary to create a customized replacement for the password validation function, ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION, if relying on this technique to verify password complexity.

Example

$ sqlplus connect as sysdba

ALTER PROFILE ORA_STIG_PROFILE LIMIT
SESSIONS_PER_USER 1
IDLE_TIME 30
CPU_PER_SESSION 100
CPU_PER_CALL 100
CONNECT_TIME 600;
V-61843 No Change
Findings ID: O121-N1-015601 Rule ID: SV-76333r2_rule Severity: high CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

To prevent the compromise of authentication information, such as passwords, during the authentication process, the feedback from the information system shall not provide any information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise the authentication mechanism.

Obfuscation of user-provided information when typed into the system is a method used in addressing this risk.

For example, displaying asterisks when a user types in a password, is an example of obscuring feedback of authentication information.

Database applications may allow for entry of the account name and password as a visible parameter of the application execution command. This practice should be prohibited and disabled to prevent shoulder surfing.

This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed and must document what has been discovered.

Checks

Interview the DBA to determine if any applications that access the database allow for entry of the account name and password on the command line. If any do, determine whether these applications obfuscate authentication data. If they do not, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure or modify applications to prohibit display of passwords in clear text on the command line.
V-61845 No Change
Findings ID: O121-N1-015602 Rule ID: SV-76335r2_rule Severity: high CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The SRG states: "To prevent the compromise of authentication information, such as passwords, during the authentication process, the feedback from the information system shall not provide any information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise the authentication mechanism."

"Obfuscation of user-provided information when typed into the system is a method used in addressing this risk."

"For example, displaying asterisks when a user types in a password, is an example of obscuring feedback of authentication information."

"Database applications may allow for entry of the account name and password as a visible parameter of the application execution command. This practice should be prohibited and disabled to prevent shoulder surfing."

SQL*Plus is an essential part of any Oracle installation. SQL*Plus cannot be configured not to accept a plain-text password. Since the typical SQL*Plus user is a database administrator, the consequences of password compromise are particularly serious. Therefore, the use of plain-text passwords must be prohibited, as a matter of practice and procedure.

Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the successor protocol to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Although the Oracle configuration parameters have names including 'SSL', such as SSL_VERSION and SSL_CIPHER_SUITES, they refer to TLS.

Checks

For Oracle SQL*Plus, which cannot be configured not to accept a plain-text password, and any other essential tool with the same limitation, verify that the system documentation explains the need for the tool, who uses it, and any relevant mitigations; and that AO approval has been obtained. If not, this is a finding.

Request evidence that all users of the tool are trained in the importance of not using the plain-text password option and in how to keep the password hidden; and that they adhere to this practice. If not, this is a finding.

Fix

"For Oracle SQL*Plus, which cannot be configured not to accept a plain-text password, and any other essential tool with the same limitation:

1) Document the need for it, who uses it, and any relevant mitigations, and obtain AO approval.
2) Train all users of the tool in the importance of not using the plain-text password option and in how to keep the password hidden.

- - - - -
Consider wrapping the startup command with a shell or wrapper and using an Oracle external password store.

Oracle provides the capability to provide for a secure external password facility. Use the Oracle mkstore to create a secure storage area for passwords for applications, batch jobs, and scripts to use or deploy a site-authorized facility to perform this function.

Check to see what has been stored in the Oracle External Password Store.

To view all contents of a client wallet external password store, check specific credentials by viewing them. Listing the external password store contents provides information used to decide whether to add or delete credentials from the store. To list the contents of the external password store, enter the following command at the command line:

$ mkstore -wrl wallet_location -listCredential

For example:

$ mkstore -wrl c:\oracle\product\12.1.0\db_1\wallets -listCredential

The wallet_location specifies the path to the directory where the wallet, whose external password store contents is to be viewed, is located. This command lists all of the credential database service names (aliases) and the corresponding user name (schema) for that database. Passwords are not listed.

Configuring Clients to Use the External Password Store

If the client is already configured to use external authentication, such as Windows native authentication or Transport Layer Security (TLS), then Oracle Database uses that authentication method. The same credentials used for this type of authentication are typically also used to log on to the database.

For clients not using such authentication methods or wanting to override them for database authentication, set the SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE parameter in sqlnet.ora to TRUE. The default value for SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE is FALSE, allowing standard use of authentication credentials as before.

If wanting a client to use the secure external password store feature, then perform the following configuration task:

1. Create a wallet on the client by using the following syntax at the command line:
orapki create -wallet wallet_location -auto_login_local

For example:
orapki wallet create -wallet c:\oracle\product\12.1.0\db_1\wallets -auto_login_local
Enter password: password

The wallet_location is the path to the directory where the wallet is to be created and stored. This command creates an Oracle wallet with the autologon feature enabled at the location specified. The autologon feature enables the client to access the wallet contents without supplying a password.

The mkstore utility -create option uses password complexity verification.

2. Create database connection credentials in the wallet by using the following syntax at the command line:
mkstore -wrl wallet_location -createCredential db_connect_string username
Enter password: password

For example:
mkstore -wrl c:\oracle\product\12.1.0\db_1\wallets -createCredential oracle system
Enter password: password

In this specification:
The wallet_location is the path to the directory where the wallet was created. The db_connect_string used in the CONNECT /@db_connect_string statement must be identical to the db_connect_string specified in the -createCredential command.

The db_connect_string is the TNS alias used to specify the database in the tnsnames.ora file or any service name used to identify the database on an Oracle network. By default, tnsnames.ora is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory on UNIX systems and in ORACLE_HOME\network\admin on Windows.

The username is the database logon credential. When prompted, enter the password for this user.

3. In the client sqlnet.ora file, enter the WALLET_LOCATION parameter and set it to the directory location of the wallet created in Step 1. For example, if the wallet was created in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin and the Oracle home is set to /private/ora12, then need to enter the following into the client sqlnet.ora file:

WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE =
(METHOD = FILE)
(METHOD_DATA =
(DIRECTORY = /private/ora12/network/admin)
)
)

4. In the client sqlnet.ora file, enter the SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE parameter and set it to TRUE as follows:

SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE = TRUE

This setting causes all CONNECT /@db_connect_string statements to use the information in the wallet at the specified location to authenticate to databases.

When external authentication is in use, an authenticated user with such a wallet can use the CONNECT /@db_connect_string syntax to access the previously specified databases without providing a user name and password. However, if a user fails that external authentication, then these connect statements also fail.

Below is a sample sqlnet.ora file with the WALLET_LOCATION and the SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE parameters set as described in Steps 3 and 4.

Below is a sample SQLNET.ORA File with Wallet Parameters Set

WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE =
(METHOD = FILE)
(METHOD_DATA =
(DIRECTORY = /private/ora12/network/admin)
)
)

SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE = TRUE
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION = FALSE
SSL_VERSION =1.2 or 1.1

(Note: This assumes that a single sqlnet.ora file, in the default location, is in use. Please see the supplemental file "Non-default sqlnet.ora configurations.pdf" for how to find multiple and/or differently located sqlnet.ora files.)

Note: ""SSL_VERSION = 1.2 or 1.1" is the actual value, not a suggestion to use one or the other."
V-61849 No Change
Findings ID: O121-N2-004701 Rule ID: SV-76339r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The Security Requirements Guide says, "Default accounts are usually accounts that have special privileges required to administer the database. Well-known DBMS account names are targeted most frequently by attackers and are thus more prone to providing unauthorized access to the database.

"If default account names are not changed, an attacker has a predefined list of accounts to target. Since most default accounts are administrative in nature, the compromise of a default account can have catastrophic consequences, including the complete loss of control over the information system."

However, Oracle does not provide for changing user names directly. Workarounds to achieve the effect of a name change are cumbersome. In addition, names of essential system accounts such as SYS are "baked into" the product, with thousands of dependencies involved. Making such a change would risk making the DBMS inoperative, and would interfere with getting support from Oracle.

The Check and Fix, therefore, relate to good practices for protecting the essential system accounts from misuse.

Checks

Review the use of the essential system accounts with the DBA(s). Request evidence that administrators have individual administrative accounts and that they use these rather than SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN, etc., in carrying out their duties.

If the evidence indicates otherwise, this is a finding.

Review the status of the essential system accounts, in the view DBA_USERS. If any of these accounts is not locked, or is not documented as a requirement, this is a finding.

Fix

Ensure that all individuals with DBA responsibilities always log on under their individual administrative accounts.

Ensure that the passwords for essential system accounts such as SYS are available only to authorized administrators and tightly guarded to avoid misuse. Ensure that these accounts are kept locked except when it is specifically necessary to use them.
V-61853 No Change
Findings ID: O121-N2-008601 Rule ID: SV-76343r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

It is critical when a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required; it detects and takes action to mitigate the failure. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors, failures in the audit capturing mechanisms, and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded. Applications are required to be capable of either directly performing or calling system-level functionality performing defined actions upon detection of an application audit log processing failure.

The Security Requirements Guide says, "A failure of database auditing will result in either the database continuing to function without auditing or in a complete halt to database operations. The database must be capable of taking organization-defined actions to avoid either a complete halt to processing or processing transactions in an unaudited manner."

This STIG requirement mandates the implementation of a method to mitigate Oracle's inability to automatically reuse audit trail space on a first-in, first-out basis.

Checks

Review the procedures, manual and/or automated, for monitoring the space used by audit trail(s) and for off-loading audit records to a centralized log management system.

If the procedures do not exist, this is a finding.

If the procedures exist, request evidence that they are followed. If the evidence indicates that the procedures are not followed, this is a finding.

If the procedures exist, inquire if the system has ever run out of audit trail space in the last two years or since the last system upgrade, whichever is more recent. If it has run out of space in this period, and the procedures have not been updated to compensate, this is a finding.

Fix

Modify DBMS, OS, or third-party logging application settings to alert appropriate personnel when a specific percentage of log storage capacity is reached.

For ease of management, it is recommended that the audit tables be kept in a dedicated tablespace.

If Oracle Enterprise Manager is in use, the capability to issue such an alert is built in and configurable via the console so an email can be sent to a designated administrator.

If Enterprise Manager is unavailable, the following script can be used to monitor storage space; this can be combined with additional code to email the appropriate administrator so they can take action.

sqlplus connect as sysdba

set pagesize 300
set linesize 120
column sumb format 9,999,999,999,999
column extents format 999999
column bytes format 9,999,999,999,999
column largest format 9,999,999,999,999
column Tot_Size format 9,999,999,999,999
column Tot_Free format 9,999,999,999,999
column Pct_Free format 9,999,999,999,999
column Chunks_Free format 9,999,999,999,999
column Max_Free format 9,999,999,999,999
set echo off
spool TSINFO.txt
PROMPT SPACE AVAILABLE IN TABLESPACES
select a.tablespace_name,sum(a.tots) Tot_Size,
sum(a.sumb) Tot_Free,
sum(a.sumb)*100/sum(a.tots) Pct_Free,
sum(a.largest) Max_Free,sum(a.chunks) Chunks_Free
from
(
select tablespace_name,0 tots,sum(bytes) sumb,
max(bytes) largest,count(*) chunks
from dba_free_space a
group by tablespace_name
union
select tablespace_name,sum(bytes) tots,0,0,0 from
dba_data_files
group by tablespace_name) a
group by a.tablespace_name;

Sample Output

SPACE AVAILABLE IN TABLESPACES

TABLESPACE_NAME TOT_SIZE TOT_FREE PCT_FREE MAX_FREE CHUNKS_FREE
------------------------------ ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------
DES2 41,943,040 30,935,040 74 30,935,040 1
DES2_I 31,457,280 23,396,352 74 23,396,352 1
RBS 60,817,408 57,085,952 94 52,426,752 16
SYSTEM 94,371,840 5,386,240 6 5,013,504 3
TEMP 563,200 561,152 100 133,120 5
TOOLS 120,586,240 89,407,488 74 78,190,592 12
USERS 1,048,576 26,624 3 26,624 1
V-61865 No Change
Findings ID: O121-OS-004600 Rule ID: SV-76355r2_rule Severity: high CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

This requirement is intended to limit exposure due to operating from within a privileged account or role. The inclusion of role is intended to address those situations where an access control policy, such as Role Based Access Control (RBAC), is being implemented and where a change of role provides the same degree of assurance in the change of access authorizations for both the user and all processes acting on behalf of the user as would be provided by a change between a privileged and non-privileged account.

To limit exposure when operating from within a privileged account or role, the application must support organizational requirements that users of information system accounts, or roles, with access to organization-defined lists of security functions or security-relevant information, use non-privileged accounts, or roles, when accessing other (non-security) system functions.

Use of privileged accounts for non-administrative purposes puts data at risk of unintended or unauthorized loss, modification, or exposure. In particular, DBA accounts if used for non-administration application development or application maintenance can lead to miss-assignment of privileges where privileges are inherited by object owners. It may also lead to loss or compromise of application data where the elevated privileges bypass controls designed in and provided by applications.

The DBMS software installation account may require privileges not required for database administration or other functions. Use of accounts configured with excess privileges may result in the loss or compromise of data or system settings due to elevated privileges that bypass controls designed to protect them.

This requirement is particularly important because Oracle equates the installation account with the SYS account - the super-DBA. Once logged on to the operating system, this account can connect to the database AS SYSDBA without further authentication. It is very powerful and, by virtue of not being linked to any one person, cannot be audited to the level of the individual.

Checks

Review system documentation to identify the installation account.

Verify whether the account is used for anything involving interactive activity beyond DBMS software installation, upgrade, and maintenance actions.

If the account is used for anything involving interactive activity beyond DBMS software installation, upgrade, and maintenance actions, this is a finding.

Fix

Restrict interactive use of the DBMS software installation account to DBMS software installation, upgrade, and maintenance actions only.

If possible, disable installation accounts when authorized actions are not being performed. Otherwise, disable the use of the account(s) for interactive activity.
V-61867 No Change
Findings ID: O121-OS-010700 Rule ID: SV-76357r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001499

Discussion

Any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system.

If the system were to allow any user to make changes to software libraries, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process.

Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals shall be allowed to obtain access to information system components for purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications.

Unmanaged changes that occur to the database software libraries or configuration can lead to unauthorized or compromised installations.

Checks

Review monitoring procedures and implementation evidence to verify that monitoring of changes to database software libraries, related applications, and configuration files is done.

Verify that the list of files and directories being monitored is complete. If monitoring does not occur or is not complete, this is a finding.

Fix

Implement procedures to monitor for unauthorized changes to DBMS software libraries, related software application libraries, and configuration files. If a third-party automated tool is not employed, an automated job that reports file information on the directories and files of interest and compares them to the baseline report for the same will meet the requirement.

File hashes or checksums should be used for comparisons since file dates may be manipulated by malicious users.
V-61869 No Change
Findings ID: O121-OS-011200 Rule ID: SV-76359r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001499

Discussion

When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted, any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system.

If the application were to allow any user to make changes to software libraries, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process.

This requirement is contingent upon the language in which the application is programmed, as many application architectures in use today incorporate their software libraries into, and make them inseparable from, their compiled distributions, rendering them static and version-dependent. However, this requirement does apply to applications with software libraries accessible and configurable as in the case of interpreted languages.

Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals shall be allowed to obtain access to information system components for purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications.

The DBMS software libraries contain the executables used by the DBMS to operate. Unauthorized access to the libraries can result in malicious alteration. This may in turn jeopardize data stored in the DBMS and/or operation of the host system.

Checks

Review permissions that control access to the DBMS software libraries. The software library location may be determined from vendor documentation or service/process executable paths.

DBA accounts, the DBMS process account, the DBMS software installation/maintenance account, SA accounts, if access by them is required for some operational level of support such as backups, and the host system itself require access. Any others should be scrutinized and a reason for access provided by the DBA.

If accounts that are not required and authorized to have access to the software library location do have access, this is a finding.

Check to see which users have been granted DBA. Work from a basis of least privilege. Provide the least amount of privilege required to accomplish the job.

SQL> select * from dba_role_privs where granted_role = 'DBA';

Fix

Restrict access to the DBMS software libraries to accounts that require access based on job function.
V-61871 No Change
Findings ID: O121-P2-008100 Rule ID: SV-76361r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001844

Discussion

Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes but is not limited: timestamps, source and destination IP addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, application specific events, success/fail indications, file names involved, access control or flow control rules invoked.

Centralized management of audit records and logs provides for efficiency in maintenance and management of records, as well as, the backup and archiving of those records. When organizations define application components requiring centralized audit log management, applications need to support that requirement.

Database audit records not stored in a centralized audit log management tool may be overlooked during investigation of a security incident or may be subject to intentional or accidental manipulation by privileged users of the database.

Checks

If the organization does not require the use of a centralized audit log repository, this is not a finding.

If the organization requires the use of a centralized audit log repository, continue.

Check that Oracle PL/SQL code or other software is in place to copy or transfer the specified audit record content to a centralized audit log repository. If it is not, this is a finding.

Check that permissions are set on the Oracle audit trail tables and on the target repository to enable the required transfer of audit data. If they are not, this is a finding.

Verify that the specified audit record content is indeed copied or transferred to the central repository. If it is not, this is a finding.

Fix

If the organization requires the use of a centralized audit log repository, employ PL/SQL code or other software to copy or transfer the specified audit record content to the repository.

Ensure that permissions are set to enable transfer of the data.

If, after the preceding steps, the transfer is not succeeding, diagnose and repair the problem.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
V-61873 No Change
Findings ID: O121-P2-010800 Rule ID: SV-76363r1_rule Severity: high CCI: CCI-001499

Discussion

When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted, any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system.

If the application were to allow any user to make changes to software libraries, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process.

This requirement is contingent upon the language in which the application is programmed, as many application architectures in use today incorporate their software libraries into, and make them inseparable from, their compiled distributions, rendering them static and version-dependent. However, this requirement does apply to applications with software libraries accessible and configurable, as in the case of interpreted languages.

Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals shall be allowed to obtain access to information system components for purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications.

DBA and other privileged administrative or application owner accounts are granted privileges that allow actions that can have a greater impact on database security and operation. It is especially important to grant access to privileged accounts to only those persons who are qualified and authorized to use them.

This requirement is particularly important because Oracle equates the installation account with the SYS account - the super-DBA. Once logged on to the operating system, this account can connect to the database AS SYSDBA without further authentication. It is very powerful and, by virtue of not being linked to any one person, cannot be audited to the level of the individual.

Checks

Review procedures for controlling and granting access to use of the DBMS software installation account.

If access or use of this account is not restricted to the minimum number of personnel required, or if unauthorized access to the account has been granted, this is a finding.

Fix

Develop, document, and implement procedures to restrict use of the DBMS software installation account.
V-61875 No Change
Findings ID: O121-P2-010900 Rule ID: SV-76365r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001499

Discussion

When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted, any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system.

Multiple applications can provide a cumulative negative effect. A vulnerability and subsequent exploit to one application can lead to an exploit of other applications sharing the same security context. For example, an exploit to a web server process that leads to unauthorized administrative access to host system directories can most likely lead to a compromise of all applications hosted by the same system. Database software not installed using dedicated directories both threatens and is threatened by other hosted applications. Access controls defined for one application may by default provide access to the other application's database objects or directories. Any method that provides any level of separation of security context assists in the protection between applications.

Checks

Review the DBMS software library directory and note other root directories located on the same disk directory or any subdirectories. If any non-DBMS software directories exist on the disk directory, examine or investigate their use.

If any of the directories are used by other applications, including third-party applications that use the DBMS, this is a finding.

Only applications that are required for the functioning and administration, not use, of the DBMS should be located on the same disk directory as the DBMS software libraries.

For databases located on mainframes, confirm that the database and its configuration files are isolated in their own DASD pools.

If database software and database configuration files share DASD with other applications, this is a finding.

Fix

Install all applications on directories, or pools, separate from the DBMS software library directory. Re-locate any directories or re-install other application software that currently shares the DBMS software library directory to separate directories.

For mainframe-based databases, locate database software and configuration files in separate DASD pools from other mainframe applications.
V-61877 No Change
Findings ID: O121-P2-012700 Rule ID: SV-76367r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000537

Discussion

Information system backup is a critical step in maintaining data assurance and availability.

System-level information includes: system-state information, operating system and application software, and licenses.

Backups shall be consistent with organizational recovery time and recovery point objectives.

The DBMS application depends upon the availability and integrity of its software libraries. Without backups, compromise or loss of the software libraries can prevent a successful recovery of DBMS operations.

Checks

Review evidence of inclusion of the DBMS libraries in current backup records.

If any DBMS library files are not included in regular backups, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure backups to include all DBMS application and third-party database application software libraries.
V-61879 No Change
Findings ID: O121-P2-012800 Rule ID: SV-76369r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000764

Discussion

To assure accountability and prevent unauthorized access, organizational users shall be identified and authenticated.

Organizational users include organizational employees or individuals the organization deems to have equivalent status of employees (e.g., contractors, guest researchers, individuals from allied nations).

Users (and any processes acting on behalf of users) are uniquely identified and authenticated for all accesses other than those accesses explicitly identified and documented by the organization which outlines specific user actions that can be performed on the information system without identification or authentication.

Checks

Review DBMS settings, OS settings, and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism settings, and site practices, to determine whether organizational users are uniquely identified and authenticated when logging on to the system.

If organizational users are not uniquely identified and authenticated, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure DBMS, OS and/or enterprise-level authentication/access mechanism to uniquely identify and authenticate all organizational users who log on to the system. Ensure that each user has a separate account from all other users.
V-61881 No Change
Findings ID: O121-P2-015800 Rule ID: SV-76371r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000804

Discussion

Non-organizational users include all information system users other than organizational users which include organizational employees or individuals the organization deems to have equivalent status of employees (e.g., contractors, guest researchers, individuals from allied nations).

Non-organizational users shall be uniquely identified and authenticated for all accesses other than those accesses explicitly identified and documented by the organization when related to the use of anonymous access, such as accessing a web server.

Accordingly, a risk assessment is used in determining the authentication needs of the organization.

Scalability, practicality, and security are simultaneously considered in balancing the need to ensure ease of use for access to federal information and information systems with the need to protect and adequately mitigate risk to organizational operations, organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation.

Checks

Review DBMS settings to determine whether non-organizational users are uniquely identified and authenticated when logging onto the system.

If non-organizational users are not uniquely identified and authenticated, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure DBMS settings to uniquely identify and authenticate all non-organizational users who log onto the system.
V-61883 No Change
Findings ID: O121-P2-017300 Rule ID: SV-76373r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001082

Discussion

Information system management functionality includes functions necessary to administer databases, network components, workstations, or servers, and typically requires privileged user access.

The separation of user functionality from information system management functionality is either physical or logical and is accomplished by using different computers, different central processing units, different instances of the operating system, different network addresses, combinations of these methods, or other methods, as appropriate.

An example of this type of separation is observed in web administrative interfaces that use separate authentication methods for users of any other information system resources.

This may include isolating the administrative interface on a different domain and with additional access controls.

If administrative functionality or information regarding DBMS management is presented on an interface available for users, information on DBMS settings may be inadvertently made available to the user.

Checks

Check DBMS settings and vendor documentation to verify administrative functionality is separate from user functionality.

If administrator and general user functionality is not separated either physically or logically, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure DBMS settings to separate database administration and general user functionality. Provide those who have both administrative and general-user responsibilities with separate accounts for these separate functions.
V-61885 No Change
Findings ID: O121-P2-017400 Rule ID: SV-76375r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001083

Discussion

Information system management functionality includes functions necessary to administer databases, network components, workstations, or servers, and typically requires privileged user access.

The separation of user functionality from information system management functionality is either physical or logical and is accomplished by using different computers, different central processing units, different instances of the operating system, different network addresses, combinations of these methods, or other methods, as appropriate.

An example of this type of separation is observed in web administrative interfaces that use separate authentication methods for users of any other information system resources. This may include isolating the administrative interface on a different domain and with additional access controls.

If administrative functionality or information regarding DBMS management is presented on an interface available for users, information on DBMS settings may be inadvertently made available to the user.

Checks

Check DBMS settings and vendor documentation to verify administrative functionality is separate from user functionality.

If administrator and general user functionality is not separated either physically or logically, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure DBMS settings to separate database administration and general user functionality. Provide those who have both administrative and general-user responsibilities with separate accounts for these separate functions.
V-61887 No Change
Findings ID: O121-P3-006200 Rule ID: SV-76377r2_rule Severity: low CCI: CCI-000166

Discussion

Non-repudiation of actions taken is required in order to maintain application integrity. Examples of particular actions taken by individuals include creating information, sending a message, approving information (e.g., indicating concurrence or signing a contract), and receiving a message.

Non-repudiation protects individuals against later claims by an author of not having authored a particular document, a sender of not having transmitted a message, a receiver of not having received a message, or a signatory of not having signed a document.

Authentication via shared accounts does not provide individual accountability for actions taken on the DBMS or data. Whenever a single database account is used to connect to the database, a secondary authentication method that provides individual accountability is required. This scenario most frequently occurs when an externally hosted application authenticates individual users to the application and the application uses a single account to retrieve or update database information on behalf of the individual users.

When shared accounts are utilized without another means of identifying individual users, users may deny having performed a particular action.

This calls for inspection of application source code, which will require collaboration with the application developers. It is recognized that in many cases, the database administrator (DBA) is organizationally separate from the application developers and may have limited, if any, access to source code. Nevertheless, protections of this type are so important to the secure operation of databases that they must not be ignored. At a minimum, the DBA must attempt to obtain assurances from the development organization that this issue has been addressed and must document what has been discovered.

Checks

If there are no shared accounts available to more than one user, this is not a finding.

If a shared account is used by an application to interact with the database, review the System Security Plan, the tables in the database, and the application source code/documentation to determine whether the application captures the individual user's identity and stores that identity along with all data inserted and updated (also with all records of reads and/or deletions, if these are required to be logged).

If there are gaps in the application's ability to do this, and the gaps and the risk are not defined in the system documentation and accepted by the AO, this is a finding.

If users are sharing a group account to log on to Oracle tools or third-party products that access the database, this is a finding.

If Standard Auditing is used:
To ensure that user activities other than SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE are also monitored and attributed to individuals, verify that Oracle auditing is enabled. To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_TRAIL
or the following SQL query:
SELECT * FROM SYS.V$PARAMETER WHERE NAME = 'audit_trail';
If Oracle returns the value 'NONE', this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
To ensure that user activities other than SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE are also monitored and attributed to individuals, verify that Oracle auditing is enabled. To see if Oracle is configured to capture audit data, enter the following SQL*Plus command:
SELECT * FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Unified Auditing';
If Oracle returns the value "TRUE", this is not a finding.

Fix

Use accounts assigned to individual users where feasible. Configure DBMS to provide individual accountability at the DBMS level, and in audit logs, for actions performed under a shared database account.

Modify applications and data tables that are not capturing individual user identity to do so.

Create and enforce the use of individual user IDs for logging on to Oracle tools and third-party products.

If Oracle auditing is not already enabled, enable it.

If Standard Auditing is used:
If Oracle (or third-party) auditing is not already enabled, enable it. For Oracle auditing, use this query:
ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=<audit trail type> SCOPE=SPFILE;
Audit trail type can be 'OS', 'DB', 'DB,EXTENDED', 'XML' or 'XML,EXTENDED'.
After executing this statement, it may be necessary to shut down and restart the Oracle database.

If Unified Auditing is used:
Link the oracle binary with uniaud_on, and then restart the database. Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes how to enable unified auditing.

For more information on the configuration of auditing, refer to the following documents:
"Auditing Database Activity" in the Oracle Database 2 Day + Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TDPSG/tdpsg_auditing.htm#TDPSG50000
"Monitoring Database Activity with Auditing" in the Oracle Database Security Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/DBSEG/part_6.htm#CCHEHCGI
"DBMS_AUDIT_MGMT" in the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/ARPLS/d_audit_mgmt.htm#ARPLS241
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide:
http://docs.oracle.com/database/121/UPGRD/afterup.htm#UPGRD52810

If the site-specific audit requirements are not covered by the default audit options, deploy and configure Fine-Grained Auditing. For details, refer to Oracle documentation at the locations above.

If this level of auditing does not meet site-specific requirements, consider deploying the Oracle Audit Vault. The Audit Vault is a highly configurable option from Oracle made specifically for performing the audit functions. It has reporting capabilities as well as user-defined rules that provide additional flexibility for complex auditing requirements.
V-61963 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-025100 Rule ID: SV-76453r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Protection of DBMS data, transaction and audit data files stored by the host operating system is dependent on OS controls. When different applications share the same database process, resource contention and differing security controls may be required to isolate and protect one application's data and audit logs from another. DBMS software libraries and configuration files also require differing access control lists.

Checks

Review the disk/directory specification where database data, transaction log and audit files are stored.

If DBMS data, transaction or audit data files are stored in the same directory, this is a finding.

If separation of data, transaction and audit data is not supported by the DBMS, this check is not a finding.

If stored separately and access permissions for each directory is the same, this is a finding.

Fix

Product-specific fix pending development. Use Generic Fix listed below:

Specify dedicated host system disk directories to store database data, transaction and audit files.

Configure DBMS default file storage locations to use dedicated disk directories where supported by the DBMS.
V-61965 No Change
Findings ID: O121-BP-025101 Rule ID: SV-76455r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The AUDIT_FILE_DEST parameter specifies the directory where the database audit trail file is stored (when AUDIT_TRAIL parameter is set to ‘OS’, ‘xml’ or ‘xml, extended’ where supported by the DBMS). Unauthorized access or loss of integrity of the audit trail could result in loss of accountability or the ability to detect suspicious
activity. This directory also contains the audit trail of the SYS and SYSTEM accounts that captures privileged database events when the database is not running (when AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS parameter is set to TRUE).

Checks

If Standard Auditing is used:

From SQL*Plus:

select value from v$parameter where name = 'audit_trail';
select value from v$parameter where name = 'audit_file_dest';

If audit_trail is NOT set to OS, XML or XML EXTENDED, this is not applicable (NA).

If audit_trail is set to OS, but the audit records are routed directly to a separate log server without writing to the local file system, this is not a finding.

On UNIX Systems:

ls -ld [pathname]

Replace [pathname] with the directory path listed from the above SQL command for audit_file_dest.

If permissions are granted for world access, this is a finding.

If any groups that include members other than the Oracle process and software owner accounts, DBAs, auditors, or backup accounts are listed, this is a finding.

Compare path to $ORACLE_HOME. If audit_file_dest is a subdirectory of $ORACLE_HOME, this is a finding.

On Windows Systems (From Windows Explorer):

Browse to the directory specified. Select and right-click on the directory, select Properties, select the Security tab. On Windows hosts, records are also written to the Windows application event log. The location of the application event log is listed under Properties for the log under the Windows console. The default location is C:\WINDOWS\system32\config\EventLogs\AppEvent.Evt.

If permissions are granted to everyone, this is a finding. If any accounts other than the Administrators, DBAs, System group, auditors or backup operators are listed, this is a finding.

Compare path to %ORACLE_HOME%. If audit_file_dest is a subdirectory of %ORACLE_HOME%, this is a finding.

If Unified Auditing is used:
AUDIT_FILE_DEST parameter is not used in Unified Auditing

Fix

For file-based auditing, establish an audit file directory separate from the Oracle Home.

Alter host system permissions to the AUDIT_FILE_DEST directory to the Oracle process and software owner accounts, DBAs, backup accounts, SAs (if required), and auditors.

Authorize and document user access requirements to the directory outside of the Oracle, DBA, and SA account list in the System Security Plan.
V-61967 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C2-000100 Rule ID: SV-76457r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000054

Discussion

Application management includes the ability to control the number of users and user sessions utilizing an application. Limiting the number of allowed users, and sessions per user, is helpful in limiting risks related to Denial of Service attacks.

This requirement addresses concurrent session control for a single information system account and does not address concurrent sessions by a single user via multiple system accounts.

Unlimited concurrent connections to the DBMS could allow a successful Denial of Service (DoS) attack by exhausting connection resources.

The organization will need to define the maximum number of concurrent sessions by account type, by account, or a combination thereof. In deciding on the appropriate number, it is important to take into account the work requirements of the various types of user. For example, 2 might be an acceptable limit for general users accessing the database via an application; but 10 might be too few for a database administrator using a database management GUI tool, where each query tab and navigation pane may count as a separate session.

Checks

Retrieve the settings for concurrent sessions for each profile with the query:
SELECT * FROM SYS.DBA_PROFILES WHERE RESOURCE_NAME = 'SESSIONS_PER_USER';

If the DBMS settings for concurrent sessions for each profile are greater than the site-specific maximum number of sessions, this is a finding.

Fix

Limit concurrent connections for each system account to a number less than or equal to the organization-defined number of sessions using the following SQL. Create profiles that conform to the requirements. Assign users to the appropriate profile.

The user profile, ORA_STIG_PROFILE, has been provided (starting with Oracle 12.1.0.2) to satisfy the STIG requirements pertaining to the profile parameters. Oracle recommends that this profile be customized with any site-specific requirements and assigned to all users where applicable. Note: It remains necessary to create a customized replacement for the password validation function, ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION, if relying on this technique to verify password complexity.

The defaults for ORA_STIG_PROFILE are set as follows:
Resource Name Limit
------------- ------
COMPOSITE_LIMIT DEFAULT
SESSIONS_PER_USER DEFAULT
CPU_PER_SESSION DEFAULT
CPU_PER_CALL DEFAULT
LOGICAL_READS_PER_SESSION DEFAULT
LOGICAL_READS_PER_CALL DEFAULT
IDLE_TIME 15
CONNECT_TIME DEFAULT
PRIVATE_SGA DEFAULT
FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 3
PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 60
PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME 365
PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX 10
PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION ORA12C_STRONG_VERIFY_FUNCTION
PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME UNLIMITED
PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME 5

Change the value of SESSIONS_PER_USER (along with the other parameters, where relevant) from UNLIMITED to DoD-compliant, site-specific requirements and then assign users to the profile.
ALTER PROFILE ORA_STIG_PROFILE LIMIT SESSIONS_PER_USER <site-specific value>;

To assign the user to the profile do the following:
ALTER USER <username> PROFILE ORA_STIG_PROFILE;
V-61969 No Change
Findings ID: O121-C3-008800 Rule ID: SV-76459r1_rule Severity: low CCI: CCI-001878

Discussion

In support of Audit Review, Analysis, and Reporting requirements, audit reduction is a technique used to reduce the volume of audit records in order to facilitate a manual review.

Before a security review is conducted, information systems and/or applications with an audit reduction capability may remove many audit records known to have little security significance. This is generally accomplished by removing records generated by specified classes of events, such as records generated by nightly backups.

In order to identify and report on what (repetitive) data has been removed via the use of audit reduction, the application must provide a capability to generate reports containing what values were removed by the audit reduction.

Audit reduction does not alter original audit records. An audit reduction capability provides support for near real-time audit review and analysis based on policy-based requirements and after-the-fact investigations of security incidents.

Reporting tools employing audit reduction methods must not alter the original audit data. An example of a tool employing audit reduction methods is the Windows Event Viewer tool which is used to view and analyze audit logs on Windows systems.

The lack of reporting tools for audit reduction can require the DBA, or others responsible for reviewing audit logs, to sort through large amounts of data in order to find relevant records. This can cause important audit records to be missed.

Checks

Verify that audit reduction capabilities are in place for the Oracle audit data. Since Oracle has no reduction capability per se, a third-party tool or in-house-developed software must be in place to provide this functionality. This must include the ability to report on the excluded audit data.

If this capability has not been implemented, this is a finding.

Fix

Deploy software capable of performing audit data reduction and of reporting on the excluded audit data.
V-68863 No Change
Findings ID: O121-OS-010710 Rule ID: SV-83467r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001499

Discussion

Any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. This includes the logic modules implemented within the database, such as packages, procedures, functions and triggers.

If the DBMS were to allow any user to make changes to these, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process.

Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals shall be allowed to obtain access to information system components for purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications.

Unmanaged changes that occur to the database logic modules can lead to unauthorized or compromised installations.

Checks

Review monitoring procedures and implementation evidence to verify that monitoring of changes to database logic modules is done.

Verify the list of objects (packages, procedures, functions, and triggers) being monitored is complete. If monitoring does not occur or is not complete, this is a finding.

Fix

Implement procedures to monitor for unauthorized changes to database logic modules. If a third-party automated tool is not employed, an automated job that reports on the objects of interest and compares them to the baseline report for the same will meet the requirement.
V-61773 Removed
Findings ID: O121-C2-018400 Rule ID: SV-76263r3_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002476

Discussion

This control is intended to address the confidentiality and integrity of information at rest in non-mobile devices. If the data is not encrypted, it is subject to compromise and unauthorized disclosure.

Checks

Check DBMS settings to determine whether cryptographic mechanisms are used to prevent the unauthorized disclosure of information at rest. If cryptographic mechanisms are not being utilized, this is a finding. Oracle recommends using Transparent Data Encryption to protect data at rest. - - - - - Caution: do not attempt to encrypt Oracle internal objects such as SYSTEM, SYSAUX, UNDO, or TEMP tablespaces. Oracle does not support this with TDE. - - - - In order to check to see if the data is encrypted, for example, upon an auditor's request, Oracle provides views that document the encryption status of the database. For TDE column encryption, use the iew 'dba_encrypted_columns', which lists the owner, table name, column name, encryption algorithm, and salt for all encrypted columns. For TDE tablespace encryption, the following SQL statement lists all encrypted tablespaces with their encryption algorithm and corresponding, encrypted, data files. Issue the following commands to check to see if the data at rest is encrypted. $ sqlplus connect as sysdba SQL> SELECT t.name "TSName", e.encryptionalg "Algorithm", d.file_name "File Name" FROM v$tablespace t, v$encrypted_tablespaces e, dba_data_files d WHERE t.ts# = e.ts# and t.name = d.tablespace_name; The next SQL statement lists the table owner, tables within encrypted tablespaces, and the encryption algorithm: SQL> SELECT a.owner "Owner", a.table_name "Table Name", e.encryptionalg "Algorithm" FROM dba_tables a, v$encrypted_tablespaces e WHERE a.tablespace_name in (select t.name from v$tablespace t, v$encrypted_tablespaces e where t.ts# = e.ts#);

Fix

Configure DBMS to use cryptographic mechanisms to prevent unauthorized disclosure of information at rest. Deploy Oracle Advanced Security option, a locally developed encryption system, or a third-party product to encrypt data at rest. If ASO is not an option, use site-specific procedures to secure data at rest.