Network Device Management Security Requirements Guide

U_Network_Device_Management_V2R3_Manual-xccdf.xml

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V2R3 2015-09-28      
Update existing CKLs to this version of the STIG
The Network Device Management Security Requirements Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the NIST 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via e-mail to the following address: [email protected]
Vuln Rule Version CCI Severity Title Description
SV-69273r1_rule SRG-APP-000001-NDM-000200 CCI-000054 MEDIUM The network device must limit the number of concurrent sessions to an organization-defined number for each administrator account and/or administrator account type. Device management includes the ability to control the number of administrators and management sessions that manage a device. Limiting the number of allowed administrators and sessions per administrator is helpful in limiting risks related to DoS attacks. This requirement addresses concurrent sessions for administrative accounts and does not address concurrent sessions by a single administrator via multiple administrative accounts. The maximum number of concurrent sessions should be defined based upon mission needs and the operational environment for each system.
SV-69275r1_rule SRG-APP-000002-NDM-000201 CCI-000060 MEDIUM The network device must conceal, via the session lock, information previously visible on the display with a publicly viewable image. A session lock is a temporary network device or administrator-initiated action taken when the administrator stops work but does not log out of the network device. The network management session lock event must include an obfuscation of the display screen to prevent other users from reading what was previously displayed. Permitted publicly viewable images can include static or dynamic images, for example, patterns used with screen savers, photographic images, solid colors, a clock, or a blank screen, with the additional caveat that none of the images convey sensitive information.
SV-69277r1_rule SRG-APP-000003-NDM-000202 CCI-000057 MEDIUM The network device must initiate a session lock after a 15-minute period of inactivity. A session lock is a temporary network device or administrator-initiated action taken when the administrator stops work but does not log out of the network device. Rather than relying on the user to manually lock their management session prior to vacating the vicinity, network devices need to be able to identify when a management session has idled and take action to initiate the session lock. Once invoked, the session lock shall remain in place until the administrator re-authenticates. No other system activity aside from re-authentication shall unlock the management session. Note that CCI-001133 requires that administrative network sessions be disconnected after 10 minutes of idle time. So this requirement may only apply to local administrative sessions.
SV-69279r2_rule SRG-APP-000004-NDM-000203 CCI-000058 MEDIUM The application or console being used to administer a network device must provide the capability for network administrators to directly initiate a session lock. A session lock is a temporary network device or administrator-initiated action taken when the administrator stops work but does not log out of the network device. Rather than being forced to wait for a period of time to expire before the management session can be locked, network management consoles need to provide administrators with the ability to manually invoke a session lock so they may secure their management session should the need arise for them to temporarily vacate the immediate physical vicinity of the management workstation. Once invoked, the session lock shall remain in place until the administrator re-authenticates. No other system activity aside from re-authentication shall unlock the management session. The session lock is implemented at the point where session activity can be determined. This is typically at the operating system-level, but may be at the application-level. The session lock is initiated and controlled by either the client application or the workstation being used to access a network element. Many terminal emulation clients implement this capability through software flow control or XOFF/XON flow control. If this capability is not available, administrators must terminate all management sessions before leaving their management console or workstation. This includes closing any views or windows from those sessions.
SV-69281r1_rule SRG-APP-000005-NDM-000204 CCI-000056 MEDIUM The network device must retain the session lock until the administrator reestablishes access using established identification and authentication procedures. A session lock is a temporary network device or administrator-initiated action taken when the administrator stops work but does not log out of the network device. Once invoked, the session lock shall remain in place until the administrator re-authenticates. No other system activity aside from re-authentication shall unlock the management session.
SV-69283r1_rule SRG-APP-000023-NDM-000205 CCI-000015 MEDIUM The network device must provide automated support for account management functions. Account management functions include: assignment of group or role membership; identifying account type; specifying user access authorizations (i.e., privileges); account removal, update, or termination; and administrative alerts. The network device must be configured to automatically provide account management functions, and these functions must immediately enforce the organization's current account policy. All accounts used for access to the network device are privileged or system-level accounts. Therefore, if account management functions are not automatically enforced, an attacker could gain privileged access to a vital element of the network security architecture. This control does not include emergency administration accounts that provide access to the network device components in case of network failure. There must be only one such locally defined account. All other accounts must be defined. All other accounts must be created and managed on the site's authentication server (e.g., RADIUS, LDAP, or Active Directory). This requirement is applicable to account management functions provided by the network device application. If the function is provided by the underlying OS or an authentication server, it must be secured using the applicable security guide or STIG.
SV-69285r1_rule SRG-APP-000024-NDM-000206 CCI-000016 MEDIUM The network device must automatically remove or disable temporary user accounts after 72 hours. Temporary accounts are established as part of normal account activation procedures when there is a need for short-term accounts without the demand for immediacy in account activation. If temporary accounts remain active when no longer needed, they may be used to gain unauthorized access. The risk is greater for the network device since these accounts have elevated privileges. To mitigate this risk, automated termination of all temporary accounts must be set upon account creation.
SV-69287r1_rule SRG-APP-000025-NDM-000207 CCI-000017 MEDIUM The network device must automatically disable accounts after a 35-day period of account inactivity. Since the accounts in the network device are privileged or system-level accounts, account management is vital to the security of the network device. Inactive accounts could be reactivated or compromised by unauthorized users, allowing exploitation of vulnerabilities and undetected access to the network device. This control does not include emergency administration accounts, which are meant for access to the network device components in case of network failure.
SV-69289r1_rule SRG-APP-000026-NDM-000208 CCI-000018 MEDIUM The network device must automatically audit account creation. Upon gaining access to a network device, an attacker will often first attempt to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is to create a new account. Notification of account creation helps to mitigate this risk. Auditing account creation provides the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. Without this audit trail, personnel without the proper authorization may gain access to critical network nodes.
SV-69291r1_rule SRG-APP-000027-NDM-000209 CCI-001403 MEDIUM The network device must automatically audit account modification. Since the accounts in the network device are privileged or system-level accounts, account management is vital to the security of the network device. Account management by a designated authority ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel with the appropriate and necessary privileges. Auditing account modification along with an automatic notification to appropriate individuals will provide the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. If modifications to management accounts are not audited, reconciliation of account management procedures cannot be tracked.
SV-69293r1_rule SRG-APP-000028-NDM-000210 CCI-001404 MEDIUM The network device must automatically audit account disabling actions. Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account disabling actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are disabled, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.
SV-69295r1_rule SRG-APP-000029-NDM-000211 CCI-001405 MEDIUM The network device must automatically audit account removal actions. Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account removal actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are terminated, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.
SV-69297r1_rule SRG-APP-000033-NDM-000212 CCI-000213 MEDIUM The network device must enforce the assigned privilege level for each administrator and authorizations for access to all commands relative to the privilege level in accordance with applicable policy for the device. To mitigate the risk of unauthorized access to sensitive information by entities that have been issued certificates by DoD-approved PKIs, all DoD systems must be properly configured to incorporate access control methods that do not rely solely on the possession of a certificate for access. Successful authentication must not automatically give an entity access to an asset or security boundary. Authorization procedures and controls must be implemented to ensure each authenticated entity also has a validated and current authorization. Authorization is the process of determining whether an entity, once authenticated, is permitted to access a specific asset. Network devices use access control policies and enforcement mechanisms to implement this requirement. Access control policies include identity-based policies, role-based policies, and attribute-based policies. Access enforcement mechanisms include access control lists, access control matrices, and cryptography. These policies and mechanisms must be employed by the network device to control access between administrators (or processes acting on behalf of administrators) and objects (e.g., device commands, files, records, processes) in the network device.
SV-69299r1_rule SRG-APP-000038-NDM-000213 CCI-001368 MEDIUM The network device must enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the network device based on information flow control policies. A mechanism to detect and prevent unauthorized communication flow must be configured or provided as part of the system design. If management information flow is not enforced based on approved authorizations, the network device may become compromised. Information flow control regulates where management information is allowed to travel within a network device. The flow of all management information must be monitored and controlled so it does not introduce any unacceptable risk to the network device or data. Application-specific examples of enforcement occur in systems that employ rule sets or establish configuration settings that restrict information system services or message-filtering capability based on message content (e.g., implementing key word searches or using document characteristics). Applications providing information flow control must be able to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the system in accordance with applicable policy.
SV-69301r1_rule SRG-APP-000065-NDM-000214 CCI-000044 MEDIUM The network device must enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts by a user during a 15-minute time period. By limiting the number of failed login attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced.
SV-69303r1_rule SRG-APP-000068-NDM-000215 CCI-000048 MEDIUM The network device must display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access to the device. Display of the DoD-approved use notification before granting access to the network device ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. System use notifications are required only for access via logon interfaces with human users.
SV-69305r1_rule SRG-APP-000069-NDM-000216 CCI-000050 MEDIUM The network device must retain the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner on the screen until the administrator acknowledges the usage conditions and takes explicit actions to log on for further access. The banner must be acknowledged by the administrator prior to allowing the administrator access to the network device. This provides assurance that the administrator has seen the message and accepted the conditions for access. If the consent banner is not acknowledged by the administrator, DoD will not be in compliance with system use notifications required by law. To establish acceptance of the network administration policy, a click-through banner at management session logon is required. The device must prevent further activity until the administrator executes a positive action to manifest agreement by clicking on a box indicating "OK".
SV-69307r1_rule SRG-APP-000075-NDM-000217 CCI-000052 MEDIUM Upon successful login, the network device must notify the administrator of the date and time of the last login. Administrators need to be aware of activity that occurs regarding their network device management account. Providing administrators with information regarding the date and time of their last successful login allows them to determine if any unauthorized activity has occurred. This incorporates all methods of login, including, but not limited to, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, and physical connectivity.
SV-69309r1_rule SRG-APP-000076-NDM-000218 CCI-000053 MEDIUM Upon successful login, the network device must notify the administrator of the number of unsuccessful login attempts since the last successful login. Administrators need to be aware of activity that occurs regarding their network device management account. Providing administrators with information regarding the number of unsuccessful attempts made to login to their account allows them to determine if any unauthorized activity has occurred. Without this information, the administrator may not be aware that unauthorized activity has occurred. This incorporates all methods of login, including, but not limited to, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, and physical connectivity.
SV-69311r1_rule SRG-APP-000079-NDM-000219 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must notify the administrator of changes to access and/or privilege parameters of the administrators account that occurred since the last logon. Providing administrators with information regarding security-related changes to their account allows them to determine if any unauthorized activity has occurred. Changes to the account could be an indication of the account being compromised. Hence, without notification to the administrator, the compromise could go undetected if other controls were not in place to mitigate this risk.
SV-69313r1_rule SRG-APP-000343-NDM-000289 CCI-002234 MEDIUM The network device must audit the execution of privileged functions. Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised information system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider threats and the advanced persistent threat.
SV-69315r1_rule SRG-APP-000345-NDM-000290 CCI-002238 MEDIUM The network device must automatically lock the account until the locked account is released by an administrator when three unsuccessful login attempts in 15 minutes are exceeded. By limiting the number of failed login attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.
SV-69317r1_rule SRG-APP-000346-NDM-000291 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must notify the administrator, upon successful logon (access), of the location of last logon (terminal or IP address) in addition to the date and time of the last logon (access). Administrators need to be aware of activity that occurs regarding their account. Providing them with information deemed important by the organization may aid in the discovery of unauthorized access or thwart a potential attacker. Organizations should consider the risks to the specific information system being accessed and the threats presented by the device to the environment when configuring this option. An excessive or unnecessary amount of information presented to the administrator at logon is not recommended.
SV-69319r1_rule SRG-APP-000353-NDM-000292 CCI-001914 MEDIUM The network device must provide the capability for organization-identified individuals or roles to change the auditing to be performed based on all selectable event criteria within near-real-time. If authorized individuals do not have the ability to modify auditing parameters in response to a changing threat environment, the organization may not be able to effectively respond, and important forensic information may be lost. This requirement enables organizations to extend or limit auditing as necessary to meet organizational requirements. Auditing that is limited to conserve information system resources may be extended to address certain threat situations. In addition, auditing may be limited to a specific set of events to facilitate audit reduction, analysis, and reporting. Organizations can establish time thresholds in which audit actions are changed, for example, near-real-time, within minutes, or within hours. The individuals or roles to change the auditing are dependent on the security configuration of the network device--for example, it may be configured to allow only some administrators to change the auditing, while other administrators can review audit logs but not reconfigure auditing. Because this capability is so powerful, organizations should be extremely cautious about only granting this capability to fully authorized security personnel.
SV-69321r1_rule SRG-APP-000357-NDM-000293 CCI-001849 MEDIUM The network device must allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements. In order to ensure network devices have a sufficient storage capacity in which to write the audit logs, they need to be able to allocate audit record storage capacity. The task of allocating audit record storage capacity is usually performed during initial device setup if it is modifiable. The value for the organization-defined audit record storage requirement will depend on the amount of storage available on the network device, the anticipated volume of logs, the frequency of transfer from the network device to centralized log servers, and other factors.
SV-69323r1_rule SRG-APP-000359-NDM-000294 CCI-001855 MEDIUM The network device must generate an immediate alert when allocated audit record storage volume reaches 75% of repository maximum audit record storage capacity. If security personnel are not notified immediately upon storage volume utilization reaching 75%, they are unable to plan for storage capacity expansion. This could lead to the loss of audit information. Note that while the network device must generate the alert, notification may be done by a management server.
SV-69325r1_rule SRG-APP-000360-NDM-000295 CCI-001858 MEDIUM The network device must generate an immediate real-time alert of all audit failure events requiring real-time alerts. It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without a real-time alert, security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability and system operation may be adversely affected. Alerts provide organizations with urgent messages. Real-time alerts provide these messages immediately (i.e., the time from event detection to alert occurs in seconds or less).
SV-69327r1_rule SRG-APP-000371-NDM-000296 CCI-001891 MEDIUM The network device must compare internal information system clocks at least every 24 hours with an authoritative time server. Inaccurate time stamps make it more difficult to correlate events and can lead to an inaccurate analysis. Determining the correct time a particular event occurred on a system is critical when conducting forensic analysis and investigating system events. Sources outside of the configured acceptable allowance (drift) may be inaccurate. Additionally, unnecessary synchronization may have an adverse impact on system performance and may indicate malicious activity. Synchronizing internal information system clocks provides uniformity of time stamps for information systems with multiple system clocks and systems connected over a network.
SV-69329r1_rule SRG-APP-000372-NDM-000297 CCI-002046 MEDIUM The network device must synchronize internal information system clocks to the authoritative time source when the time difference is greater than the organization-defined time period. Inaccurate time stamps make it more difficult to correlate events and can lead to an inaccurate analysis. Determining the correct time a particular event occurred on a system is critical when conducting forensic analysis and investigating system events. Synchronizing internal information system clocks provides uniformity of time stamps for information systems with multiple system clocks and systems connected over a network. Organizations should consider setting time periods for different types of systems (e.g., financial, legal, or mission-critical systems). Organizations should also consider endpoints that may not have regular access to the authoritative time server (e.g., mobile, teleworking, and tactical endpoints). This requirement is related to the comparison done every 24 hours in CCI-001891 because a comparison must be done in order to determine the time difference. The organization-defined time period will depend on multiple factors, most notably the granularity of time stamps in audit logs. For example, if time stamps only show to the nearest second, there is no need to have accuracy of a tenth of a second in clocks.
SV-69331r1_rule SRG-APP-000080-NDM-000220 CCI-000166 MEDIUM The network device must protect against an individual (or process acting on behalf of an individual) falsely denying having performed organization-defined actions to be covered by non-repudiation. This requirement supports non-repudiation of actions taken by an administrator and is required in order to maintain the integrity of the configuration management process. All configuration changes to the network device are logged, and administrators authenticate with two-factor authentication before gaining administrative access. Together, these processes will ensure the administrators can be held accountable for the configuration changes they implement. To meet this requirement, the network device must log administrator access and activity.
SV-69333r1_rule SRG-APP-000089-NDM-000221 CCI-000169 MEDIUM The network device must provide audit record generation capability for DoD-defined auditable events within the network device. Without the capability to generate audit records, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., process, module). Certain specific device functionalities may be audited as well. The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating audit records. DoD has defined the list of events for which the device will provide an audit record generation capability as the following: (i) Successful and unsuccessful attempts to access, modify, or delete privileges, security objects, security levels, or categories of information (e.g., classification levels); (ii) Access actions, such as successful and unsuccessful logon attempts, privileged activities or other system level access, starting and ending time for user access to the system, concurrent logons from different workstations, successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects, all program initiations, and all direct access to the information system; and (iii) All account creation, modification, disabling, and termination actions.
SV-69335r2_rule SRG-APP-000090-NDM-000222 CCI-000171 MEDIUM The network device must allow only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be audited. Without the capability to restrict which roles and individuals can select which events are audited, unauthorized personnel may be able to prevent the auditing of critical events. Misconfigured audits may degrade the system's performance by overwhelming the audit log. Misconfigured audits may also make it more difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one.
SV-69337r1_rule SRG-APP-000091-NDM-000223 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The network device must generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to access privileges occur. Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the information system (e.g., module or policy filter).
SV-69339r1_rule SRG-APP-000092-NDM-000224 CCI-001464 MEDIUM The network device must initiate session auditing upon startup. If auditing is enabled late in the startup process, the actions of some start-up processes may not be audited. Some audit systems also maintain state information only available if auditing is enabled before a given process is created.
SV-69341r1_rule SRG-APP-000095-NDM-000225 CCI-000130 MEDIUM The network device must produce audit log records containing sufficient information to establish what type of event occurred. It is essential for security personnel to know what is being done, what was attempted, where it was done, when it was done, and by whom it was done in order to compile an accurate risk assessment. Associating event types with detected events in the application and audit logs provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured network device. Without this capability, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events leading up to an outage or attack.
SV-69343r1_rule SRG-APP-000096-NDM-000226 CCI-000131 MEDIUM The network device must produce audit records containing information to establish when (date and time) the events occurred. It is essential for security personnel to know what is being done, what was attempted, where it was done, when it was done, and by whom it was done in order to compile an accurate risk assessment. Logging the date and time of each detected event provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured network device. In order to establish and correlate the series of events leading up to an outage or attack, it is imperative the date and time are recorded in all log records.
SV-69345r1_rule SRG-APP-000097-NDM-000227 CCI-000132 MEDIUM The network device must produce audit records containing information to establish where the events occurred. In order to compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, it is essential for security personnel to know where events occurred, such as device hardware components, device software modules, session identifiers, filenames, host names, and functionality. Associating information about where the event occurred within the network device provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured device.
SV-69347r1_rule SRG-APP-000142-NDM-000245 CCI-000382 MEDIUM The network device must be configured to prohibit the use of all unnecessary and/or nonsecure functions, ports, protocols, and/or services, as defined in the PPSM CAL and vulnerability assessments. In order to prevent unauthorized connection of devices, unauthorized transfer of information, or unauthorized tunneling (i.e., embedding of data types within data types), organizations must disable unused or unnecessary physical and logical ports/protocols on information systems. Network devices are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services provided by default may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations. Additionally, it is sometimes convenient to provide multiple services from a single component (e.g., email and web services); however, doing so increases risk over limiting the services provided by any one component. To support the requirements and principles of least functionality, the network device must support the organizational requirements providing only essential capabilities and limiting the use of ports, protocols, and/or services to only those required, authorized, and approved to conduct official business or to address authorized quality of life issues.
SV-69349r1_rule SRG-APP-000148-NDM-000246 CCI-000764 MEDIUM The network device must uniquely identify and authenticate organizational administrators (or processes acting on behalf of organizational administrators). To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, organizational administrators must be uniquely identified and authenticated for all network management accesses to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system.
SV-69351r1_rule SRG-APP-000149-NDM-000247 CCI-000765 MEDIUM The network device must use multifactor authentication for network access to privileged accounts. Multifactor authentication requires using two or more factors to achieve authentication. Factors include: (i) something a user knows (e.g., password/PIN); (ii) something a user has (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or (iii) something a user is (e.g., biometric). Without the use of multifactor authentication, the ease of access to privileged functions is greatly increased. Network access is defined as access to an information system by a user (or a process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through a network (e.g., local area network, wide area network, or the Internet).
SV-69353r1_rule SRG-APP-000151-NDM-000248 CCI-000767 MEDIUM The network device must use multifactor authentication for local access to privileged accounts. Multifactor authentication is defined as: using two or more factors to achieve authentication. Factors include: (i) Something a user knows (e.g., password/PIN); (ii) Something a user has (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or (iii) Something a user is (e.g., biometric). To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, privileged users must utilize multifactor authentication to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system. Local access is defined as access to an organizational information system by a user (or process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through a direct connection without the use of a network. Applications integrating with the DoD Active Directory and utilizing the DoD CAC are examples of compliant multifactor authentication solutions.
SV-69355r1_rule SRG-APP-000153-NDM-000249 CCI-000770 MEDIUM The network device must ensure administrators are authenticated with an individual authenticator prior to using a group authenticator. To assure individual accountability and prevent unauthorized access, administrators must be individually identified and authenticated. Individual accountability mandates that each administrator is uniquely identified. A group authenticator is a shared account or some other form of authentication that allows multiple unique individuals to access the network device using a single account. If a device allows or provides for group authenticators, it must first individually authenticate administrators prior to implementing group authenticator functionality. Some devices may not have the need to provide a group authenticator; this is considered a matter of device design. In those instances where the device design includes the use of a group authenticator, this requirement will apply. This requirement applies to accounts created and managed on or by the network device.
SV-69357r1_rule SRG-APP-000156-NDM-000250 CCI-001941 MEDIUM The network device must implement replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts. A replay attack may enable an unauthorized user to gain access to the application. Authentication sessions between the authenticator and the application validating the user credentials must not be vulnerable to a replay attack. An authentication process resists replay attacks if it is impractical to achieve a successful authentication by recording and replaying a previous authentication message. Techniques used to address this include protocols using nonces (e.g., numbers generated for a specific one-time use) or challenges (e.g., TLS, WS_Security). Additional techniques include time-synchronous or challenge-response one-time authenticators.
SV-69359r1_rule SRG-APP-000163-NDM-000251 CCI-000795 MEDIUM The network device must disable identifiers (individuals, groups, roles, and devices) after 35 days of inactivity. Inactive identifiers pose a risk to network devices. Attackers that are able to exploit an inactive identifier can potentially obtain and maintain undetected access to the device. Owners of inactive accounts will not notice if unauthorized access to their account has been obtained. Network devices need to track periods of inactivity and disable application identifiers after 35 days of inactivity.
SV-69361r1_rule SRG-APP-000164-NDM-000252 CCI-000205 MEDIUM The network device must enforce a minimum 15-character password length. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password length is one factor of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password. The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromise the password.
SV-69363r1_rule SRG-APP-000165-NDM-000253 CCI-000200 MEDIUM The network device must prohibit password reuse for a minimum of five generations. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. To meet password policy requirements, passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals. If the network device allows the user to consecutively reuse their password when that password has exceeded its defined lifetime, the end result is a password that is not changed as per policy requirements.
SV-69365r1_rule SRG-APP-000166-NDM-000254 CCI-000192 MEDIUM If multifactor authentication is not supported and passwords must be used, the network device must enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used. Use of a complex passwords helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password is, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
SV-69367r1_rule SRG-APP-000167-NDM-000255 CCI-000193 MEDIUM If multifactor authentication is not supported and passwords must be used, the network device must enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used. Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
SV-69369r1_rule SRG-APP-000168-NDM-000256 CCI-000194 MEDIUM If multifactor authentication is not supported and passwords must be used, the network device must enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used. Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
SV-69371r1_rule SRG-APP-000169-NDM-000257 CCI-001619 MEDIUM If multifactor authentication is not supported and passwords must be used, the network device must enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used. Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
SV-69373r1_rule SRG-APP-000170-NDM-000329 CCI-000195 MEDIUM If multifactor authentication is not supported and passwords must be used, the network device must require that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least 15 of the positions within the password. If the application allows the user to consecutively reuse extensive portions of passwords, this increases the chances of password compromise by increasing the window of opportunity for attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. The number of changed characters refers to the number of changes required with respect to the total number of positions in the current password. In other words, characters may be the same within the two passwords; however, the positions of the like characters must be different.
SV-69375r1_rule SRG-APP-000098-NDM-000228 CCI-000133 MEDIUM The network device must produce audit log records containing information to establish the source of events. In order to compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, it is essential for security personnel to know the source of the event. The source may be a component, module, or process within the device or an external session, administrator, or device. Associating information about where the source of the event occurred provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured device.
SV-69377r1_rule SRG-APP-000171-NDM-000258 CCI-000196 MEDIUM The network device must store only encrypted representations of passwords. Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Network devices must enforce password encryption when storing passwords.
SV-69379r1_rule SRG-APP-000172-NDM-000259 CCI-000197 MEDIUM The network device must transmit only encrypted representations of passwords. Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Network devices can accomplish this by making direct function calls to encryption modules or by leveraging operating system encryption capabilities.
SV-69381r1_rule SRG-APP-000173-NDM-000260 CCI-000198 MEDIUM The network device must enforce 24 hours/1 day as the minimum password lifetime. Enforcing a minimum password lifetime helps prevent repeated password changes to defeat the password reuse or history enforcement requirement. Restricting this setting limits the user's ability to change their password. Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals; however, if the network device allows the user to immediately and continually change their password, then the password could be repeatedly changed in a short period of time to defeat the organization's policy regarding password reuse.
SV-69383r1_rule SRG-APP-000099-NDM-000229 CCI-000134 MEDIUM The network device must produce audit records that contain information to establish the outcome of the event. Without information about the outcome of events, security personnel cannot make an accurate assessment as to whether an attack was successful or if changes were made to the security state of the system. Event outcomes can include indicators of event success or failure and event-specific results (e.g., the security state of the device after the event occurred). As such, they also provide a means to measure the impact of an event and help authorized personnel to determine the appropriate response.
SV-69385r1_rule SRG-APP-000174-NDM-000261 CCI-000199 MEDIUM The network device must enforce a 60-day maximum password lifetime restriction. Any password, no matter how complex, can eventually be cracked. Therefore, passwords need to be changed at specific intervals. One method of minimizing this risk is to use complex passwords and periodically change them. If the network device does not limit the lifetime of passwords and force users to change their passwords, there is the risk that the passwords could be compromised. This requirement does not include emergency administration accounts which are meant for access to the network device in case of failure. These accounts are not required to have maximum password lifetime restrictions.
SV-69387r1_rule SRG-APP-000175-NDM-000262 CCI-000185 MEDIUM The network device, when utilizing PKI-based authentication, must validate certificates by constructing a certification path (which includes status information) to an accepted trust anchor. Without path validation, an informed trust decision by the relying party cannot be made when presented with any certificate not already explicitly trusted. A trust anchor is an authoritative entity represented via a public key and associated data. It is used in the context of public key infrastructures, X.509 digital certificates, and DNSSEC. When there is a chain of trust, usually the top entity to be trusted becomes the trust anchor; it can be, for example, a Certification Authority (CA). A certification path starts with the subject certificate and proceeds through a number of intermediate certificates up to a trusted root certificate, typically issued by a trusted CA. This requirement verifies that a certification path to an accepted trust anchor is used for certificate validation and that the path includes status information. Path validation is necessary for a relying party to make an informed trust decision when presented with any certificate not already explicitly trusted. Status information for certification paths includes certificate revocation lists or online certificate status protocol responses. Validation of the certificate status information is out of scope for this requirement.
SV-69389r1_rule SRG-APP-000100-NDM-000230 CCI-001487 MEDIUM The network device must generate audit records containing information that establishes the identity of any individual or process associated with the event. Without information that establishes the identity of the subjects (i.e., administrators or processes acting on behalf of administrators) associated with the events, security personnel cannot determine responsibility for the potentially harmful event. Event identifiers (if authenticated or otherwise known) include, but are not limited to, user database tables, primary key values, user names, or process identifiers.
SV-69391r1_rule SRG-APP-000177-NDM-000263 CCI-000187 MEDIUM The network device must map the authenticated identity to the user account for PKI-based authentication. Authorization for access to any network device requires an approved and assigned individual account identifier. To ensure only the assigned individual is using the account, the account must be bound to a user certificate when PKI-based authentication is implemented.
SV-69393r1_rule SRG-APP-000101-NDM-000231 CCI-000135 MEDIUM The network device must generate audit records containing the full-text recording of privileged commands. Reconstruction of harmful events or forensic analysis is not possible if audit records do not contain enough information. Organizations consider limiting the additional audit information to only that information explicitly needed for specific audit requirements. The additional information required is dependent on the type of information (i.e., sensitivity of the data and the environment within which it resides). At a minimum, the organization must audit full-text recording of privileged commands. The organization must maintain audit trails in sufficient detail to reconstruct events to determine the cause and impact of compromise.
SV-69395r1_rule SRG-APP-000178-NDM-000264 CCI-000206 MEDIUM The network device must obscure feedback of authentication information during the authentication process to protect the information from possible exploitation/use by unauthorized individuals. To prevent the compromise of authentication information such as passwords during the authentication process, the feedback from the network device must not provide any information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise the authentication mechanism. Obfuscation of user-provided information when typed into the system is a method used in addressing this risk. For example, displaying asterisks when a user types in a password is an example of obscuring feedback of authentication information.
SV-69397r2_rule SRG-APP-000108-NDM-000232 CCI-000139 MEDIUM The network device must alert the ISSO and SA (at a minimum) in the event of an audit processing failure. It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without this notification, the security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability and system operation may be adversely affected. Audit processing failures include software/hardware errors, failures in the audit capturing mechanisms, and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded.
SV-69399r1_rule SRG-APP-000179-NDM-000265 CCI-000803 MEDIUM The network device must use mechanisms meeting the requirements of applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance for authentication to a cryptographic module. Unapproved mechanisms that are used for authentication to the cryptographic module are not verified and therefore cannot be relied upon to provide confidentiality or integrity, and DoD data may be compromised. Network devices utilizing encryption are required to use FIPS-compliant mechanisms for authenticating to cryptographic modules. FIPS 140-2 is the current standard for validating that mechanisms used to access cryptographic modules utilize authentication that meets DoD requirements.
SV-69401r1_rule SRG-APP-000186-NDM-000266 CCI-000879 MEDIUM The network device must terminate all sessions and network connections when nonlocal device maintenance is completed. If a device management session or connection remains open after management is completed, it may be hijacked by an attacker and used to compromise or damage the network device. Nonlocal device management and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network. In the event the remote node has abnormally terminated or an upstream link from the managed device is down, the management session will be terminated, thereby freeing device resources and eliminating any possibility of an unauthorized user being orphaned to an open idle session of the managed device.
SV-69403r1_rule SRG-APP-000109-NDM-000233 CCI-000140 MEDIUM The network device must shut down by default upon audit failure (unless availability is an overriding concern). It is critical that when the network device is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required, it take action to mitigate the failure. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors; failures in the audit capturing mechanisms; and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded. Responses to audit failure depend upon the nature of the failure mode. When availability is an overriding concern, other approved actions in response to an audit failure are as follows: (i) If the failure was caused by the lack of audit record storage capacity, the network device must continue generating audit records if possible (automatically restarting the audit service if necessary), overwriting the oldest audit records in a first-in-first-out manner. (ii) If audit records are sent to a centralized collection server and communication with this server is lost or the server fails, the network device must queue audit records locally until communication is restored or until the audit records are retrieved manually. Upon restoration of the connection to the centralized collection server, action should be taken to synchronize the local audit data with the collection server.
SV-69405r1_rule SRG-APP-000190-NDM-000267 CCI-001133 MEDIUM The network device must terminate all network connections associated with a device management session at the end of the session, or the session must be terminated after 10 minutes of inactivity except to fulfill documented and validated mission requirements. Terminating an idle session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been left unattended. In addition, quickly terminating an idle session will also free up resources committed by the managed network element. Terminating network connections associated with communications sessions includes, for example, de-allocating associated TCP/IP address/port pairs at the operating system level, or de-allocating networking assignments at the application level if multiple application sessions are using a single, operating system-level network connection. This does not mean that the device terminates all sessions or network access; it only ends the inactive session and releases the resources associated with that session.
SV-69407r1_rule SRG-APP-000220-NDM-000268 CCI-001185 MEDIUM The network device must invalidate session identifiers upon administrator logout or other session termination. Captured sessions can be reused in "replay" attacks. This requirement limits the ability of adversaries to capture and to continue to employ previously valid session IDs. This requirement is applicable to devices that use a web interface for device management. Session IDs are tokens generated by web applications to uniquely identify an application user's session. Applications will make application decisions and execute business logic based on the session ID. Unique session identifiers or IDs are the opposite of sequentially generated session IDs which can be easily guessed by an attacker. Unique session IDs help to reduce predictability of said identifiers. If a device uses a web interface for device management, when an administrator logs out, or when any other session termination event occurs, the device management web application must invalidate the session identifier to minimize the potential for an attacker to hijack that particular management session.
SV-69409r1_rule SRG-APP-000223-NDM-000269 CCI-001664 MEDIUM The network device must recognize only system-generated session identifiers. Network device management web interfaces utilize sessions and session identifiers to control management interface behavior and administrator access. If an attacker can guess the session identifier or can inject or manually insert session information, the session may be compromised. Unique session IDs address man-in-the-middle attacks, including session hijacking or insertion of false information into a session. If the attacker is unable to identify or guess the session information related to pending application traffic, they will have more difficulty in hijacking the session or otherwise manipulating valid sessions.
SV-69411r1_rule SRG-APP-000116-NDM-000234 CCI-000159 MEDIUM The network device must use internal system clocks to generate time stamps for audit records. In order to determine what is happening within the network infrastructure or to resolve and trace an attack, the network device must support the organization's capability to correlate the audit log data from multiple network devices to acquire a clear understanding of events. In order to correlate auditable events, time stamps are needed on all of the log records. If the internal clock is not used, the system may not be able to provide time stamps for log messages. Additionally, externally generated time stamps may not be accurate. Applications can use the capability of an operating system or purpose-built module for this purpose. (Note that the internal clock is required to be synchronized with authoritative time sources by other requirements.)
SV-69413r1_rule SRG-APP-000224-NDM-000270 CCI-001188 MEDIUM The network device must generate unique session identifiers using a FIPS 140-2 approved random number generator. Sequentially generated session IDs can be easily guessed by an attacker. Employing the concept of randomness in the generation of unique session identifiers helps to protect against brute-force attacks to determine future session identifiers. Unique session IDs address man-in-the-middle attacks, including session hijacking or insertion of false information into a session. If the attacker is unable to identify or guess the session information related to pending application traffic, they will have more difficulty in hijacking the session or otherwise manipulating valid sessions. This requirement is applicable to devices that use a web interface for device management.
SV-69415r1_rule SRG-APP-000118-NDM-000235 CCI-000162 MEDIUM The network device must protect audit information from any type of unauthorized read access. Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity. If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In addition, access to audit records provides information an attacker could use to his or her advantage. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the information system and/or the network device must protect audit information from any and all unauthorized read access. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods which will depend upon system architecture and design. Commonly employed methods for protecting audit information include least privilege permissions as well as restricting the location and number of log file repositories. Additionally, network devices with user interfaces to audit records should not allow for the unfettered manipulation of or access to those records via the device interface. If the device provides access to the audit data, the device becomes accountable for ensuring audit information is protected from unauthorized access.
SV-69417r2_rule SRG-APP-000231-NDM-000271 CCI-001199 MEDIUM The network device must only allow authorized administrators to view or change the device configuration, system files, and other files stored either in the device or on removable media (such as a flash drive). This requirement is intended to address the confidentiality and integrity of system information at rest (e.g., network device rule sets) when it is located on a storage device within the network device or as a component of the network device. This protection is required to prevent unauthorized alteration, corruption, or disclosure of information when not stored directly on the network device. Files on the network device or on removable media used by the device must have their permissions set to allow read or write access to those accounts that are specifically authorized to access or change them. Note that different administrative accounts or roles will have varying levels of access. File permissions must be set so that only authorized administrators can read or change their contents. Whenever files are written to removable media and the media removed from the device, the media must be handled appropriately for the classification and sensitivity of the data stored on the device.
SV-69419r1_rule SRG-APP-000119-NDM-000236 CCI-000163 MEDIUM The network device must protect audit information from unauthorized modification. Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit network device activity. If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized modification. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions and limiting log data locations. Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights that the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the modification of audit data.
SV-69421r2_rule SRG-APP-000234-NDM-000272 CCI-001682 MEDIUM The network device must automatically remove or disable emergency accounts, except the emergency administration account, after 72 hours. Emergency accounts are administrator accounts which are established in response to crisis situations where the need for rapid account activation is required. Therefore, emergency account activation may bypass normal account authorization processes. If emergency accounts remain active when no longer needed, they may be used to gain unauthorized access. The risk is greater for the network device since these accounts have elevated privileges. To mitigate this risk, automated termination of these accounts must be set upon account creation. It is important to note the difference between emergency accounts and the emergency administration account. The emergency administration account, also known as the account of last resort, is an infrequently used account used by network administrators only when network or normal logon/access is not available. The emergency administration account is not subject to automatic termination dates.
SV-69423r2_rule SRG-APP-000267-NDM-000273 CCI-001314 MEDIUM The application must reveal error messages only to authorized individuals (ISSO, ISSM, and SA). Only authorized personnel should be aware of errors and the details of the errors. Error messages are an indicator of an organization's operational state. Additionally, sensitive account information must not be revealed through error messages to unauthorized personnel or their designated representatives.
SV-69425r1_rule SRG-APP-000120-NDM-000237 CCI-000164 MEDIUM The network device must protect audit information from unauthorized deletion. Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity. If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized deletion. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include: ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions utilizing file system protections, restricting access, and backing up log data to ensure log data is retained. Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the deletion of audit data.
SV-69427r1_rule SRG-APP-000268-NDM-000274 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must activate a system alert message, send an alarm, and/or automatically shut down when a component failure is detected. Predictable failure prevention requires organizational planning to address device failure issues. If components key to maintaining the device's security fail to function, the device could continue operating in an insecure state. If appropriate actions are not taken when a network device failure occurs, a denial of service condition may occur which could result in mission failure since the network would be operating without a critical security monitoring and prevention function. Upon detecting a failure of network device security components, the network device must activate a system alert message, send an alarm, or shut down.
SV-69429r1_rule SRG-APP-000121-NDM-000238 CCI-001493 MEDIUM The network device must protect audit tools from unauthorized access. Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Therefore, protecting audit tools is necessary to prevent unauthorized operation on audit data. Network devices providing tools to interface with audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the tools and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the access to audit tools. Audit tools include, but are not limited to, vendor-provided and open source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records. Audit tools include custom queries and report generators.
SV-69431r1_rule SRG-APP-000291-NDM-000275 CCI-001683 MEDIUM The network device must generate alerts that can be forwarded to the administrators and IAO when accounts are created. Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply create a new account. Notification of account creation is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of accounts and notifies administrators and Information Assurance Officers (IAO). Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.
SV-69433r1_rule SRG-APP-000292-NDM-000276 CCI-001684 MEDIUM The network device must generate alerts that can be forwarded to the administrators and IAO when accounts are modified. Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply modify an existing account. Notification of account modification is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the modification of device administrator accounts and notifies administrators and Information Assurance Officers (IAO). Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously modified and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes. The network device must generate the alert. Notification may be done by a management server.
SV-69435r1_rule SRG-APP-000293-NDM-000277 CCI-001685 MEDIUM The network device must generate alerts that can be forwarded to the administrators and IAO when accounts are disabled. When application accounts are disabled, administrator accessibility is affected. Accounts are utilized for identifying individual device administrators or for identifying the device processes themselves. In order to detect and respond to events that affect administrator accessibility and device processing, devices must audit account disabling actions and, as required, notify the appropriate individuals so they can investigate the event. Such a capability greatly reduces the risk that device accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and also provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.
SV-69437r1_rule SRG-APP-000122-NDM-000239 CCI-001494 MEDIUM The network device must protect audit tools from unauthorized modification. Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Therefore, protecting audit tools is necessary to prevent unauthorized operation on audit data. Network devices providing tools to interface with audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the tools and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the access to audit tools. Audit tools include, but are not limited to, vendor-provided and open source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records. Audit tools include custom queries and report generators.
SV-69439r1_rule SRG-APP-000294-NDM-000278 CCI-001686 MEDIUM The network device must generate alerts that can be forwarded to the administrators and IAO when accounts are removed. When application accounts are removed, administrator accessibility is affected. Accounts are utilized for identifying individual device administrators or for identifying the device processes themselves. In order to detect and respond to events that affect administrator accessibility and device processing, devices must audit account removal actions and, as required, notify the appropriate individuals so they can investigate the event. Such a capability greatly reduces the risk that device accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and also provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.
SV-69441r1_rule SRG-APP-000295-NDM-000279 CCI-002361 MEDIUM The network device must automatically terminate a network administrator session after organization-defined conditions or trigger events requiring session disconnect. Automatic session termination addresses the termination of administrator-initiated logical sessions in contrast to the termination of network connections that are associated with communications sessions (i.e., network disconnect). A logical session (for local, network, and remote access) is initiated whenever an administrator (or process acting on behalf of a user) accesses a network device. Such administrator sessions can be terminated (and thus terminate network administrator access) without terminating network sessions. Session termination terminates all processes associated with an administrator's logical session except those processes that are specifically created by the administrator (i.e., session owner) to continue after the session is terminated. Conditions or trigger events requiring automatic session termination can include, for example, organization-defined periods of user inactivity, targeted responses to certain types of incidents, and time-of-day restrictions on information system use. These conditions will vary across environments and network device types.
SV-69443r1_rule SRG-APP-000296-NDM-000280 CCI-002363 MEDIUM Network devices must provide a logout capability for administrator-initiated communication sessions. If an administrator cannot explicitly end a device management session, the session may remain open and be exploited by an attacker; this is referred to as a zombie session.
SV-69445r1_rule SRG-APP-000297-NDM-000281 CCI-002364 MEDIUM The network device must display an explicit logout message to administrators indicating the reliable termination of authenticated communications sessions. If an explicit logout message is not displayed and the administrator does not expect to see one, the administrator may inadvertently leave a management session un-terminated. The session may remain open and be exploited by an attacker; this is referred to as a zombie session. Administrators need to be aware of whether or not the session has been terminated.
SV-69447r1_rule SRG-APP-000317-NDM-000282 CCI-002142 MEDIUM The network device must terminate shared/group account credentials when members leave the group. A shared/group account credential is a shared form of authentication that allows multiple individuals to access the network device using a single account. If shared/group account credentials are not terminated when individuals leave the group, the user that left the group can still gain access even though they are no longer authorized. There may also be instances when specific user actions need to be performed on the network device without unique administrator identification or authentication. Examples of credentials include passwords and group membership certificates.
SV-69449r1_rule SRG-APP-000319-NDM-000283 CCI-002130 MEDIUM The network device must automatically audit account enabling actions. Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply enable a new or disabled account. Notification of account enabling is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of application user accounts and notifies administrators and Information Assurance Officers (IAO). Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.
SV-69451r1_rule SRG-APP-000123-NDM-000240 CCI-001495 MEDIUM The network device must protect audit tools from unauthorized deletion. Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Therefore, protecting audit tools is necessary to prevent unauthorized operations on audit data. Network devices providing tools to interface with audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the tools and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the access to audit tools. Audit tools include, but are not limited to, vendor-provided and open source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records. Audit tools include custom queries and report generators.
SV-69453r2_rule SRG-APP-000320-NDM-000284 CCI-002132 MEDIUM The network device must notify System Administrators (SAs) and Information System Security Officers (ISSMs) when accounts are created, or enabled when previously disabled. Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply enable a new or disabled account. Notification of account enabling is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of application user accounts and notifies SAs and ISSMs. Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously enabled and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes. In order to detect and respond to events that affect network administrator accessibility and device processing, network devices must audit account enabling actions and, as required, notify the appropriate individuals so they can investigate the event.
SV-69455r1_rule SRG-APP-000125-NDM-000241 CCI-001348 MEDIUM The network device must back up audit records at least every seven days onto a different system or system component than the system or component being audited. Protection of log data includes assuring log data is not accidentally lost or deleted. Regularly backing up audit records to a different system or onto separate media than the system being audited helps to assure, in the event of a catastrophic system failure, the audit records will be retained. This helps to ensure a compromise of the information system being audited does not also result in a compromise of the audit records.
SV-69457r1_rule SRG-APP-000325-NDM-000285 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must transmit organization-defined access authorization information using organization-defined security safeguards to organization-defined information systems which enforce access control decisions. Protecting access authorization information (i.e., access control decisions) ensures that authorization information cannot be altered, spoofed, or otherwise compromised during transmission. In distributed information systems, authorization processes and access control decisions may occur in separate parts of the systems. In such instances, authorization information is transmitted securely so timely access control decisions can be enforced at the appropriate locations. To support the access control decisions, it may be necessary to transmit, as part of the access authorization information, supporting security attributes. This is because, in distributed information systems, there are various access control decisions that need to be made, and different entities (e.g., services) make these decisions in a serial fashion, each requiring some security attributes to make the decisions.
SV-69459r1_rule SRG-APP-000126-NDM-000242 CCI-001350 MEDIUM The network device must use cryptographic mechanisms to protect the integrity of audit information at rest. Audit records may be tampered with. If the integrity of audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. Protection of audit records and audit data, including audit configuration settings, is of critical importance. Cryptographic mechanisms are the industry-established standard used to protect the integrity of audit data. An example of a cryptographic mechanism is the computation and application of a cryptographic-signed hash using asymmetric cryptography. This requirement is not intended to cause a new cryptographic hash to be generated every time a record is added to a log file.
SV-69461r1_rule SRG-APP-000328-NDM-000286 CCI-002165 MEDIUM If the network device uses discretionary access control, the network device must enforce organization-defined discretionary access control policies over defined subjects and objects. Discretionary Access Control (DAC) is based on the notion that individual network administrators are "owners" of objects and therefore have discretion over who should be authorized to access the object and in which mode (e.g., read or write). Ownership is usually acquired as a consequence of creating the object or via specified ownership assignment. DAC allows the owner to determine who will have access to objects they control. An example of DAC includes user-controlled file permissions. When discretionary access control policies are implemented, subjects are not constrained with regard to what actions they can take with information for which they have already been granted access. Thus, subjects that have been granted access to information are not prevented from passing (i.e., the subjects have the discretion to pass) the information to other subjects or objects. A subject that is constrained in its operation by Mandatory Access Control policies is still able to operate under the less rigorous constraints of this requirement. Thus, while Mandatory Access Control imposes constraints preventing a subject from passing information to another subject operating at a different sensitivity level, this requirement permits the subject to pass the information to any subject at the same sensitivity level. The policy is bounded by the information system boundary. Once the information is passed outside of the control of the information system, additional means may be required to ensure the constraints remain in effect. While the older, more traditional definitions of discretionary access control require identity-based access control, that limitation is not required for this use of discretionary access control. The discretionary access control policies and the subjects and objects are defined uniquely for each network device, so they cannot be specified in the requirement.
SV-69463r1_rule SRG-APP-000329-NDM-000287 CCI-000366 MEDIUM If the network device uses role-based access control, the network device must enforce organization-defined role-based access control policies over defined subjects and objects. Organizations can create specific roles based on job functions and the authorizations (i.e., privileges) to perform needed operations on organizational information systems associated with the organization-defined roles. When administrators are assigned to the organizational roles, they inherit the authorizations or privileges defined for those roles. RBAC simplifies privilege administration for organizations because privileges are not assigned directly to every administrator (which can be a significant number of individuals for mid- to large-size organizations) but are instead acquired through role assignments. RBAC can be implemented either as a mandatory or discretionary form of access control. The RBAC policies and the subjects and objects are defined uniquely for each network device, so they cannot be specified in the requirement.
SV-69465r1_rule SRG-APP-000131-NDM-000243 CCI-001749 MEDIUM The network device must prevent the installation of patches, service packs, or application components without verification the software component has been digitally signed using a certificate that is recognized and approved by the organization. Changes to any software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the network device. Verifying software components have been digitally signed using a certificate that is recognized and approved by the organization ensures the software has not been tampered with and has been provided by a trusted vendor. Accordingly, patches, service packs, or application components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization. Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. The device should not have to verify the software again. This requirement does not mandate DoD certificates for this purpose; however, the certificate used to verify the software must be from an approved CA.
SV-69467r1_rule SRG-APP-000340-NDM-000288 CCI-002235 MEDIUM The network device must prevent non-privileged users from executing privileged functions to include disabling, circumventing, or altering implemented security safeguards/countermeasures. Preventing non-privileged users from executing privileged functions mitigates the risk that unauthorized individuals or processes may gain unnecessary access to information or privileges. Privileged functions include, for example, establishing accounts, performing system integrity checks, or administering cryptographic key management activities. Non-privileged users are individuals that do not possess appropriate authorizations.
SV-69477r1_rule SRG-APP-000373-NDM-000298 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must be configured to synchronize internal information system clocks with the primary and secondary time sources located in different geographic regions using redundant authoritative time sources. The loss of connectivity to a particular authoritative time source will result in the loss of time synchronization (free-run mode) and increasingly inaccurate time stamps on audit events and other functions. Multiple time sources provide redundancy by including a secondary source. Time synchronization is usually a hierarchy; clients synchronize time to a local source while that source synchronizes its time to a more accurate source. The network device must utilize an authoritative time server and/or be configured to use redundant authoritative time sources. This requirement is related to the comparison done in CCI-001891. DoD-approved solutions consist of a combination of a primary and secondary time source using a combination or multiple instances of the following: a time server designated for the appropriate DoD network (NIPRNet/SIPRNet); United States Naval Observatory (USNO) time servers; and/or the Global Positioning System (GPS). The secondary time source must be located in a different geographic region than the primary time source.
SV-69479r1_rule SRG-APP-000374-NDM-000299 CCI-001890 MEDIUM The network device must record time stamps for audit records that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). If time stamps are not consistently applied and there is no common time reference, it is difficult to perform forensic analysis. Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Time is commonly expressed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), a modern continuation of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), or local time with an offset from UTC.
SV-69481r1_rule SRG-APP-000375-NDM-000300 CCI-001889 MEDIUM The network device must record time stamps for audit records that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision. Without sufficient granularity of time stamps, it is not possible to adequately determine the chronological order of records. Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Granularity of time measurements refers to the degree of synchronization between information system clocks and reference clocks.
SV-69483r2_rule SRG-APP-000377-NDM-000301 CCI-001811 MEDIUM The network device must generate an alert that will then be sent to the ISSO, ISSM, and other designated personnel (deemed appropriate by the local organization) when the unauthorized installation of software is detected. Unauthorized software not only increases risk by increasing the number of potential vulnerabilities, it also can contain malicious code. Sending an alert (in real time) when unauthorized software is detected allows designated personnel to take action on the installation of unauthorized software. Note that while the device must generate the alert, the notification may be done by a management server.
SV-69485r1_rule SRG-APP-000378-NDM-000302 CCI-001812 MEDIUM The network device must prohibit installation of software without explicit privileged status. Allowing anyone to install software, without explicit privileges, creates the risk that untested or potentially malicious software will be installed on the system. This requirement applies to code changes and upgrades for all network devices.
SV-69489r1_rule SRG-APP-000380-NDM-000304 CCI-001813 MEDIUM The network device must enforce access restrictions associated with changes to device configuration. Failure to provide logical access restrictions associated with changes to device configuration may have significant effects on the overall security of the system. When dealing with access restrictions pertaining to change control, it should be noted that any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the device can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the device. Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed to obtain access to device components for the purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications. Logical access restrictions include, for example, controls that restrict access to workflow automation, media libraries, abstract layers (e.g., changes implemented into third-party interfaces rather than directly into information systems), and change windows (e.g., changes occur only during specified times, making unauthorized changes easy to discover).
SV-69491r1_rule SRG-APP-000381-NDM-000305 CCI-001814 MEDIUM The network device must audit the enforcement actions used to restrict access associated with changes to the device. Without auditing the enforcement of access restrictions against changes to the device configuration, it will be difficult to identify attempted attacks, and an audit trail will not be available for forensic investigation for after-the-fact actions. Enforcement actions are the methods or mechanisms used to prevent unauthorized changes to configuration settings. Enforcement action methods may be as simple as denying access to a file based on the application of file permissions (access restriction). Audit items may consist of lists of actions blocked by access restrictions or changes identified after the fact.
SV-69493r1_rule SRG-APP-000389-NDM-000306 CCI-002038 MEDIUM The network device must require users to re-authenticate when privilege escalation or role changes occur. Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization. When devices provide the capability to change security roles, it is critical the user re-authenticate. In addition to the re-authentication requirements associated with session locks, organizations may require re-authentication of individuals and/or devices in other situations, including (but not limited to) the following circumstances. (i) When authenticators change; (ii) When roles change; (iii) When security categories of information systems change; (iv) When the execution of privileged functions occurs; (v) After a fixed period of time; or (vi) Periodically. Within the DoD, the minimum circumstances requiring re-authentication are privilege escalation and role changes.
SV-69495r1_rule SRG-APP-000390-NDM-000307 CCI-002039 MEDIUM The network device must require devices to re-authenticate when authenticators change. Without re-authenticating devices, unidentified or unknown devices may be introduced; thereby facilitating malicious activity.
SV-69497r1_rule SRG-APP-000391-NDM-000308 CCI-001953 MEDIUM The network device must accept Personal Identity Verification (PIV) credentials. The use of PIV credentials facilitates standardization and reduces the risk of unauthorized access. DoD has mandated the use of the CAC to support identity management and personal authentication for systems covered under HSPD 12, as well as a primary component of layered protection for national security systems.
SV-69499r1_rule SRG-APP-000392-NDM-000309 CCI-001954 MEDIUM The network device must electronically verify Personal Identity Verification (PIV) credentials. The use of PIV credentials facilitates standardization and reduces the risk of unauthorized access. DoD has mandated the use of the CAC to support identity management and personal authentication for systems covered under HSPD 12, as well as a primary component of layered protection for national security systems.
SV-69501r1_rule SRG-APP-000395-NDM-000310 CCI-001967 MEDIUM The network device must authenticate network management, SNMP, and NTP endpoint devices before establishing a local, remote, and/or network connection using bidirectional authentication that is cryptographically based. Without authenticating devices, unidentified or unknown devices may be introduced, thereby facilitating malicious activity. Bidirectional authentication provides stronger safeguards to validate the identity of other devices for connections that are of greater risk. A local connection is any connection with a device communicating without the use of a network. A network connection is any connection with a device that communicates through a network (e.g., local area or wide area network, Internet). A remote connection is any connection with a device communicating through an external network (e.g., the Internet). Because of the challenges of applying this requirement on a large scale, organizations are encouraged to only apply the requirement to those limited number (and type) of devices that truly need to support this capability. For network device management, this has been determined to be network management device addresses, SNMP authentication, and NTP authentication.
SV-69503r1_rule SRG-APP-000396-NDM-000311 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must dynamically manage identifiers. Dynamic identifier management prevents disruption of operations by minimizing the need for system restarts. Dynamic establishment of new identifiers will occur while the system is operational. New identifiers or changes to existing identifiers must take effect without the need for a system or session restart. Preestablished trust relationships and mechanisms with appropriate authorities (e.g., Active Directory or authentication server) which validate each identifier are essential to prevent unauthorized access by changed or revoked accounts.
SV-69505r1_rule SRG-APP-000397-NDM-000312 CCI-002041 MEDIUM The network device must allow the use of a temporary password for system logons with an immediate change to a permanent password. Without providing this capability, an account may be created without a password. Non-repudiation cannot be guaranteed once an account is created if a user is not forced to change the temporary password upon initial login. Temporary passwords are typically used to allow access to applications when new accounts are created or passwords are changed. It is common practice for administrators to create temporary passwords for user accounts that allow the users to log in yet force them to change the password once they have successfully authenticated.
SV-69507r1_rule SRG-APP-000400-NDM-000313 CCI-002007 MEDIUM The network device must prohibit the use of cached authenticators after an organization-defined time period. Some authentication implementations can be configured to use cached authenticators. If cached authentication information is out-of-date, the validity of the authentication information may be questionable. The organization-defined time period should be established for each device depending on the nature of the device; for example, a device with just a few administrators in a facility with spotty network connectivity may merit a longer caching time period than a device with many administrators.
SV-69509r1_rule SRG-APP-000408-NDM-000314 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Network devices performing maintenance functions must restrict use of these functions to authorized personnel only. There are security-related issues arising from software brought into the network device specifically for diagnostic and repair actions (e.g., a software packet sniffer installed on a device in order to troubleshoot system traffic, or a vendor installing or running a diagnostic application in order to troubleshoot an issue with a vendor-supported device). If maintenance tools are used by unauthorized personnel, they may accidentally or intentionally damage or compromise the system. This requirement addresses security-related issues associated with maintenance tools used specifically for diagnostic and repair actions on organizational network devices. Maintenance tools can include hardware, software, and firmware items. Maintenance tools are potential vehicles for transporting malicious code, either intentionally or unintentionally, into a facility and subsequently into organizational information systems. Maintenance tools can include, for example, hardware/software diagnostic test equipment and hardware/software packet sniffers. This requirement does not cover hardware/software components that may support information system maintenance yet are a part of the system (e.g., the software implementing "ping," "ls," "ipconfig," or the hardware and software implementing the monitoring port of an Ethernet switch).
SV-69511r1_rule SRG-APP-000411-NDM-000330 CCI-002890 MEDIUM Applications used for nonlocal maintenance sessions must implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the integrity of nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic communications. This requires the use of secure protocols instead of their unsecured counterparts, such as SSH instead of telnet, SCP instead of FTP, and HTTPS instead of HTTP. If unsecured protocols (lacking cryptographic mechanisms) are used for sessions, the contents of those sessions will be susceptible to manipulation, potentially allowing alteration and hijacking of maintenance sessions.
SV-69513r1_rule SRG-APP-000412-NDM-000331 CCI-003123 MEDIUM Applications used for nonlocal maintenance sessions must implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic communications. This requires the use of secure protocols instead of their unsecured counterparts, such as SSH instead of telnet, SCP instead of FTP, and HTTPS instead of HTTP. If unsecured protocols (lacking cryptographic mechanisms) are used for sessions, the contents of those sessions will be susceptible to eavesdropping, potentially putting sensitive data (including administrator passwords) at risk of compromise and potentially allowing hijacking of maintenance sessions.
SV-69515r1_rule SRG-APP-000435-NDM-000315 CCI-002385 MEDIUM The network device must protect against or limit the effects of all known types of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks on the network device management network by employing organization-defined security safeguards. DoS is a condition when a resource is not available for legitimate users. When this occurs, the organization either cannot accomplish its mission or must operate at degraded capacity. This requirement addresses the configuration of network devices to mitigate the impact of DoS attacks that have occurred or are ongoing on device availability. For each network device, known and potential DoS attacks must be identified and solutions for each type implemented. A variety of technologies exist to limit or, in some cases, eliminate the effects of DoS attacks (e.g., limiting processes or restricting the number of sessions the device opens at one time). Employing increased capacity and bandwidth, combined with service redundancy, may reduce the susceptibility to some DoS attacks. The security safeguards cannot be defined at the DoD level because they vary according to the capabilities of the individual network devices and the security controls applied on the adjacent networks (for example, firewalls performing packet filtering to block DoS attacks).
SV-69517r1_rule SRG-APP-000491-NDM-000316 CCI-000366 MEDIUM If the network device uses mandatory access control, the network device must enforce organization-defined mandatory access control policies over all subjects and objects. Mandatory access control policies constrain what actions subjects can take with information obtained from data objects for which they have already been granted access, thus preventing the subjects from passing the information to unauthorized subjects and objects. This class of mandatory access control policies also constrains what actions subjects can take with respect to the propagation of access control privileges; that is, a subject with a privilege cannot pass that privilege to other subjects. Enforcement of mandatory access control is typically provided via an implementation that meets the reference monitor concept. The reference monitor enforces (mediates) access relationships between all subjects and objects based on privilege and need to know. The mandatory access control policies are defined uniquely for each network device, so they cannot be specified in the requirement. An example of where mandatory access control may be needed is to prevent administrators from tampering with audit objects.
SV-69519r1_rule SRG-APP-000495-NDM-000318 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The network device must generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to modify administrator privileges occur. Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).
SV-69521r1_rule SRG-APP-000499-NDM-000319 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The network device must generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to delete administrator privileges occur. Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).
SV-69523r1_rule SRG-APP-000503-NDM-000320 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The network device must generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur. Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).
SV-69525r1_rule SRG-APP-000504-NDM-000321 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The network device must generate audit records for privileged activities or other system-level access. Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).
SV-69527r1_rule SRG-APP-000505-NDM-000322 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The network device must generate audit records showing starting and ending time for administrator access to the system. Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).
SV-69529r1_rule SRG-APP-000506-NDM-000323 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The network device must generate audit records when concurrent logons from different workstations occur. Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).
SV-69531r1_rule SRG-APP-000509-NDM-000324 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The network device must generate audit records for all account creations, modifications, disabling, and termination events. Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).
SV-69533r1_rule SRG-APP-000515-NDM-000325 CCI-001851 MEDIUM The network device must off-load audit records onto a different system or media than the system being audited. Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration. Off-loading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity.
SV-69535r1_rule SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000317 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must be configured in accordance with the security configuration settings based on DoD security configuration or implementation guidance, including STIGs, NSA configuration guides, CTOs, and DTMs. Configuring the network device to implement organization-wide security implementation guides and security checklists ensures compliance with federal standards and establishes a common security baseline across DoD that reflects the most restrictive security posture consistent with operational requirements. Configuration settings are the set of parameters that can be changed that affect the security posture and/or functionality of the network device. Security-related parameters are those parameters impacting the security state of the network device, including the parameters required to satisfy other security control requirements.
SV-69537r1_rule SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000332 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must notify the administrator of the number of successful login attempts occurring during an organization-defined time period. Administrators need to be aware of activity that occurs regarding their network device management account. Providing administrators with information regarding the date and time of their last successful login allows the administrator to determine if any unauthorized activity has occurred. This incorporates all methods of login including, but not limited to, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, and physical connectivity. The organization-defined time period is dependent on the frequency with which administrators typically log in to the network device.
SV-69539r1_rule SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000333 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must use automated mechanisms to alert security personnel to threats identified by authoritative sources (e.g. CTOs) and IAW with CJCSM 6510.01B. By immediately displaying an alarm message, potential security violations can be identified more quickly even when administrators are not logged into the network device. An example of a mechanism to facilitate this would be through the utilization of SNMP traps.
SV-69541r1_rule SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000334 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must generate audit log events for a locally developed list of auditable events. Auditing and logging are key components of any security architecture. Logging the actions of specific events provides a means to investigate an attack; to recognize resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or to identify an improperly configured network device. If auditing is not comprehensive, it will not be useful for intrusion monitoring, security investigations, and forensic analysis.
SV-69543r1_rule SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000335 CCI-000345 MEDIUM The network device must enforce access restrictions associated with changes to the system components. Changes to the hardware or software components of the network device can have significant effects on the overall security of the network. Therefore, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed administrative access to the network device for implementing any changes or upgrades. This requirement applies to updates of the application files, configuration, ACLs, and policy filters.
SV-69545r1_rule SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000336 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must employ automated mechanisms to centrally manage authentication settings. The use of authentication servers or other centralized management servers for providing centralized authentication services is required for network device management. Maintaining local administrator accounts for daily usage on each network device without centralized management is not scalable or feasible. Without centralized management, it is likely that credentials for some network devices will be forgotten, leading to delays in administration, which itself leads to delays in remediating production problems and in addressing compromises in a timely fashion.
SV-69547r1_rule SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000337 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must employ automated mechanisms to centrally apply authentication settings. The use of authentication servers or other centralized management servers for providing centralized authentication services is required for network device management. Maintaining local administrator accounts for daily usage on each network device without centralized management is not scalable or feasible. Without centralized management, it is likely that credentials for some network devices will be forgotten, leading to delays in administration, which itself leads to delays in remediating production problems and in addressing compromises in a timely fashion.
SV-69549r1_rule SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000338 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must employ automated mechanisms to centrally verify authentication settings. The use of authentication servers or other centralized management servers for providing centralized authentication services is required for network device management. Maintaining local administrator accounts for daily usage on each network device without centralized management is not scalable or feasible. Without centralized management, it is likely that credentials for some network devices will be forgotten, leading to delays in administration, which itself leads to delays in remediating production problems and in addressing compromises in a timely fashion.
SV-69551r1_rule SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000339 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must employ automated mechanisms to detect the addition of unauthorized components or devices. This requirement addresses configuration management of the network device. The network device must automatically detect the installation of unauthorized software or hardware onto the device itself. Monitoring may be accomplished on an ongoing basis or by periodic monitoring. Automated mechanisms can be implemented within the network device and/or in another separate information system or device. If the addition of unauthorized components or devices is not automatically detected, then such components or devices could be used for malicious purposes, such as transferring sensitive data to removable media for compromise.
SV-69553r1_rule SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000340 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must support organizational requirements to conduct backups of system level information contained in the information system when changes occur or weekly, whichever is sooner. System-level information includes default and customized settings and security attributes, including ACLs that relate to the network device configuration, as well as software required for the execution and operation of the device. Information system backup is a critical step in ensuring system integrity and availability. If the system fails and there is no backup of the system-level information, a denial of service condition is possible for all who utilize this critical network component. This control requires the network device to support the organizational central backup process for system-level information associated with the network device. This function may be provided by the network device itself; however, the preferred best practice is a centralized backup rather than each network device performing discrete backups.
SV-69555r1_rule SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000341 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must support organizational requirements to conduct backups of information system documentation, including security-related documentation, when changes occur or weekly, whichever is sooner. Information system backup is a critical step in maintaining data assurance and availability. Information system and security-related documentation contains information pertaining to system configuration and security settings. If this information were not backed up, and a system failure were to occur, the security settings would be difficult to reconfigure quickly and accurately. Maintaining a backup of information system and security-related documentation provides for a quicker recovery time when system outages occur. This control requires the network device to support the organizational central backup process for user account information associated with the network device. This function may be provided by the network device itself; however, the preferred best practice is a centralized backup rather than each network device performing discrete backups.
SV-69557r1_rule SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000342 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must employ automated mechanisms to assist in the tracking of security incidents. Despite the investment in perimeter defense technologies, enclaves are still faced with detecting, analyzing, and remediating network breaches and exploits that have made it past the network device. An automated incident response infrastructure allows network operations to immediately react to incidents by identifying, analyzing, and mitigating any network device compromise. Incident response teams can perform root cause analysis, determine how the exploit proliferated, and identify all affected nodes, as well as contain and eliminate the threat. The network device assists in the tracking of security incidents by logging detected security events. The audit log and network device application logs capture different types of events. The audit log tracks audit events occurring on the components of the network device. The application log tracks the results of the network device content filtering function. These logs must be aggregated into a centralized server and can be used as part of the organization's security incident tracking and analysis.
SV-69559r1_rule SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000344 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The network device must obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider. For user certificates, each organization obtains certificates from an approved, shared service provider, as required by OMB policy. For federal agencies operating a legacy public key infrastructure cross-certified with the Federal Bridge Certification Authority at medium assurance or higher, this Certification Authority will suffice.
SV-69561r1_rule SRG-APP-000133-NDM-000244 CCI-001499 MEDIUM The network device must limit privileges to change the software resident within software libraries. Changes to any software components of the network device can have significant effects on the overall security of the network. Therefore, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed administrative access to the network device for implementing any changes or upgrades. If the network device were to enable non-authorized users to make changes to software libraries, those changes could be implemented without undergoing testing, validation, and approval.