Oracle Database 11.2g Security Technical Implementation Guide

Description

This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: [email protected]

Details

Version / Release: V2R2

Published: 2021-09-03

Updated At: 2021-11-06 12:49:55

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    Vuln Rule Version CCI Severity Title Description Status Finding Details Comments
    SV-219695r401224_rule O112-BP-021200 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Access to default accounts used to support replication must be restricted to authorized DBAs. Replication database accounts are used for database connections between databases. Replication requires the configuration of these accounts using the same username and password on all databases participating in the replication. Replication connections use
    SV-219696r401224_rule O112-BP-021300 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Oracle instance names must not contain Oracle version numbers. Service names may be discovered by unauthenticated users. If the service name includes version numbers or other database product information, a malicious user may use that information to develop a targeted attack.
    SV-219697r401224_rule O112-BP-021400 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Fixed user and public database links must be authorized for use. Database links define connections that may be used by the local database to access remote Oracle databases. These links provide a means for a compromise to the local database to spread to remote databases in the distributed database environment. Limiting
    SV-219698r401224_rule O112-BP-021500 CCI-000366 LOW A minimum of two Oracle control files must be defined and configured to be stored on separate, archived disks (physical or virtual) or archived partitions on a RAID device. Oracle control files are used to store information critical to Oracle database integrity. Oracle uses these files to maintain time synchronization of database files as well as at system startup to verify the validity of system data and log files. Loss of
    SV-219699r401224_rule O112-BP-021600 CCI-000366 MEDIUM A minimum of two Oracle redo log groups/files must be defined and configured to be stored on separate, archived physical disks or archived directories on a RAID device. The Oracle redo log files store the detailed information on changes made to the database. This information is critical to database recovery in case of a database failure.
    SV-219700r401224_rule O112-BP-021700 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The Oracle WITH GRANT OPTION privilege must not be granted to non-DBA or non-Application administrator user accounts. An account permission to grant privileges within the database is an administrative function. Minimizing the number and privileges of administrative accounts reduces the chances of privileged account exploitation. Application user accounts should never req
    SV-219701r401224_rule O112-BP-021800 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Execute permission must be revoked from PUBLIC for restricted Oracle packages. Access to the following packages should be restricted to authorized accounts only. UTL_FILE: allows Oracle accounts to read and write files on the host operating system. UTL_SMTP: allows messages to be sent from an arbitrary user. UTL_TCP: allows arbitra
    SV-219702r401224_rule O112-BP-021900 CCI-000366 HIGH The Oracle REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT parameter must be set to FALSE. Setting this value to TRUE allows operating system authentication over an unsecured connection. Trusting remote operating systems can allow a user to impersonate another operating system user and connect to the database without having to supply a password
    SV-219703r401224_rule O112-BP-022000 CCI-000366 HIGH The Oracle REMOTE_OS_ROLES parameter must be set to FALSE. Setting REMOTE_OS_ROLES to TRUE allows operating system groups to control Oracle roles. The default value of FALSE causes roles to be identified and managed by the database. If REMOTE_OS_ROLES is set to TRUE, a remote user could impersonate another operat
    SV-219704r401224_rule O112-BP-022100 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The Oracle SQL92_SECURITY parameter must be set to TRUE. The configuration option SQL92_SECURITY specifies whether table-level SELECT privileges are required to execute an update or delete that references table column values. If this option is disabled (set to FALSE), the UPDATE privilege can be used to determi
    SV-219705r401224_rule O112-BP-022200 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The Oracle password file ownership and permissions should be limited and the REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE parameter must be set to EXCLUSIVE or NONE. It is critically important to the security of your system that you protect your password file and the environment variables that identify the location of the password file. Any user with access to these could potentially compromise the security of the con
    SV-219706r401224_rule O112-BP-022300 CCI-000366 MEDIUM System privileges granted using the WITH ADMIN OPTION must not be granted to unauthorized user accounts. The WITH ADMIN OPTION allows the grantee to grant a privilege to another database account. Best security practice restricts the privilege of assigning privileges to authorized personnel. Authorized personnel include DBAs, object owners, and, where designe
    SV-219707r401224_rule O112-BP-022400 CCI-000366 MEDIUM System Privileges must not be granted to PUBLIC. System privileges can be granted to users and roles and to the user group PUBLIC. All privileges granted to PUBLIC are accessible to every user in the database. Many of these privileges convey considerable authority over the database and are granted only
    SV-219708r401224_rule O112-BP-022500 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Oracle roles granted using the WITH ADMIN OPTION must not be granted to unauthorized accounts. The WITH ADMIN OPTION allows the grantee to grant a role to another database account. Best security practice restricts the privilege of assigning privileges to authorized personnel. Authorized personnel include DBA's, object owners, and, where designed an
    SV-219709r401224_rule O112-BP-022600 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Object permissions granted to PUBLIC must be restricted. Permissions on objects may be granted to the user group PUBLIC. Because every database user is a member of the PUBLIC group, granting object permissions to PUBLIC gives all users in the database access to that object. In a secure environment, granting obj
    SV-219710r401224_rule O112-BP-022700 CCI-000366 HIGH The Oracle Listener must be configured to require administration authentication. Oracle listener authentication helps prevent unauthorized administration of the Oracle listener. Unauthorized administration of the listener could lead to DoS exploits; loss of connection audit data, unauthorized reconfiguration or other unauthorized acce
    SV-219711r401224_rule O112-BP-022800 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Application role permissions must not be assigned to the Oracle PUBLIC role. Application roles have been granted to PUBLIC. Permissions granted to PUBLIC are granted to all users of the database. Custom roles should be used to assign application permissions to functional groups of application users. The installation of Oracle does
    SV-219712r401224_rule O112-BP-022900 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Oracle application administration roles must be disabled if not required and authorized. Application administration roles, which are assigned system or elevated application object privileges, should be protected from default activation. Application administration roles are determined by system privilege assignment (create / alter / drop user)
    SV-219713r401224_rule O112-BP-023000 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Connections by mid-tier web and application systems to the Oracle DBMS from a DMZ or external network must be encrypted. Multi-tier systems may be configured with the database and connecting middle-tier system located on an internal network, with the database located on an internal network behind a firewall and the middle-tier system located in a DMZ. In cases where either
    SV-219714r401224_rule O112-BP-023100 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Database job/batch queues must be reviewed regularly to detect unauthorized database job submissions. Unauthorized users may bypass security mechanisms by submitting jobs to job queues managed by the database to be run under a more privileged security context of the database or host system. These queues should be monitored regularly to detect any such una
    SV-219715r401224_rule O112-BP-023200 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Unauthorized database links must not be defined and active. DBMS links provide a communication and data transfer path definition between two databases that may be used by malicious users to discover and obtain unauthorized access to remote systems. Database links between production and development DBMSs provide a
    SV-219716r401224_rule O112-BP-023300 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Sensitive information from production database exports must be modified before being imported into a development database. Data export from production databases may include sensitive data. Application developers do not have a need to know to sensitive data. Any access they may have to production data would be considered unauthorized access and subject the sensitive data to un
    SV-219719r401224_rule O112-BP-023600 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Only authorized system accounts must have the SYSTEM tablespace specified as the default tablespace. The Oracle SYSTEM tablespace is used by the database to store all DBMS system objects. Other use of the system tablespace may compromise system availability and the effectiveness of host system access controls to the tablespace files.
    SV-219720r401224_rule O112-BP-023700 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Application owner accounts must have a dedicated application tablespace. Separation of tablespaces by application helps to protect the application from resource contention and unauthorized access that could result from storage space reuses or host system access controls. Application data should be stored separately from system
    SV-219721r401224_rule O112-BP-023800 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The directories assigned to the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST* parameters must be protected from unauthorized access. The LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST parameter is used to specify the directory to which Oracle archive logs are written. Where the DBMS availability and recovery to a specific point in time is critical, the protection of archive log files is critical. Archive log files
    SV-219722r401224_rule O112-BP-023900 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The Oracle _TRACE_FILES_PUBLIC parameter if present must be set to FALSE. The _TRACE_FILES_PUBLIC parameter is used to make trace files used for debugging database applications and events available to all database users. Use of this capability precludes the discrete assignment of privileges based on job function. Additionally,
    SV-219723r401224_rule O112-BP-024000 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Application object owner accounts must be disabled when not performing installation or maintenance actions. Object ownership provides all database object permissions to the owned object. Access to the application object owner accounts requires special protection to prevent unauthorized access and use of the object ownership privileges. In addition to the high p
    SV-219724r401224_rule O112-BP-024100 CCI-000366 MEDIUM DBMS production application and data directories must be protected from developers on shared production/development DBMS host systems. Developer roles should not be assigned DBMS administrative privileges to production DBMS application and data directories. The separation of production DBA and developer roles helps protect the production system from unauthorized, malicious or unintention
    SV-219725r401224_rule O112-BP-024200 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Use of the DBMS installation account must be logged. The DBMS installation account may be used by any authorized user to perform DBMS installation or maintenance. Without logging, accountability for actions attributed to the account is lost.
    SV-219733r401224_rule O112-BP-025101 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The directory assigned to the AUDIT_FILE_DEST parameter must be protected from unauthorized access and must be stored in a dedicated directory or disk partition separate from software or other application files. The AUDIT_FILE_DEST parameter specifies the directory where the database audit trail file is stored (when AUDIT_TRAIL parameter is set to ‘OS’, ‘xml’ or ‘xml, extended’ where supported by the DBMS). Unauthorized access or loss of integrity of
    SV-219736r401224_rule O112-BP-025400 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Access to DBMS software files and directories must not be granted to unauthorized users. The DBMS software libraries contain the executables used by the DBMS to operate. Unauthorized access to the libraries can result in malicious alteration or planting of operational executables. This may in turn jeopardize data stored in the DBMS and/or ope
    SV-219737r401224_rule O112-BP-025500 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Replication accounts must not be granted DBA privileges. Replication accounts may be used to access databases defined for the replication architecture. An exploit of a replication on one database could lead to the compromise of any database participating in the replication that uses the same account name and cr
    SV-219738r401224_rule O112-BP-025600 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Network access to the DBMS must be restricted to authorized personnel. Restricting remote access to specific, trusted systems helps prevent access by unauthorized and potentially malicious users.
    SV-219739r401224_rule O112-BP-025800 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Changes to configuration options must be audited. The AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS parameter is used to enable auditing of actions taken by the user SYS. The SYS user account is a shared account by definition and holds all privileges in the Oracle database. It is the account accessed by users connecting to the d
    SV-219742r401224_rule O112-BP-026200 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Changes to DBMS security labels must be audited. Some DBMS systems provide the feature to assign security labels to data elements. If labeling is required, implementation options include the Oracle Label Security package, or a third-party product, or custom-developed functionality. The confidentiality
    SV-219743r401224_rule O112-BP-026300 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Remote database or other external access must use fully-qualified names. The Oracle GLOBAL_NAMES parameter is used to set the requirement for database link names to be the same name as the remote database whose connection they define. By using the same name for both, ambiguity is avoided and unauthorized or unintended connecti
    SV-219744r401224_rule O112-BP-026400 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The /diag subdirectory under the directory assigned to the DIAGNOSTIC_DEST parameter must be protected from unauthorized access. /diag indicates the directory where trace, alert, core and incident directories and files are located. The files may contain sensitive data or information that could prove useful to potential attackers.
    SV-219745r401224_rule O112-BP-026500 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Remote administration must be disabled for the Oracle connection manager. Remote administration provides a potential opportunity for malicious users to make unauthorized changes to the Connection Manager configuration or interrupt its service.
    SV-219746r401224_rule O112-BP-026600 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The SQLNet SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION parameter must be set to a value of 12 or higher. Unsupported Oracle network client installations may introduce vulnerabilities to the database. Restriction to use of supported versions helps to protect the database and helps to enforce newer, more robust security controls.
    SV-219747r799968_rule O112-C1-015400 CCI-000186 HIGH The DBMS, when using PKI-based authentication, must enforce authorized access to the corresponding private key. The cornerstone of the PKI is the private key used to encrypt or digitally sign information. If the private key is stolen, this will lead to the compromise of the authentication and non-repudiation gained through PKI, because the attacker can use the pri
    SV-219748r395442_rule O112-C2-000100 CCI-000054 MEDIUM The DBMS must limit the number of concurrent sessions for each system account to an organization-defined number of sessions. Application management includes the ability to control the number of users and user sessions utilizing an application. Limiting the number of allowed users, and sessions per user, is helpful in limiting risks related to Denial of Service attacks. This re
    SV-219749r395475_rule O112-C2-001800 CCI-000015 MEDIUM The system must employ automated mechanisms for supporting Oracle user account management. A comprehensive application account management process that includes automation helps to ensure accounts designated as requiring attention are consistently and promptly addressed. Examples include, but are not limited to, using automation to take action o
    SV-219750r395499_rule O112-C2-002700 CCI-000213 MEDIUM The DBMS must enforce approved authorizations for logical access to the system in accordance with applicable policy. Strong access controls are critical to securing application data. Access control policies (e.g., identity-based policies, role-based policies, attribute-based policies) and access enforcement mechanisms (e.g., access control lists, access control matrices
    SV-219751r395706_rule O112-C2-006800 CCI-000169 MEDIUM The DBMS must provide audit record generation capability for organization-defined auditable events within the database. Audit records can be generated from various components within the information system. (e.g., network interface, hard disk, modem, etc.). From an application perspective, certain specific application functionalities may be audited as well. The list of aud
    SV-219752r395709_rule O112-C2-006900 CCI-000171 MEDIUM The DBMS must allow designated organizational personnel to select which auditable events are to be audited by the database. The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating audit records (i.e., auditable events, timestamps, sourc
    SV-219753r395712_rule O112-C2-007000 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records for the DoD-selected list of auditable events, to the extent such information is available. Audit records can be generated from various components within the information system, such as network interfaces, hard disks, modems, etc. From an application perspective, certain specific application functionalities may be audited, as well. The list of
    SV-219754r395721_rule O112-C2-007400 CCI-000130 MEDIUM The DBMS must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish what type of events occurred. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes: timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, eve
    SV-219755r395724_rule O112-C2-007500 CCI-000131 MEDIUM The DBMS must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish when (date and time) the events occurred. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes: timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, eve
    SV-219756r395727_rule O112-C2-007600 CCI-000132 MEDIUM The DBMS must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish where the events occurred. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes: timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, eve
    SV-219757r395730_rule O112-C2-007700 CCI-000133 MEDIUM The DBMS must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish the sources (origins) of the events. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control, includes, but is not limited to: timestamps, source and destination IP addresses, us
    SV-219758r395733_rule O112-C2-007800 CCI-000134 MEDIUM The DBMS must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish the outcome (success or failure) of the events. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes, but is not limited to: timestamps, source and destination IP addresses, user
    SV-219759r395736_rule O112-C2-007900 CCI-001487 MEDIUM The DBMS must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish the identity of any user/subject or process associated with the event. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes: timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, eve
    SV-219760r395739_rule O112-C2-008000 CCI-000135 MEDIUM The DBMS must include organization-defined additional, more detailed information in the audit records for audit events identified by type, location, or subject. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control includes: timestamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, eve
    SV-219761r395820_rule O112-C2-009300 CCI-000162 MEDIUM The DBMS must protect audit information from any type of unauthorized access. If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In addition, access to audit records provides information an
    SV-219762r395823_rule O112-C2-009400 CCI-000163 MEDIUM The DBMS must protect audit information from unauthorized modification. If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the information system and/or the applic
    SV-219763r395826_rule O112-C2-009500 CCI-000164 MEDIUM The DBMS must protect audit information from unauthorized deletion. If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data the information system and/or the applica
    SV-219764r395829_rule O112-C2-009600 CCI-001493 MEDIUM The DBMS must protect audit tools from unauthorized access. Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Depending upon the log format and application, system and application log tools may provide the only means to manipulate and manage applicatio
    SV-219765r395832_rule O112-C2-009700 CCI-001494 MEDIUM The DBMS must protect audit tools from unauthorized modification. Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Depending upon the log format and application, system and application log tools may provide the only means to manipulate and manage applicatio
    SV-219766r395835_rule O112-C2-009800 CCI-001495 MEDIUM The DBMS must protect audit tools from unauthorized deletion. Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Depending upon the log format and application, system and application log tools may provide the only means to manipulate and manage applicatio
    SV-219767r395850_rule O112-C2-011000 CCI-001499 MEDIUM Database objects must be owned by accounts authorized for ownership. Within the database, object ownership implies full privileges to the owned object including the privilege to assign access to the owned objects to other subjects. Unmanaged or uncontrolled ownership of objects can lead to unauthorized object grants and al
    SV-219768r395853_rule O112-C2-011500 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Default demonstration and sample databases, database objects, and applications must be removed. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is det
    SV-219769r395853_rule O112-C2-011600 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Unused database components, DBMS software, and database objects must be removed. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is d
    SV-219770r395853_rule O112-C2-011700 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Unused database components that are integrated in the DBMS and cannot be uninstalled must be disabled. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is d
    SV-219771r395853_rule O112-C2-011800 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Use of external executables must be authorized. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is d
    SV-219772r395853_rule O112-C2-011810 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Access to external executables must be disabled or restricted. The Oracle external procedure capability provides use of the Oracle process account outside the operation of the DBMS process. You can use it to submit and execute applications stored externally from the database under operating system controls. The exter
    SV-219773r395856_rule O112-C2-011900 CCI-000382 MEDIUM The DBMS must support the organizational requirements to specifically prohibit or restrict the use of unauthorized functions, ports, protocols, and/or services. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). Addition
    SV-219774r397522_rule O112-C2-014600 CCI-000196 MEDIUM The DBMS must support organizational requirements to enforce password encryption for storage. Applications must enforce password encryption when storing passwords. Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read and easily compromi
    SV-219775r799970_rule O112-C2-015300 CCI-000185 MEDIUM The DBMS, when utilizing PKI-based authentication, must validate certificates by constructing a certification path with status information to an accepted trust anchor. A trust anchor is an authoritative entity represented via a public key and associated data. It is used in the context of public key infrastructures, X.509 digital certificates, and DNSSEC. When there is a chain of trust, usually the top entity to be tru
    SV-219776r397600_rule O112-C2-015500 CCI-000187 MEDIUM The DBMS must ensure that PKI-based authentication maps the authenticated identity to the user account. The cornerstone of the PKI is the private key used to encrypt or digitally sign information. The key by itself is a cryptographic value that does not contain specific user information. When including the DBMS in the Private Key Infrastructure, the authen
    SV-219777r397600_rule O112-C2-015501 CCI-000187 MEDIUM Processes (services, applications, etc.) that connect to the DBMS independently of individual users, must use valid, current DoD-issued PKI certificates for authentication to the DBMS. Just as individual users must be authenticated, and just as they must use PKI-based authentication, so must any processes that connect to the DBMS. The DoD standard for authentication of a process or device communicating with another process or device is
    SV-219778r397606_rule O112-C2-015700 CCI-000803 MEDIUM The DBMS must use NIST-validated FIPS 140-2-compliant cryptography for authentication mechanisms. Encryption is only as good as the encryption modules utilized. Unapproved cryptographic module algorithms cannot be verified and cannot be relied upon to provide confidentiality or integrity, and DoD data may be compromised due to weak algorithms. Appli
    SV-219779r397729_rule O112-C2-017600 CCI-001185 MEDIUM The DBMS must terminate user sessions upon user logout or any other organization or policy-defined session termination events, such as idle time limit exceeded. This requirement focuses on communications protection at the application session, versus network packet, level. Session IDs are tokens generated by web applications to uniquely identify an application user's session. Applications will make application
    SV-219780r397741_rule O112-C2-018200 CCI-001665 MEDIUM The DBMS must preserve any organization-defined system state information in the event of a system failure. Failure in a known state can address safety or security in accordance with the mission/business needs of the organization. Failure in a known secure state helps prevent a loss of confidentiality, integrity, or availability in the event of a failure of the
    SV-219781r397744_rule O112-C2-018300 CCI-001199 MEDIUM The DBMS must take needed steps to protect data at rest and ensure confidentiality and integrity of application data. This control is intended to address the confidentiality and integrity of information at rest in non-mobile devices and covers user information and system information. Information at rest refers to the state of information when it is located on a secondary
    SV-219782r397747_rule O112-C2-018500 CCI-001084 MEDIUM The DBMS must isolate security functions from non-security functions by means of separate security domains. Security functions are defined as "the hardware, software, and/or firmware of the information system responsible for enforcing the system security policy and supporting the isolation of code and data on which the protection is based". Developers and impl
    SV-219783r397765_rule O112-C2-018900 CCI-001090 MEDIUM The DBMS must prevent unauthorized and unintended information transfer via shared system resources. The purpose of this control is to prevent information, including encrypted representations of information, produced by the actions of a prior user/role (or the actions of a process acting on behalf of a prior user/role) from being available to any current
    SV-219784r397834_rule O112-C2-019500 CCI-001310 MEDIUM The DBMS must check the validity of data inputs. Invalid user input occurs when a user inserts data or characters into an application's data entry fields and the application is unprepared to process that data. This results in unanticipated application behavior, potentially leading to an application or i
    SV-219785r397843_rule O112-C2-019900 CCI-001312 MEDIUM The DBMS must only generate error messages that provide information necessary for corrective actions without revealing organization-defined sensitive or potentially harmful information in error logs and administrative messages that could be exploited. Any application providing too much information in error logs and in administrative messages to the screen risks compromising the data and security of the application and system. The structure and content of error messages needs to be carefully considered
    SV-219786r397846_rule O112-C2-020000 CCI-001314 MEDIUM The DBMS must restrict error messages, so only authorized personnel may view them. If the application provides too much information in error logs and administrative messages to the screen, this could lead to compromise. The structure and content of error messages need to be carefully considered by the organization and development team.
    SV-219787r397603_rule O112-N1-015601 CCI-000206 HIGH Applications must obscure feedback of authentication information during the authentication process to protect the information from possible exploitation/use by unauthorized individuals. To prevent the compromise of authentication information, such as passwords, during the authentication process, the feedback from the information system shall not provide any information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise the authenticatio
    SV-219788r397603_rule O112-N1-015602 CCI-000206 HIGH When using command-line tools such as Oracle SQL*Plus, which can accept a plain-text password, users must use an alternative login method that does not expose the password. The SRG states: "To prevent the compromise of authentication information, such as passwords, during the authentication process, the feedback from the information system shall not provide any information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise
    SV-219789r395805_rule O112-N2-008601 CCI-000140 MEDIUM Disk space used by audit trail(s) must be monitored; audit records must be regularly or continuously offloaded to a centralized log management system. It is critical when a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required; it detects and takes action to mitigate the failure. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors, failures in the audit capturing mechanisms, and audit
    SV-219790r395850_rule O112-OS-010700 CCI-001499 MEDIUM Database software, applications, and configuration files must be monitored to discover unauthorized changes. Any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. If the system were to allow any user to make changes to softwar
    SV-219791r395850_rule O112-OS-010710 CCI-001499 MEDIUM Logic modules within the database (to include packages, procedures, functions and triggers) must be monitored to discover unauthorized changes. Any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. This includes the logic modules implemented within the database
    SV-219792r395850_rule O112-P2-010800 CCI-001499 MEDIUM The DBMS software installation account must be restricted to authorized users. When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted, any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. I
    SV-219793r395850_rule O112-P2-010900 CCI-001499 MEDIUM Database software directories, including DBMS configuration files, must be stored in dedicated directories, or DASD pools, separate from the host OS and other applications. When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted, any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. M
    SV-219794r395859_rule O112-P2-012800 CCI-000764 MEDIUM The DBMS must uniquely identify and authenticate organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of organizational users). To assure accountability and prevent unauthorized access, organizational users shall be identified and authenticated. Organizational users include organizational employees or individuals the organization deems to have equivalent status of employees (e.g
    SV-219795r397609_rule O112-P2-015800 CCI-000804 MEDIUM The DBMS must uniquely identify and authenticate non-organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of non-organizational users). Non-organizational users include all information system users other than organizational users which include organizational employees or individuals the organization deems to have equivalent status of employees (e.g., contractors, guest researchers, indivi
    SV-219796r397711_rule O112-P2-017300 CCI-001082 MEDIUM The DBMS must separate user functionality (including user interface services) from database management functionality. Information system management functionality includes functions necessary to administer databases, network components, workstations, or servers, and typically requires privileged user access. The separation of user functionality from information system m
    SV-219797r395691_rule O112-P3-006200 CCI-000166 LOW The DBMS must protect against an individual using a group account from falsely denying having performed a particular action. Non-repudiation of actions taken is required in order to maintain application integrity. Examples of particular actions taken by individuals include creating information, sending a message, approving information (e.g., indicating concurrence or signing a
    SV-237753r667296_rule O112-BP-024750 CCI-002605 MEDIUM Oracle database products must be a version supported by the vendor. Unsupported commercial and database systems should not be used because fixes to newly identified bugs will not be implemented by the vendor. The lack of support can result in potential vulnerabilities. Systems at unsupported servicing levels or releases w
    SV-238431r667467_rule O112-C1-004500 CCI-000366 HIGH DBA OS accounts must be granted only those host system privileges necessary for the administration of the DBMS. This requirement is intended to limit exposure due to operating from within a privileged account or role. The inclusion of role is intended to address those situations where an access control policy, such as Role Based Access Control (RBAC), is being impl
    SV-238432r667470_rule O112-C1-011100 CCI-002605 HIGH Vendor-supported software must be evaluated and patched against newly found vulnerabilities. Security faults with software applications and operating systems are discovered daily. Vendors are constantly updating and patching their products to address newly discovered security vulnerabilities. Organizations (including any contractor to the organiz
    SV-238433r667473_rule O112-C1-015000 CCI-000366 HIGH DBMS default accounts must be assigned custom passwords. Password maximum lifetime is the maximum period of time, (typically in days) a user's password may be in effect before the user is forced to change it. Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals as per policy. Any password, no matte
    SV-238434r667476_rule O112-C1-019700 CCI-002420 HIGH The DBMS must employ cryptographic mechanisms preventing the unauthorized disclosure of information during transmission unless the transmitted data is otherwise protected by alternative physical measures. Preventing the disclosure of transmitted information requires that applications take measures to employ some form of cryptographic mechanism in order to protect the information during transmission. This is usually achieved through the use of Transport Lay
    SV-238435r667479_rule O112-C2-001700 CCI-000382 MEDIUM The DBMS must support the disabling of network protocols deemed by the organization to be non-secure. This requirement is related to remote access, but more specifically to the networking protocols allowing systems to communicate. Remote access is any access to an organizational information system by a user (or an information system) communicating through
    SV-238436r667482_rule O112-C2-001900 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The DBMS must provide a mechanism to automatically identify accounts designated as temporary or emergency accounts. Temporary application accounts could be used in the event of a vendor support visit where a support representative requires a temporary unique account in order to perform diagnostic testing or conduct some other support-related activity. When these types
    SV-238437r667485_rule O112-C2-002000 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The DBMS must provide a mechanism to automatically terminate accounts designated as temporary or emergency accounts after an organization-defined time period. Temporary application accounts could ostensibly be used in the event of a vendor support visit where a support representative requires a temporary unique account in order to perform diagnostic testing or conduct some other support related activity. When t
    SV-238438r667488_rule O112-C2-003000 CCI-002165 MEDIUM The DBMS must enforce Discretionary Access Control (DAC) policy allowing users to specify and control sharing by named individuals, groups of individuals, or by both, limiting propagation of access rights and includes or excludes access to the granularity of a single user. Access control policies (e.g., identity-based policies, role-based policies, attribute-based policies) and access enforcement mechanisms (e.g., access control lists, access control matrices, cryptography) are employed by organizations to control access be
    SV-238439r667491_rule O112-C2-003500 CCI-000213 MEDIUM The DBMS must restrict grants to sensitive information to authorized user roles. Applications employ the concept of least privilege for specific duties and information systems (including specific functions, ports, protocols, and services). The concept of least privilege is also applied to information system processes, ensuring that th
    SV-238440r667494_rule O112-C2-003600 CCI-000366 MEDIUM A single database connection configuration file must not be used to configure all database clients. Applications employ the concept of least privilege for specific duties and information systems (including specific functions, ports, protocols, and services). The concept of least privilege is also applied to information system processes, ensuring that th
    SV-238441r667497_rule O112-C2-003700 CCI-001499 MEDIUM The DBMS must be protected from unauthorized access by developers. Applications employ the concept of least privilege for specific duties and information systems (including specific functions, ports, protocols, and services). The concept of least privilege is also applied to information system processes, ensuring that th
    SV-238442r667500_rule O112-C2-003800 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The DBMS must be protected from unauthorized access by developers on shared production/development host systems. Applications employ the concept of least privilege for specific duties and information systems (including specific functions, ports, protocols, and services). The concept of least privilege is also applied to information system processes, ensuring that th
    SV-238443r667503_rule O112-C2-003900 CCI-001090 MEDIUM The DBMS must restrict access to system tables and other configuration information or metadata to DBAs or other authorized users. Applications employ the concept of least privilege for specific duties and information systems (including specific functions, ports, protocols, and services). The concept of least privilege is also applied to information system processes, ensuring that th
    SV-238444r667506_rule O112-C2-004000 CCI-001499 MEDIUM Administrative privileges must be assigned to database accounts via database roles. Applications employ the concept of least privilege for specific duties and information systems (including specific functions, ports, protocols, and services). The concept of least privilege is also applied to information system processes, ensuring that th
    SV-238445r667509_rule O112-C2-004100 CCI-001084 MEDIUM Administrators must utilize a separate, distinct administrative account when performing administrative activities, accessing database security functions, or accessing security-relevant information. This requirement is intended to limit exposure due to operating from within a privileged account or role. The inclusion of role is intended to address those situations where an access control policy, such as Role Based Access Control (RBAC), is being impl
    SV-238446r667512_rule O112-C2-004300 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The DBA role must not be assigned excessive or unauthorized privileges. This requirement is intended to limit exposure due to operating from within a privileged account or role. The inclusion of role is intended to address those situations where an access control policy, such as Role Based Access Control (RBAC), is being impl
    SV-238447r667515_rule O112-C2-004400 CCI-000381 MEDIUM OS accounts utilized to run external procedures called by the DBMS must have limited privileges. This requirement is intended to limit exposure due to operating from within a privileged account or role. The inclusion of role is intended to address those situations where an access control policy, such as Role Based Access Control (RBAC) is being imple
    SV-238448r667518_rule O112-C2-004900 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The DBMS must specify an account lockout duration that is greater than or equal to the organization-approved minimum. Anytime an authentication method is exposed, to allow for the utilization of an application, there is a risk that attempts will be made to obtain unauthorized access. To defeat these attempts, organizations define the number of times a user account may c
    SV-238449r667521_rule O112-C2-005000 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The DBMS must have the capability to limit the number of failed login attempts based upon an organization-defined number of consecutive invalid attempts occurring within an organization-defined time period. Anytime an authentication method is exposed, to allow for the utilization of an application, there is a risk that attempts will be made to obtain unauthorized access. To defeat these attempts, organizations define the number of times a user account may
    SV-238450r667524_rule O112-C2-006600 CCI-002165 MEDIUM Databases utilizing Discretionary Access Control (DAC) must enforce a policy that limits propagation of access rights. Discretionary Access Control (DAC) is based on the premise that individual users are "owners" of objects and therefore have discretion over who should be authorized to access the object and in which mode (e.g., read or write). Ownership is usually acquire
    SV-238451r667527_rule O112-C2-006700 CCI-002165 MEDIUM A DBMS utilizing Discretionary Access Control (DAC) must enforce a policy that includes or excludes access to the granularity of a single user. DAC is based on the notion that individual users are "owners" of objects and therefore have discretion over who should be authorized to access the object and in which mode (e.g., read or write). Ownership is usually acquired as a consequence of creating t
    SV-238452r667530_rule O112-C2-008200 CCI-001855 MEDIUM The DBMS itself, or the logging or alerting mechanism the application utilizes, must provide a warning when allocated audit record storage volume reaches an organization-defined percentage of maximum audit record storage capacity. It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors, failures in the audit capturing mechanisms, and audit storage capac
    SV-238453r667533_rule O112-C2-008300 CCI-001858 MEDIUM The DBMS must provide a real-time alert when organization-defined audit failure events occur. It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors, failures in the audit capturing mechanisms, and audit storage capac
    SV-238454r667536_rule O112-C2-010300 CCI-001813 MEDIUM The DBMS must support enforcement of logical access restrictions associated with changes to the DBMS configuration and to the database itself. When dealing with access restrictions pertaining to change control, it should be noted any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can have significant effects on the overall security of t
    SV-238455r667539_rule O112-C2-012300 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Database backup procedures must be defined, documented, and implemented. Information system backup is a critical step in maintaining data assurance and availability. User-level information is data generated by information system and/or application users. In order to assure availability of this data in the event of a system f
    SV-238456r667542_rule O112-C2-012400 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Database recovery procedures must be developed, documented, implemented, and periodically tested. Information system backup is a critical step in maintaining data assurance and availability. User-level information is data generated by information system and/or application users. In order to assure availability of this data in the event of a system f
    SV-238457r667545_rule O112-C2-012500 CCI-001090 MEDIUM DBMS backup and restoration files must be protected from unauthorized access. Information system backup is a critical step in maintaining data assurance and availability. User-level information is data generated by information system and/or application users. In order to assure availability of this data in the event of a system f
    SV-238458r667548_rule O112-C2-012900 CCI-000765 HIGH The DBMS must use multifactor authentication for access to user accounts. Multifactor authentication is defined as using two or more factors to achieve authentication. Factors include: (i) Something a user knows (e.g., password/PIN); (ii) Something a user has (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or (iii) Somet
    SV-238459r667551_rule O112-C2-013300 CCI-000764 MEDIUM The DBMS must ensure users are authenticated with an individual authenticator prior to using a group authenticator. To assure individual accountability and prevent unauthorized access, application users (and any processes acting on behalf of users) must be individually identified and authenticated. A group authenticator is a generic account used by multiple individu
    SV-238460r667554_rule O112-C2-013800 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The DBMS must disable user accounts after 35 days of inactivity. Attackers that are able to exploit an inactive DBMS account can potentially obtain and maintain undetected access to the database. Owners of inactive DBMS accounts will not notice if unauthorized access to their user account has been obtained. All DBMS
    SV-238461r667557_rule O112-C2-013900 CCI-000192 MEDIUM The DBMS must support organizational requirements to enforce minimum password length. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. To meet password policy requirements, passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals. If the
    SV-238462r667560_rule O112-C2-014000 CCI-000192 MEDIUM The DBMS must support organizational requirements to prohibit password reuse for the organization-defined number of generations. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. To meet password policy requirements, passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals. If the
    SV-238463r667563_rule O112-C2-014100 CCI-000192 MEDIUM The DBMS must support organizational requirements to enforce password complexity by the number of upper-case characters used. Password complexity or strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more comple
    SV-238464r667566_rule O112-C2-014200 CCI-000192 MEDIUM The DBMS must support organizational requirements to enforce password complexity by the number of lower-case characters used. Password complexity or strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more comple
    SV-238465r667569_rule O112-C2-014300 CCI-000192 MEDIUM The DBMS must support organizational requirements to enforce password complexity by the number of numeric characters used. Password complexity or strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more comple
    SV-238466r667572_rule O112-C2-014400 CCI-000192 MEDIUM The DBMS must support organizational requirements to enforce password complexity by the number of special characters used. Password complexity or strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more comple
    SV-238467r667575_rule O112-C2-014500 CCI-000192 MEDIUM The DBMS must support organizational requirements to enforce the number of characters that get changed when passwords are changed. Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals. If the information system or application allows the user to consecutively reuse extensive portions of their password when they change their password, the end result is a password that has n
    SV-238468r667578_rule O112-C2-014900 CCI-000192 MEDIUM Procedures for establishing temporary passwords that meet DoD password requirements for new accounts must be defined, documented, and implemented. Password maximum lifetime is the maximum period of time, (typically in days) a user's password may be in effect before the user is forced to change it. Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals as per policy. Any password, no matte
    SV-238469r667581_rule O112-C2-015100 CCI-000366 MEDIUM DBMS passwords must not be stored in compiled, encoded, or encrypted batch jobs or compiled, encoded, or encrypted application source code. Password maximum lifetime is the maximum period of time, (typically in days) a user's password may be in effect before the user is forced to change it. Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals as per policy. Any password, no matte
    SV-238470r708144_rule O112-C2-015200 CCI-000192 MEDIUM The DBMS must enforce password maximum lifetime restrictions. Password maximum lifetime is the maximum period of time, (typically in days) a user's password may be in effect before the user is forced to change it. Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals as per policy. Any password, no matter
    SV-238471r667587_rule O112-C2-016000 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The DBMS must employ cryptographic mechanisms to protect the integrity and confidentiality of non-local maintenance and diagnostic communications. Non-local maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network. The act of managing systems and applications includes
    SV-238472r667590_rule O112-C2-016100 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The DBMS must employ strong identification and authentication techniques when establishing non-local maintenance and diagnostic sessions. Non-local maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network. The act of managing systems and applications includes
    SV-238473r667593_rule O112-C2-016500 CCI-002361 MEDIUM The DBMS must terminate the network connection associated with a communications session at the end of the session or after 15 minutes of inactivity. Non-local maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network. The act of managing systems and applications includes t
    SV-238474r667596_rule O112-C2-016600 CCI-000803 MEDIUM The DBMS must implement required cryptographic protections using cryptographic modules complying with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Use of cryptography to provide confidentiality and non-repudiation is not effective unless strong methods are employed. Many earlier encryption methods and modules have been broken and/or overtaken by increasing computing power. The NIST FIPS 140-2 crypto
    SV-238475r667599_rule O112-C2-016700 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Database data files containing sensitive information must be encrypted. Cryptography is only as strong as the encryption modules/algorithms employed to encrypt the data. Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. Data files that are not encrypted are vuln
    SV-238476r667602_rule O112-C2-018600 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The DBMS must automatically terminate emergency accounts after an organization-defined time period for each type of account. Emergency application accounts are typically created due to an unforeseen operational event or could ostensibly be used in the event of a vendor support visit where a support representative requires a temporary unique account in order to perform diagnosti
    SV-238477r667605_rule O112-C2-019100 CCI-000054 MEDIUM The DBMS must protect against or limit the effects of the organization-defined types of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A variety of technologies exist to limit, or in some cases, eliminate the effects of DoS attacks. For example, boundary protection devices can filter certain types of packets to protect devices on an organization's internal network from being directly aff
    SV-238478r667608_rule O112-C2-019600 CCI-001499 MEDIUM The DBMS must verify there have not been unauthorized changes to the DBMS software and information. Organizations are required to employ integrity verification applications on information systems to look for evidence of information tampering, errors, and omissions. The organization is also required to employ good software engineering practices with rega
    SV-238479r667611_rule O112-C2-020300 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The DBMS must support taking organization-defined list of least disruptive actions to terminate suspicious events. System availability is a key tenet of system security. Organizations need to have the flexibility to be able to define the automated actions taken in response to an identified incident. This includes being able to define a least disruptive action the appl
    SV-238480r667614_rule O112-OS-004600 CCI-001499 MEDIUM Use of the DBMS software installation account must be restricted. This requirement is intended to limit exposure due to operating from within a privileged account or role. The inclusion of role is intended to address those situations where an access control policy, such as Role Based Access Control (RBAC), is being impl
    SV-238481r667617_rule O112-OS-011200 CCI-001499 MEDIUM The OS must limit privileges to change the DBMS software resident within software libraries (including privileged programs). When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted, any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. If