Network Device Management Security Requirements Guide

V2R14 2018-07-02       U_NDM_SRG_V2R14_Manual-xccdf.xml
V2R3 2015-09-28       U_Network_Device_Management_V2R3_Manual-xccdf.xml
The Network Device Management Security Requirements Guide (SRG) is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the NIST 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via e-mail to the following address: [email protected]
Comparison
All 144
No Change 104
Updated 35
Added 4
Removed 1
V-55027 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000001-NDM-000200 Rule ID: SV-69273r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000054

Discussion

Device management includes the ability to control the number of administrators and management sessions that manage a device. Limiting the number of allowed administrators and sessions per administrator based on account type, role, or access type is helpful in limiting risks related to DoS attacks.

This requirement addresses concurrent sessions for administrative accounts and does not address concurrent sessions by a single administrator via multiple administrative accounts. The maximum number of concurrent sessions should be defined based upon mission needs and the operational environment for each system.
At a minimum, limits must be set for SSH, HTTPS, account of last resort, and root account sessions.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to see if the device limits the number of concurrent sessions to an organization-defined number for all administrator accounts and/or administrator account types or is configured to use an authentication server which would p.

If the network device does not limit the number of concurrent sessions to an organization-defined numb
er form this function. If neither of these configurations is present each administrator account and/or administrator account type, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device either to limit the number of concurrent sessions to an organization-defined number for all administrator accounts and/or administrator account types or to use an authentication server which would perform this function.
V-55029 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000002-NDM-000201 Rule ID: SV-69275r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000060

Discussion

A session lock is a temporary network device or administrator-initiated action taken when the administrator stops work but does not log out of the network device. The network management session lock event must include an obfuscation of the display screen to prevent other users from reading what was previously displayed.

Permitted publicly viewable images can include static or dynamic images, for example, patterns used with screen savers, photographic images, solid colors, a clock, or a blank screen, with the additional caveat that none of the images convey sensitive information.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to see if the device conceals information previously visible on the display with a publicly viewable image during the session lock. This can be demonstrated by the network administrator. If previously visible information is not concealed with a publicly viewable image by the session lock, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to conceal information previously visible on the display with a publicly viewable image during the session lock.
V-55031 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000003-NDM-000202 Rule ID: SV-69277r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000057

Discussion

A session lock is a temporary network device or administrator-initiated action taken when the administrator stops work but does not log out of the network device. Rather than relying on the user to manually lock their management session prior to vacating the vicinity, network devices need to be able to identify when a management session has idled and take action to initiate the session lock. Once invoked, the session lock shall remain in place until the administrator re-authenticates. No other system activity aside from re-authentication shall unlock the management session.

Note that CCI-001133 requires that administrative network sessions be disconnected after 10 minutes of idle time. So this requirement may only apply to local administrative sessions.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to see if it initiates a session lock after a 15-minute period of inactivity. This may be verified by configuration check or demonstration. If a session lock is not initiated after a 15-minute period of inactivity, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to initiate a session lock after a 15-minute period of inactivity.
V-55033 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000004-NDM-000203 Rule ID: SV-69279r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000058

Discussion

A session lock is a temporary network device or administrator-initiated action taken when the administrator stops work but does not log out of the network device. Rather than being forced to wait for a period of time to expire before the management session can be locked, network management consoles need to provide administrators with the ability to manually invoke a session lock so they may secure their management session should the need arise for them to temporarily vacate the immediate physical vicinity of the management workstation. Once invoked, the session lock shall remain in place until the administrator re-authenticates. No other system activity aside from re-authentication shall unlock the management session.

The session lock is implemented at the point where session activity can be determined. This is typically at the operating system-level, but may be at the application-level. The session lock is initiated and controlled by either the client application or the workstation being used to access a network element. Many terminal emulation clients implement this capability through software flow control or XOFF/XON flow control.

If this capability is not available, administrators must terminate all management sessions before leaving their management console or workstation. This includes closing any views or windows from those sessions.

Checks

Directly observe the management application or the console; if an administrator cannot directly initiate a session lock from either the management application or the console, this is a finding.

Fix

This is an intrinsic capability of the client application or the console. Many terminal emulation clients implement this capability through software flow control or XOFF/XON flow control.
V-55035 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000005-NDM-000204 Rule ID: SV-69281r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000056

Discussion

A session lock is a temporary network device or administrator-initiated action taken when the administrator stops work but does not log out of the network device. Once invoked, the session lock shall remain in place until the administrator re-authenticates. No other system activity aside from re-authentication shall unlock the management session.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if the device retains session lock until the administrator re-authenticates. This may be verified by configuration check, demonstration, or other validation test results. If the device does not require re-authentication before releasing the session lock, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to retain session lock until the administrator re-authenticates.
V-55037 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000023-NDM-000205 Rule ID: SV-69283r14_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000015

Discussion

Account management functions include: assignment of group or role membership; identifying account type; specifying user access authorizations (i.e., privileges); account removal, update, or termination; and administrative alerts. The network device must be configured to automatically provide account management functions, and these functions must immediately enforce the organization's current account policy.

All accounts used for access to the network device are privileged or system-level accounts. Therefore, i
If account management functions are not automatically enforced, an attacker could gain privileged access to a vital element of the network security architecture.

This control does not include emergency administration accounts that proviAccount management functions include: access to the network device components in case of network failure. There must be only one such locally defined account.

All other accounts must be defined. All other accounts must be created and managed on the site's authentication server (e.g., RADIUS, LDAP, or Active Directory). This requirement is applicable to account management functions provided by the network device application. If the function is provided by the underlying OS or an authentication server, it must be secured using the applicable security guide or STIG
ssignment of group or role membership; identifying account type; specifying user access authorizations (i.e., privileges); account removal, update, or termination; and administrative alerts.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if it provides automated account management or uses an authentication server that provides the automated account management. If it does not provide automated account management or useor documentation. Verify device has applications and automated tools for account management functions including: assignment of group or role membership; identifying account type; specifying user access authorizations (i.e., privileges); account removal, update, or termination; and authentication server todministrative alerts.

If the network device does not
provide automated support for account management functions, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to provide automated account management or use an authentication server that provides automatedsupport for account management functions.
V-55039 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000024-NDM-000206 Rule ID: SV-69285r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000016

Discussion

Temporary accounts are established as part of normal account activation procedures when there is a need for short-term accounts without the demand for immediacy in account activation. If temporary accounts remain active when no longer needed, they may be used to gain unauthorized access. The risk is greater for the network device since these accounts have elevated privileges. To mitigate this risk, automated termination of all temporary accounts must be set upon account creation.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if it automatically disables or removes temporary accounts after 72 hours or is configured to use an authentication server that would perform this function. If the use of temporary accounts is prohibited, this is not a finding. If the network device or its associated authentication server does not automatically disable or remove temporary accounts after 72 hours, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to automatically disable or remove temporary accounts after 72 hours. An acceptable method would be to place an expiration date on the account upon creation.
V-55041 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000025-NDM-000207 Rule ID: SV-69287r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000017

Discussion

Since the accounts in the network device are privileged or system-level accounts, account management is vital to the security of the network device. Inactive accounts could be reactivated or compromised by unauthorized users, allowing exploitation of vulnerabilities and undetected access to the network device.

This control does not
include emergency administration accounts, which are meant for access to the network device components in case of network failureapply to the account of last resort or root account. DoD prohibits local user accounts on the device, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account.

Checks

ReviewDetermine if the network device configuration to determine if it automatically disables accounts after 35 days of inactivity or is configured to use an authentication server which would perform this function. If accounts are notdisables account after 35 days of inactivity for all local accounts except for the account of last resort or root account. For non-local accounts, verify that the device is configured to use an authentication server.

If the network device does not have the capability to
automatically disabled or remove accounts after 35 days of inactivity, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to automatically disable accounts after 35 days of inactivity. Disable or remove unauthorized local accounts, except for the account of last resort and the root account
V-55043 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000026-NDM-000208 Rule ID: SV-69289r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000018

Discussion

Upon gaining access to a network device, an attacker will often first attempt to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is to create a new account. Notification of account creation helps to mitigate this risk. Auditing account creation provides the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. Without this audit trail, personnel without the proper authorization may gain access to critical network nodes.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if it automatically audits account creation or is configured to use an authentication server which would perform this function. If account creation is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to automatically audit the creation of accounts.
V-55045 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000027-NDM-000209 Rule ID: SV-69291r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001403

Discussion

Since the accounts in the network device are privileged or system-level accounts, account management is vital to the security of the network device. Account management by a designated authority ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel with the appropriate and necessary privileges. Auditing account modification along with an automatic notification to appropriate individuals will provide the necessary reconciliation that account management procedures are being followed. If modifications to management accounts are not audited, reconciliation of account management procedures cannot be tracked.

Checks

Check the network device to determine if account modification actions are automatically audited. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. If account modification is not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to automatically audit the modification of accounts.
V-55047 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000028-NDM-000210 Rule ID: SV-69293r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001404

Discussion

Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account disabling actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are disabled, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.

Checks

Check the network device to determine if account disabling actions are automatically audited. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. If account disabling actions are not audited, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to automatically audit the disabling of accounts.
V-55049 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000029-NDM-000211 Rule ID: SV-69295r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001405

Discussion

Account management, as a whole, ensures access to the network device is being controlled in a secure manner by granting access to only authorized personnel. Auditing account removal actions will support account management procedures. When device management accounts are terminated, user or service accessibility may be affected. Auditing also ensures authorized active accounts remain enabled and available for use when required.

Checks

Check the network device to determine if account removal actions are automatically audited. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. If account removal actions are not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to automatically audit the removal of accounts.
V-55051 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000033-NDM-000212 Rule ID: SV-69297r12_rule Severity: mediumhigh CCI: CCI-000213

Discussion

To mitigate the risk of unauthorized access to sensitive information by entities that have been issued certificates by DoD-approved PKIs, all DoD systems must be properly configured to incorporate access control methods that do not rely solely on the possession of a certificate for access. Successful authentication must not automatically give an entity access to an asset or security boundary. Authorization procedures and controls must be implemented to ensure each authenticated entity also has a validated and current authorization. Authorization is the process of determining whether an entity, once authenticated, is permitted to access a specific asset. Network devices use access control policies and enforcement mechanisms to implement this requirement.

Access control policies include identity-based policies, role-based policies, and attribute-based policies. Access enforcement mechanisms include access control lists, access control matrices, and cryptography. These policies and mechanisms must be employed by the network device to control access between administrators (or processes acting on behalf of administrators) and objects (e.g., device commands, files, records, processes) in the network device.

Checks

Determine if the network device enforces the assigned privilege level for each administrator and authorizations for access to all commands relative to the privilege level in accordance with applicable policy for the device. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. If the network device does not enforce the assigned privilege level for each administrator and authorizations for access to all commands relative to the privilege level, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to enforce the assigned privilege level for each administrator and authorizations for access to all commands relative to the privilege level in accordance with applicable policy for the device.
V-55053 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000038-NDM-000213 Rule ID: SV-69299r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001368

Discussion

A mechanism to detect and prevent unauthorized communication flow must be configured or provided as part of the system design. If management information flow is not enforced based on approved authorizations, the network device may become compromised. Information flow control regulates where management information is allowed to travel within a network device. The flow of all management information must be monitored and controlled so it does not introduce any unacceptable risk to the network device or data.

Application-specific examples of enforcement occur in systems that employ rule sets or establish configuration settings that restrict information system services or message-filtering capability based on message content (e.g., implementing key word searches or using document characteristics).

Applications providing information flow control must be able to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the system in accordance with applicable policy.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if it enforces approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the network device based on information flow control policies. If it does not enforce these approved authorizations, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to enforce approved authorizations for controlling the flow of management information within the network device based on information flow control policies.
V-55055 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000065-NDM-000214 Rule ID: SV-69301r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000044

Discussion

By limiting the number of failed login attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced.

Checks

Determine if the network device is either configured to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts by a user during a 15-minute time period or configured to use an authentication server which would perform this function. If the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts by a user during a 15-minute time period is not enforced, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to enforce the limit of three consecutive invalid logon attempts by a user during a 15-minute time period.
V-55057 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000068-NDM-000215 Rule ID: SV-69303r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000048

Discussion

Display of the DoD-approved use notification before granting access to the network device ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

System use notifications are required only for access via logon interfaces with human users.

Checks

Determine if the network device is configured to present a DoD-approved banner that is formatted in accordance with DTM-08-060. If such a banner is not presented, this is a finding. Use the following verbiage for applications that can accommodate banners of 1300 characters:

"You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only.

By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions:
-The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations.
-At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS.
-Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose.
-This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests--not for your personal benefit or privacy.
-Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details."

Use the following verbiage for operating systems that have severe limitations on the number of characters that can be displayed in the banner:
"I've read & consent to terms in IS user agreem't."

Fix

Configure the network device to display the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner before granting access to the device.
V-55059 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000069-NDM-000216 Rule ID: SV-69305r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000050

Discussion

The banner must be acknowledged by the administrator prior to the device allowing the administrator access to the network device. This provides assurance that the administrator has seen the message and accepted the conditions for access. If the consent banner is not acknowledged by the administrator, DoD will not be in compliance with system use notifications required by law.

To establish acceptance of the network administration policy, a click-through banner at management session logon is required. The device must prevent further activity until the administrator executes a positive action to manifest agreement
by clicking on a box indicating "OK".

In the case of CLI access using a terminal client, entering the username and password when the banner is presented is considered an explicit action of acknowledgement. Entering the username, viewing the banner, then entering the password is also acceptable
.

Checks

Determine if the network device is configured to retain the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner on the screen until the administrator acknowledges the usage conditions and takes explicit actions to log on for further access. If the network device does not retain the banner on the screen until the administrator acknowledges the usage conditions and takes explicit actions to log on for further access, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to retain the Standard Mandatory DoD Notice and Consent Banner on the screen until the administrator acknowledges the usage conditions and takes explicit actions to log on for further access.
V-55061 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000075-NDM-000217 Rule ID: SV-69307r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000052

Discussion

Administrators need to be aware of activity that occurs regarding their network device management account. Providing administrators with information regarding the date and time of their last successful login allows them to determine if any unauthorized activity has occurred. This incorporates all methods of login, including, but not limited to, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, and physical connectivity.

Checks

Determine if the network device is either configured to notify the administrator of the date and time of their last login or configured to use an authentication server which would perform this function. If the administrator is not notified of the date and time of the last login upon successful login, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to notify the administrator of the date and time of the last login upon successful login.
V-55063 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000076-NDM-000218 Rule ID: SV-69309r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000053

Discussion

Administrators need to be aware of activity that occurs regarding their network device management account. Providing administrators with information regarding the number of unsuccessful attempts made to login to their account allows them to determine if any unauthorized activity has occurred. Without this information, the administrator may not be aware that unauthorized activity has occurred. This incorporates all methods of login, including, but not limited to, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, and physical connectivity.

Checks

Determine if the network device is either configured to notify the administrator of the number of unsuccessful login attempts since the last successful login or configured to use an authentication server which would perform this function. If the administrator is not notified of the number of unsuccessful login attempts since the last successful login, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to notify the administrator of the number of unsuccessful login attempts since the last successful login, upon successful login.
V-55065 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000079-NDM-000219 Rule ID: SV-69311r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Providing administrators with information regarding security-related changes to their account allows them to determine if any unauthorized activity has occurred. Changes to the account could be an indication of the account being compromised. Hence, without notification to the administrator, the compromise could go undetected if other controls were not in place to mitigate this risk.

Checks

Determine if the network device notifies the administrator of changes to access and/or privilege parameters of the administrator's account that occurred since the last logon. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. If the administrator is not notified of changes to access and/or privilege parameters of the administrator's account that occurred since the last logon, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to notify the administrator of changes to access and/or privilege parameters of the administrator's account that occurred since the last logon.
V-55067 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000343-NDM-000289 Rule ID: SV-69313r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002234

Discussion

Misuse of privileged functions, either intentionally or unintentionally by authorized users, or by unauthorized external entities that have compromised information system accounts, is a serious and ongoing concern and can have significant adverse impacts on organizations. Auditing the use of privileged functions is one way to detect such misuse and identify the risk from insider threats and the advanced persistent threat.

Checks

Determine if the network device audits the execution of privileged functions. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. If the network device does not audit the execution of privileged functions, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to audit the execution of privileged functions.
V-55069 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000345-NDM-000290 Rule ID: SV-69315r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002238

Discussion

By limiting the number of failed login attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.

Checks

Determine if the network device automatically locks the account until the locked account is released by an administrator when three unsuccessful login attempts in 15 minutes are exceeded.

This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server.

If an account is not automatically locked out until the locked account is released by an administrator when three unsuccessful login attempts in 15 minutes are exceeded, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to automatically lock the account until the locked account is released by an administrator when three unsuccessful login attempts in 15 minutes are exceeded.
V-55071 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000346-NDM-000291 Rule ID: SV-69317r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Administrators need to be aware of activity that occurs regarding their account. Providing them with information deemed important by the organization may aid in the discovery of unauthorized access or thwart a potential attacker.

Organizations should consider the risks to the specific information system being accessed and the threats presented by the device to the environment when configuring this option. An excessive or unnecessary amount of information presented to the administrator at logon is not recommended.

Checks

Determine if the network device notifies the administrator upon successful logon of the location of last logon (terminal or IP address) in addition to the date and time of the last logon.

If the administrator is not notified of the location of last logon (terminal or IP address) upon successful logon, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to notify the administrator upon successful logon of the location of last logon (terminal or IP address).
V-55073 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000353-NDM-000292 Rule ID: SV-69319r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001914

Discussion

If authorized individuals do not have the ability to modify auditing parameters in response to a changing threat environment, the organization may not be able to effectively respond, and important forensic information may be lost.

This requirement enables organizations to extend or limit auditing as necessary to meet organizational requirements. Auditing that is limited to conserve information system resources may be extended to address certain threat situations. In addition, auditing may be limited to a specific set of events to facilitate audit reduction, analysis, and reporting. Organizations can establish time thresholds in which audit actions are changed, for example, near-real-time, within minutes, or within hours.

The individuals or roles to change the auditing are dependent on the security configuration of the network device--for example, it may be configured to allow only some administrators to change the auditing, while other administrators can review audit logs but not reconfigure auditing. Because this capability is so powerful, organizations should be extremely cautious about only granting this capability to fully authorized security personnel.

Checks

Determine if the network device provides the capability for organization-identified individuals or roles to change the auditing to be performed based on all selectable event criteria within near-real-time.

This requirement may be verified by configuration review or demonstration.

If the network device does not provide the capability for organization-identified individuals or roles to change the auditing to be performed based on all selectable event criteria within near-real-time, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to provide the capability for organization-identified individuals or roles to change the auditing to be performed based on all selectable event criteria within near-real-time.
V-55075 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000357-NDM-000293 Rule ID: SV-69321r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001849

Discussion

In order to ensure network devices have a sufficient storage capacity in which to write the audit logs, they need to be able to allocate audit record storage capacity. The task of allocating audit record storage capacity is usually performed during initial device setup if it is modifiable.

The value for the organization-defined audit record storage requirement will depend on the amount of storage available on the network device, the anticipated volume of logs, the frequency of transfer from the network device to centralized log servers, and other factors.

Checks

Determine if the network device allocates audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements.

This requirement may be verified by configuration review or vendor-provided information. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured syslog server if the device is configured to use the syslog server.

If audit record store capacity is not allocated in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements.
V-55077 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000359-NDM-000294 Rule ID: SV-69323r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001855

Discussion

If security personnel are not notified immediately upon storage volume utilization reaching 75%, they are unable to plan for storage capacity expansion. This could lead to the loss of audit information. Note that while the network device must generate the alert, notification may be done by a management server.

Checks

Determine if the network device generates an immediate alert when allocated audit record storage volume reaches 75% of repository maximum audit record storage capacity.

This requirement may be verified by configuration review or validated test results.

If an immediate alert is not generated when allocated audit record storage volume reaches 75% of repository maximum audit record storage capacity, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate an immediate alert when allocated audit record storage volume reaches 75% of repository maximum audit record storage capacity.
V-55079 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000360-NDM-000295 Rule ID: SV-69325r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001858

Discussion

It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without a real-time alert, security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability and system operation may be adversely affected.

Alerts provide organizations with urgent messages. Real-time alerts provide these messages immediately (i.e., the time from event detection to alert occurs in seconds or less).

Checks

Determine if the network device generates an immediate alert of all audit failure events requiring real-time alerts.

This requirement may be verified by configuration review or validated test results.

If an immediate alert of all audit failure events requiring real-time alerts is not generated, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate an immediate real-time alert of all audit failure events requiring real-time alerts.
V-55081 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000371-NDM-000296 Rule ID: SV-69327r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001891

Discussion

Inaccurate time stamps make it more difficult to correlate events and can lead to an inaccurate analysis. Determining the correct time a particular event occurred on a system is critical when conducting forensic analysis and investigating system events. Sources outside of the configured acceptable allowance (drift) may be inaccurate. Additionally, unnecessary synchronization may have an adverse impact on system performance and may indicate malicious activity. Synchronizing internal information system clocks provides uniformity of time stamps for information systems with multiple system clocks and systems connected over a network.

Checks

Check the network device configuration to determine if the device compares internal information system clocks at least every 24 hours with an authoritative time server.

If this comparison does not occur at least every 24 hours, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to compare internal information system clocks at least every 24 hours with an authoritative time server.
V-55083 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000372-NDM-000297 Rule ID: SV-69329r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002046

Discussion

Inaccurate time stamps make it more difficult to correlate events and can lead to an inaccurate analysis. Determining the correct time a particular event occurred on a system is critical when conducting forensic analysis and investigating system events.

Synchronizing internal information system clocks provides uniformity of time stamps for information systems with multiple system clocks and systems connected over a network. Organizations should consider setting time periods for different types of systems (e.g., financial, legal, or mission-critical systems). Organizations should also consider endpoints that may not have regular access to the authoritative time server (e.g., mobile, teleworking, and tactical endpoints). This requirement is related to the comparison done every 24 hours in CCI-001891 because a comparison must be done in order to determine the time difference.

The organization-defined time period will depend on multiple factors, most notably the granularity of time stamps in audit logs. For example, if time stamps only show to the nearest second, there is no need to have accuracy of a tenth of a second in clocks.

Checks

Check the network device configuration to determine if the device synchronizes internal information system clocks to the authoritative time source when the time difference is greater than the organization-defined time period.

If this synchronization is not occurring when the time difference is greater than the organization-defined time period, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to synchronize internal information system clocks to the authoritative time source when the time difference is greater than the organization-defined time period.
V-55085 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000080-NDM-000220 Rule ID: SV-69331r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000166

Discussion

This requirement supports non-repudiation of actions taken by an administrator and is required in order to maintain the integrity of the configuration management process. All configuration changes to the network device are logged, and administrators authenticate with two-factor authentication before gaining administrative access. Together, these processes will ensure the administrators can be held accountable for the configuration changes they implement.

To meet this requirement, the network device must log administrator access and activity.

Checks

Determine if the network device protects against an individual (or process acting on behalf of an individual) falsely denying having performed organization-defined actions to be covered by non-repudiation. This requires logging all administrator access and configuration activity. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. (Note that two-factor authentication of administrator access is needed to support this requirement.) If the network device does not protect against an individual (or process acting on behalf of an individual) falsely denying having performed organization-defined actions to be covered by non-repudiation, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to protect against an individual (or process acting on behalf of an individual) falsely denying having performed organization-defined actions to be covered by non-repudiation. Examples that support this include configuring the audit log to capture administration login events and configuration changes to the network device.
V-55087 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000089-NDM-000221 Rule ID: SV-69333r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000169

Discussion

Without the capability to generate audit records, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one.

Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., process, module). Certain specific device functionalities may be audited as well. The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating audit records.

DoD has defined the list of events for which the device will provide an audit record generation capability as the following:

(i) Successful and unsuccessful attempts to access, modify, or delete privileges, security objects, security levels, or categories of information (e.g., classification levels);
(ii) Access actions, such as successful and unsuccessful logon attempts, privileged activities or other system level access, starting and ending time for user access to the system, concurrent logons from different workstations, successful and unsuccessful accesses to objects, all program initiations, and all direct access to the information system; and
(iii) All account creation, modification, disabling, and termination actions.

Checks

Determine if the network device provides audit record generation capability for DoD-defined auditable events within the network device. The list of events for which the device will provide an audit record generation capability is outlined in the vulnerability discussion. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. If the network device does not provide audit record generation capability for DoD-defined auditable events within the network device, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to provide audit record generation capability for DoD-defined auditable events within the network device.
V-55089 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000090-NDM-000222 Rule ID: SV-69335r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000171

Discussion

Without the capability to restrict which roles and individuals can select which events are audited, unauthorized personnel may be able to prevent the auditing of critical events. Misconfigured audits may degrade the system's performance by overwhelming the audit log. Misconfigured audits may also make it more difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one.

Checks

Determine if the network device allows only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be audited. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. If parties other than the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) are allowed to select which auditable events are to be audited, this is a finding. If the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) is not allowed to select which auditable events are to be audited, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device settings to allow only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are audited.
V-55091 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000091-NDM-000223 Rule ID: SV-69337r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000172

Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one.

Audit records can be generated from various components within the information system (e.g., module or policy filter).

Checks

Determine if the network device generates audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to access privileges occur. If the network device does not generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to access privileges occur, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to access privileges occur.
V-55093 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000092-NDM-000224 Rule ID: SV-69339r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001464

Discussion

If auditing is enabled late in the startup process, the actions of some start-up processes may not be audited. Some audit systems also maintain state information only available if auditing is enabled before a given process is created.

Checks

Determine if the network device initiates session auditing upon startup. This requirement may be verified by validated test results. If the network device does not initiate session auditing upon startup, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to initiate session auditing upon startup.
V-55095 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000095-NDM-000225 Rule ID: SV-69341r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000130

Discussion

It is essential for security personnel to know what is being done, what was attempted, where it was done, when it was done, and by whom it was done in order to compile an accurate risk assessment. Associating event types with detected events in the application and audit logs provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured network device. Without this capability, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events leading up to an outage or attack.

Checks

Determine if the network device produces audit log records containing sufficient information to establish what type of event occurred. If the network device does not produce audit log records containing sufficient information to establish what type of event occurred, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to produce audit log records containing sufficient information to establish what type of event occurred.
V-55097 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000096-NDM-000226 Rule ID: SV-69343r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000131

Discussion

It is essential for security personnel to know what is being done, what was attempted, where it was done, when it was done, and by whom it was done in order to compile an accurate risk assessment. Logging the date and time of each detected event provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured network device. In order to establish and correlate the series of events leading up to an outage or attack, it is imperative the date and time are recorded in all log records.

Checks

Determine if the network device is configured to produce audit records containing information to establish when (date and time) the events occurred. If the network device does not produce audit records containing information to establish when the events occurred, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to produce audit records containing information to establish when (date and time) the events occurred.
V-55099 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000097-NDM-000227 Rule ID: SV-69345r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000132

Discussion

In order to compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, it is essential for security personnel to know where events occurred, such as device hardware components, device software modules, session identifiers, filenames, host names, and functionality.

Associating information about where the event occurred within the network device provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured device.

Checks

Determine if the network device is configured to produce audit records containing information to establish where the events occurred. If the network device does not produce audit records containing information to establish where the events occurred, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to produce audit records containing information to establish where the events occurred.
V-55101 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000142-NDM-000245 Rule ID: SV-69347r13_rule Severity: mediumhigh CCI: CCI-000382

Discussion

In order to prevent unauthorized connection of devices, unauthorized transfer of information, or unauthorized tunneling (i.e., embedding of data types within data types), organizations must disable unused or unnecessary physical and logical ports/protocols on information systems.

Network devices are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services provided by default may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations. Additionally, it is sometimes convenient to provide multiple services from a single component (e.g., email and web services); however, doing so increases risk over limiting the services provided by any one component.

To support the requirements and principles of least functionality, the network device must support the organizational requirements providing only essential capabilities and limiting the use of ports, protocols, and/or services to only those required, authorized, and approved
to conduct official business or to address authorized quality of life issues. Some network devices have capabilities enabled by default; if these capabilities are not necessary, they must be disabled. If a particular capability is used, then it must be documented and approved.

Checks

Determine if the network device prohibits the use of all unnecessary and/or nonsecure functions, ports, protocols, and/or services, as defined in the PPSM CAL and vulnerability assessments. If any unnecessary or nonsecure functions are permitted, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to prohibit the use of all unnecessary and/or nonsecure functions, ports, protocols, and/or services, as defined in the PPSM CAL and vulnerability assessments.
V-55103 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000148-NDM-000246 Rule ID: SV-69349r13_rule Severity: mediumhigh CCI: CCI-000764

Discussion

To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, organizational administrators must be uniquely identified and authenticated for all network management accesses to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system.

This control does not apply to the root account (when applicable) or the account of last resort which are considered to be authorized shared accounts.

Checks

Determine if the network device uniquely identifies and authenticates organizational administrators. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server.

If organizational administrators are not uniquely identified and authenticated, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to uniquely identify and authenticate organizational administrators.
V-55105 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000149-NDM-000247 Rule ID: SV-69351r14_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000765

Discussion

Multifactor authentication requires using two or more factors to achieve authentication. Factors include:

(i) something a user knows (e.g., password/PIN);
(ii) something a user has (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or
(iii) something a user is (e.g., biometric).

WithA privileged account the use of multifactor authentication, the ease of access to privileged functions is greatly increased.

Network access is defined as access to an information system by a user (or a process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through a network (e.g., local area network, wide area network, or the Internet)
is defined as an information system account with authorizations of a privileged user.

Network access is defined as access to an information system by a user (or a process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through a network (e.g., LAN, WAN, or the Internet).

This requirement does not apply to the account of last resort or root account. DoD prohibits local user accounts on the device, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account
.

Checks

Determine if the network device is configured to uses multifactor authentication for network access to privileged accounts. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. This requirement may be met throughusers, including administrator accounts. Network access may use of a properly configurimplemented authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. for validation of credentials.

If multifactor authentication is not used for network access to all privileged accounts, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to use multifactor authentication for network access to privileged accounts. This requirement does not apply to the account of last resort or root account. DoD prohibits local user accounts on the device, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account.
V-55107 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000151-NDM-000248 Rule ID: SV-69353r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000767

Discussion

Multifactor authentication is defined as: using two or more factors to achieve authentication.

Factors include:
(i) Something a user knows (e.g., password/PIN);
(ii) Something a user has (e.g., cryptographic identification device, token); or
(iii) Something a user is (e.g., biometric).

To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, privileged users must utilize multifactor authentication to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system.

Local access is defined as access to an organizational information system by a user (or process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through a direct connection without the use of a network.

Applications integrating with the DoD Active Directory and utilizing the DoD CAC are examples of compliant multifactor authentication solutions.


This control does not apply to the account of last resort or root account. DoD prohibits local user accounts on the device, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account.

Checks

Determine if the network device uses multifactor authentication for local access to privileged accounts. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server.

If multifactor authentication is not used for local access to privileged accounts, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to use multifactor authentication for local access to privileged accounts. This control does not apply to the account of last resort or root account. DoD prohibits local user accounts on the device, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account.
V-55109 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000153-NDM-000249 Rule ID: SV-69355r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000770

Discussion

To assure individual accountability and prevent unauthorized access, administrators must be individually identified and authenticated.

Individual accountability mandates that each administrator is uniquely identified. A group authenticator is a shared account or some other form of authentication that allows multiple unique individuals to access the network device using a single account.

If a device allows or provides for group authenticators, it must first individually authenticate administrators prior to implementing group authenticator functionality.

Some devices may not have the need to provide a group authenticator; this is considered a matter of device design. In those instances where the device design includes the use of a group authenticator, this requirement will apply. This requirement applies to accounts created and managed on or by the network device.

Checks

Determine if the network device ensures that administrators are authenticated with an individual authenticator prior to using a group authenticator. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. If the network device does not authenticate administrators with an individual authenticator prior to using a group authenticator, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to ensure administrators are authenticated with an individual authenticator prior to using a group authenticator.
V-55111 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000156-NDM-000250 Rule ID: SV-69357r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001941

Discussion

A replay attack may enable an unauthorized user to gain access to the application. Authentication sessions between the authenticator and the application validating the user credentials must not be vulnerable to a replay attack.

An authentication process resists replay attacks if it is impractical to achieve a successful authentication by recording and replaying a previous authentication message.

Techniques used to address this include protocols using nonces (e.g., numbers generated for a specific one-time use) or challenges (e.g., TLS, WS_Security). Additional techniques include time-synchronous or challenge-response one-time authenticators.

Checks

Determine if the network device implements replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. If the network device does not implement replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to implement replay-resistant authentication mechanisms for network access to privileged accounts.
V-55113 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000163-NDM-000251 Rule ID: SV-69359r13_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000795

Discussion

Inactive identifiers pose a risk to network devices. Attackers that are able to exploit an inactive identifier can potentially obtain and maintain undetected access to the device. Owners of inactive accounts willmay not notice if unauthorized access to their account has been obtained.

Network devices need to track periods of inactivity and disable application identifiers after 35 days of inactivity.


This control does not apply to the account of last resort or root account. DoD prohibits local user accounts on the device, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account.

Checks

Determine if the network device disables identifiers after 35 days of inactivity. This requirement may be verified by configuration review or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication ser for all local identifiers except for the account of last resort or root account. For non-local accounts, ver ify that the device is configured to use thean authentication server.

If
identifiers are not disabledthe network device does not have the capability to automatically disable or remove identifiers after 35 days of inactivity, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to disable identifiers after 35 days of inactivity. For remote logon using the authentication server, configure this capability on the authentication server. Disable or remove unauthorized local identifiers, except for the account of last resort and the root account.
V-55115 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000164-NDM-000252 Rule ID: SV-69361r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000205

Discussion

Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password length is one factor of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password.

The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromise the password.

Checks

Determine if the network device or its associated authentication server enforces a minimum 15-character password length. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. If the network device or its associated authentication server does not enforce a minimum 15-character password length, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to enforce a minimum 15-character password length.
V-55117 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000165-NDM-000253 Rule ID: SV-69363r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000200

Discussion

Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

To meet password policy requirements, passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals.

If the network device allows the user to consecutively reuse their password when that password has exceeded its defined lifetime, the end result is a password that is not changed as per policy requirements.

Checks

Determine if the network device or its associated authentication server prohibits password reuse for a minimum of five generations. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. If the network device or its associated authentication server does not prohibit password reuse for a minimum of five generations, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to prohibit password reuse for a minimum of five generations.
V-55119 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000166-NDM-000254 Rule ID: SV-69365r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000192

Discussion

Use of a complex passwords helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password is, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested be


Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password is, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and
fore the password is compromisedaccount of last resort and root account.

Checks

If multifactor authentication is not supported andWhere passwords are used, check to seeonfirm that the network device or itsand associated authentication server enforces password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results.

If the network device or itsand associated authentication server does not require that at least one upper-case character be used in each password, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or itsand associated authentication server to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one upper-case character be used.
V-55121 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000167-NDM-000255 Rule ID: SV-69367r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000193

Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested be


Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and
fore the password is compromisedaccount of last resort and root account.

Checks

If multifactor authentication is not supported andWhere passwords are used, check to seeonfirm that the network device or itsand associated authentication server enforces password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results.

If the network device or itsand associated authentication server does not require that at least one lower-case character be used in each password, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or itsand associated authentication server to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one lower-case character be used.
V-55123 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000168-NDM-000256 Rule ID: SV-69369r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000194

Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested be


Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and
fore the password is compromisedaccount of last resort and root account.

Checks

If multifactor authentication is not supported andWhere passwords are used, check to seeonfirm that the network device or itsand associated authentication server enforces password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results.

If the network device or itsand associated authentication server does not require that at least one numeric character be used in each password, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or itsand associated authentication server to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one numeric character be used.
V-55125 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000169-NDM-000257 Rule ID: SV-69371r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001619

Discussion

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested be


Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and
fore the password is compromisedaccount of last resort and root account.

Checks

If multifactor authentication is not supported andWhere passwords are used, check to seeonfirm that the network device or itsand associated authentication server enforces password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results.

If the network device or itsand associated authentication server does not require that at least one special character be used in each password, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or itsand associated authentication server to enforce password complexity by requiring that at least one special character be used.
V-55127 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000170-NDM-000329 Rule ID: SV-69373r13_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000195

Discussion

: If the application allows the user to consecutively reuse extensive portions of passwords, this increases the chances of password compromise by increasing the window of opportunity for attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

The number of changed characters refers to the number of changes required with respect to the total number of positions in the current password. In other words, characters may be the same within the two passwords; however, the positions of the like characters must be different.


Multifactor authentication (MFA) is required for all administrative and user accounts on network devices, except for an account of last resort and (where applicable) a root account. Passwords should only be used when MFA using PKI is not available, and for the account of last resort and root account.

Checks

If multifactor authentication is not supported, determine if the network device or its associated authentication server requires that when a password is changed,Where passwords are used, confirm the characters are changed in at least 15eight of the positions within the password. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results.

If the network device or itsand associated authentication server does not require that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least 15eight of the positions within the password, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or itsand associated authentication server to require that when a password is changed, the characters are changed in at least 15eight of the positions within the password.
V-55129 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000098-NDM-000228 Rule ID: SV-69375r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000133

Discussion

In order to compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, it is essential for security personnel to know the source of the event. The source may be a component, module, or process within the device or an external session, administrator, or device.

Associating information about where the source of the event occurred provides a means of investigating an attack; recognizing resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or identifying an improperly configured device.

Checks

Determine if the network device is configured to produce audit records containing information to establish the source (apparent cause) of the event. If the network device does not produce audit records containing information to establish the source of the event, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to produce audit records containing information to establish the source of the event.
V-55131 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000171-NDM-000258 Rule ID: SV-69377r13_rule Severity: mediumhigh CCI: CCI-000196

Discussion

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised.

Network devices must enforce
password encryption when storing passwordscryptographic representations of passwords when storing passwords in databases, configuration files, and log files. Passwords must be protected at all times; using a strong one-way hashing encryption algorithm with a salt is the standard method for providing a means to validate a password without having to store the actual password.

Performance and time required to access are factors that must be considered, and the one way hash is the most feasible means of securing the password and providing an acceptable measure of password security. If passwords are stored in clear text, they can be plainly read and easily compromised.

In many instances, verifying the user knows a password is performed using a password verifier. In its simplest form, a password verifier is a computational function that is capable of creating a hash of a password and determining if the value provided by the user matches the stored hash
.

Checks

Review the network device’s files using a text editor or a database tool that allows viewing data stored in database tables. Determine if password strings are readable/discernable.

Determine if the network device or its, and any associated authentication servers, enforces password encryption for storage. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. only storing cryptographic representations of passwords. Verify that databases, configuration files, and log files have encrypted representations of all passwords, and that no password strings are readable/discernable. Potential locations include the local file system where configurations and events are stored, or in a network device related database table. Also identify if the network device uses the MD5 hashing algorithm to create password hashes.

If the network device, or itsany associated authentication servers, stores unencrypted (clear text) representations of passwords, this is a finding.

If the network device uses MD5 hashing algorithm to create password hashes, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to store only encrypted representations of passwords, and any associated authentication servers, to store all passwords using cryptographic representations.

Configure all associated databases, configuration files, and log files to use only encrypted representations of passwords, and that no password strings are readable/discernable.

Potential locations include the local file system where configurations and events are stored, or in a network device-related database table
.
V-55133 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000172-NDM-000259 Rule ID: SV-69379r12_rule Severity: mediumhigh CCI: CCI-000197

Discussion

Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised.

Network devices can accomplish this by making direct function calls to encryption modules or by leveraging operating system encryption capabilities.

Checks

Determine if the network device or its associated authentication server transmits only encrypted representations of passwords. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. If the network device or the associated authentication server transmits unencrypted representations of passwords, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to transmit only encrypted representations of passwords.
V-55135 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000173-NDM-000260 Rule ID: SV-69381r13_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000198

Discussion

Enforcing a minimum password lifetime helps prevent repeated password changes to defeat the password reuse or history enforcement requirement.

Restricting this setting limits the user's ability to change their password. Passwords need to be changed at specific policy-based intervals; however, if the network device allows the user to immediately and continually change their password, then the password could be repeatedly changed in a short period of time to defeat the organization's policy regarding password reuse.


This control does not include root account or the account of last resort. For network devices, implementation of this requirement could cause emergency maintenance issues if applied to these local accounts. For example, after maintenance by maintenance personnel who are not normally authorized access to these passwords, the passwords will need to be changed. This is the same as the requirement to change the password when a system administrator with knowledge of the passwords for the root or account of last resort leaves the organization.

Checks

Determine if the network device or its associated authentication server enforces 24 hours/1 day as the minimum password lifetime. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review.

If the network device or its associated authentication server does not enforce 24 hours/1 day as the minimum password lifetime, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to enforce 24 hours/1 day as the minimum password lifetime.
V-55137 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000099-NDM-000229 Rule ID: SV-69383r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000134

Discussion

Without information about the outcome of events, security personnel cannot make an accurate assessment as to whether an attack was successful or if changes were made to the security state of the system.

Event outcomes can include indicators of event success or failure and event-specific results (e.g., the security state of the device after the event occurred). As such, they also provide a means to measure the impact of an event and help authorized personnel to determine the appropriate response.

Checks

Determine if the network device is configured to produce audit records that contain information to establish the outcome of the event. If the network device does not produce audit records that contain information to establish the outcome of the event, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to produce audit records that contain information to establish the outcome of the event.
V-55139 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000174-NDM-000261 Rule ID: SV-69385r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000199

Discussion

Any password, no matter how complex, can eventually be cracked. Therefore, passwords need to be changed at specific intervals.

One method of minimizing this risk is to use complex passwords and periodically change them. If the network device does not limit the lifetime of passwords and force users to change their passwords, there is the risk that the passwords could be compromised.

This requirement does not include
emergency administration accounts which are meant for access to the network device in case of failure. These accounts are not required to have maximum password lifetime restrictionsroot account or the account of last resort which are meant for access to the network device in case of failure.

Checks

Determine if the network device or its associated authentication server enforces a 60-day maximum password lifetime. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review.

If the network device or its associated authentication server does not enforce a 60-day maximum password lifetime, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to enforce a 60-day maximum password lifetime.
V-55141 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000175-NDM-000262 Rule ID: SV-69387r12_rule Severity: mediumhigh CCI: CCI-000185

Discussion

Without path validation, an informed trust decision by the relying party cannot be made when presented with any certificate not already explicitly trusted.

A trust anchor is an authoritative entity represented via a public key and associated data. It is used in the context of public key infrastructures, X.509 digital certificates, and DNSSEC.

When there is a chain of trust, usually the top entity to be trusted becomes the trust anchor; it can be, for example, a Certification Authority (CA). A certification path starts with the subject certificate and proceeds through a number of intermediate certificates up to a trusted root certificate, typically issued by a trusted CA.

This requirement verifies that a certification path to an accepted trust anchor is used for certificate validation and that the path includes status information. Path validation is necessary for a relying party to make an informed trust decision when presented with any certificate not already explicitly trusted. Status information for certification paths includes certificate revocation lists or online certificate status protocol responses. Validation of the certificate status information is out of scope for this requirement.

Checks

IfWhen PKI-based authentication is being used, determine used, verify the network device validates certificates by constructing a certification path to an accepted trust anchor. accepts only certificates issued by a DoD-approved Certificate Authority. Determine if a CA trust point has been configured. The CA trust point will contain the URL for the CA governing the network device. Verify this is a DoD or DoD-approved CA. This requirement may be verified by configuration review or validated test results.

If PKI-based authentication is being used and the network device does not validate certificates by constructing a certification path to an accepted trust anchoraccepts certificates issued by other Certificate Authorities other than a DoD-approved Certificate Authority, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to validate certificates by constructing a certification path to an accepted trust anchor when utilizing PKI-based authenticationaccept only certificates issued by a DoD-approved Certificate Authority.
V-55143 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000100-NDM-000230 Rule ID: SV-69389r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001487

Discussion

Without information that establishes the identity of the subjects (i.e., administrators or processes acting on behalf of administrators) associated with the events, security personnel cannot determine responsibility for the potentially harmful event.

Event identifiers (if authenticated or otherwise known) include, but are not limited to, user database tables, primary key values, user names, or process identifiers.

Checks

Determine if the network device generates audit records containing information that establishes the identity of any individual or process associated with the event. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or validated test results. If the network device does not generate audit records containing information that establishes the identity of any individual or process associated with the event, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate audit records containing information that establishes the identity of any individual or process associated with the event.
V-55145 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000177-NDM-000263 Rule ID: SV-69391r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000187

Discussion

Authorization for access to any network device requires an approved and assigned individual account identifier. To ensure only the assigned individual is using the account, the account must be bound to a user certificate when PKI-based authentication is implemented.

Checks

Determine if the network device maps the authenticated identity to the user account for PKI-based authentication. This requirement may be verified by configuration review or validated test results. If the network device does not map the authenticated identity to the user account for PKI-based authentication, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to map the authenticated identity to the user account for PKI-based authentication.
V-55147 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000101-NDM-000231 Rule ID: SV-69393r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000135

Discussion

Reconstruction of harmful events or forensic analysis is not possible if audit records do not contain enough information.

Organizations consider limiting the additional audit information to only that information explicitly needed for specific audit requirements. The additional information required is dependent on the type of information (i.e., sensitivity of the data and the environment within which it resides). At a minimum, the organization must audit full-text recording of privileged commands. The organization must maintain audit trails in sufficient detail to reconstruct events to determine the cause and impact of compromise.

Checks

Determine if the network device generates audit records containing the full-text recording of privileged commands. If such audit records are not being generated, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate audit records containing the full-text recording of privileged commands.
V-55149 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000178-NDM-000264 Rule ID: SV-69395r12_rule Severity: mediumhigh CCI: CCI-000206

Discussion

To prevent the compromise of authentication information such as passwords during the authentication process, the feedback from the network device must not provide any information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise the authentication mechanism.

Obfuscation of user-provided information when typed into the system is a method used in addressing this risk. For example, displaying asterisks when a user types in a password is an example of obscuring feedback of authentication information.

Checks

Determine if the network device obscures feedback of authentication information during the authentication process. This requirement may be verified by demonstration. If the network device does not obscure feedback of authentication information during the authentication process, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to obscure feedback of authentication information during the authentication process.
V-55151 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000108-NDM-000232 Rule ID: SV-69397r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000139

Discussion

It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without this notification, the security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability and system operation may be adversely affected.

Audit processing failures include software/hardware errors, failures in the audit capturing mechanisms, and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded.

Checks

Determine if the network device is configured to alert the ISSO and SA (at a minimum) in the event of an audit processing failure. This requirement can be met by a central audit server if the network device is configured to send audit logs to that audit server. If the ISSO and SA are not being alerted in the event of an audit processing failure, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to alert the ISSO and SA (at a minimum) in the event of an audit processing failure.
V-55153 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000179-NDM-000265 Rule ID: SV-69399r13_rule Severity: mediumhigh CCI: CCI-000803

Discussion

Unapproved mechanisms that are used for authentication to the cryptographic module are not verifialidated and therefore cannot be relied upon to provide confidentiality or integrity, and DoD data may be compromised.

Network devices utilizing encryption are required to use FIPS-compliant mechanisms for authenticating to cryptographic modules.

FIPS 140-2 is the current standard for validating that mechanisms used to access cryptographic modules utilize authentication that meets DoD requirements.
However, authentication algorithms must configure security processes to use only FIPS-approved and NIST-recommended authentication algorithms.

Checks

Determine if the network device uses mechanisms meeting the requirements of applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance for authentication to a cryptographic module. This requirement may be verified by validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. If the network device or its associated authentication server uses mechanisms that do not meet the requirements for authenticationFIPS 140-2 approved algorithms for authentication to a cryptographic module.

If the network device is configured to use a FIPS-approved authentication algorithm
to a cryptographic module, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to use mechanisms meeting the requirements of applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidanceto use FIPS 140-2 approved algorithms for authentication to a cryptographic module.
V-55155 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000186-NDM-000266 Rule ID: SV-69401r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000879

Discussion

If a device management session or connection remains open after management is completed, it may be hijacked by an attacker and used to compromise or damage the network device.

Nonlocal device management and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network.

In the event the remote node has abnormally terminated or an upstream link from the managed device is down, the management session will be terminated, thereby freeing device resources and eliminating any possibility of an unauthorized user being orphaned to an open idle session of the managed device.

Checks

Determine if the network device terminates all sessions and network connections when nonlocal device maintenance is completed. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or validated test results. If the network device does not terminate all sessions and network connections when nonlocal device maintenance is complete, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to terminate all sessions and network connections when nonlocal device maintenance is completed.
V-55157 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000109-NDM-000233 Rule ID: SV-69403r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000140

Discussion

It is critical that when the network device is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required, it take action to mitigate the failure. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors; failures in the audit capturing mechanisms; and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded. Responses to audit failure depend upon the nature of the failure mode.

When availability is an overriding concern,
bother approved actions of the following approved actions must be performed in response to an audit failure are as follows:

(i) If the failure was caused by the lack of audit record storage capacity, the network device must continue generating audit records if possible (automatically restarting the audit service if necessary), overwriting the oldest audit records in a first-in-first-out manner.
(ii) If audit records are sent to a centralized collection server and communication with this server is lost or the server fails, the network device must queue audit records locally until communication is restored or until the audit records are retrieved manually. Upon restoration of the connection to the centralized collection server, action should be taken to synchronize the local audit data with the collection server.

Checks

Determine if the network device shuts down by default upon audit failure. When availability is an overriding concern, responses described in the vulnerability discussion mayust be used. These may be verified by demonstration, validated test results, or TTPs.

If the network device does not shut down by default upon audit failure or, when availability is an overriding concern, perform responses describedand described responses in the vulnerability discussion are not performed, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to shut down by default upon audit failure or, when availability is an overriding concern, perform responses described in the vulnerability discussion.
V-55159 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000190-NDM-000267 Rule ID: SV-69405r12_rule Severity: mediumhigh CCI: CCI-001133

Discussion

Terminating an idle session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been left unattended. In addition, quickly terminating an idle session will also free up resources committed by the managed network element.

Terminating network connections associated with communications sessions includes, for example, de-allocating associated TCP/IP address/port pairs at the operating system level, or de-allocating networking assignments at the application level if multiple application sessions are using a single, operating system-level network connection. This does not mean that the device terminates all sessions or network access; it only ends the inactive session and releases the resources associated with that session.

Checks

Determine if the network device terminates the connection associated with a device management session at the end of the session or after 10 minutes of inactivity. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. If the network device does not terminate the connection associated with a device management session at the end of the session or after 10 minutes of inactivity, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to terminate the connection associated with a device management session at the end of the session or after 10 minutes of inactivity.
V-55161 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000220-NDM-000268 Rule ID: SV-69407r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001185

Discussion

Captured sessions can be reused in "replay" attacks. This requirement limits the ability of adversaries to capture and to continue to employ previously valid session IDs.

This requirement is applicable to devices that use a web interface for device management.

Session IDs are tokens generated by web applications to uniquely identify an application user's session. Applications will make application decisions and execute business logic based on the session ID. Unique session identifiers or IDs are the opposite of sequentially generated session IDs which can be easily guessed by an attacker. Unique session IDs help to reduce predictability of said identifiers. If a device uses a web interface for device management, when an administrator logs out, or when any other session termination event occurs, the device management web application must invalidate the session identifier to minimize the potential for an attacker to hijack that particular management session.

Checks

If the network device uses a web interface for device management, determine if the network device invalidates session identifiers upon administrator logout or other session termination. This requirement may be verified by validated test results. If the network device does not invalidate session identifiers upon administrator logout or other session termination, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to invalidate session identifiers upon administrator logout or other session termination.
V-55163 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000223-NDM-000269 Rule ID: SV-69409r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001664

Discussion

Network device management web interfaces utilize sessions and session identifiers to control management interface behavior and administrator access. If an attacker can guess the session identifier or can inject or manually insert session information, the session may be compromised.

Unique session IDs address man-in-the-middle attacks, including session hijacking or insertion of false information into a session. If the attacker is unable to identify or guess the session information related to pending application traffic, they will have more difficulty in hijacking the session or otherwise manipulating valid sessions.

Checks

If the network device uses a web interface for device management, determine if it recognizes only system-generated session identifiers. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. If the network device recognizes other session identifiers than the system-generated ones, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to recognize only system-generated session identifiers.
V-55165 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000116-NDM-000234 Rule ID: SV-69411r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000159

Discussion

In order to determine what is happening within the network infrastructure or to resolve and trace an attack, the network device must support the organization's capability to correlate the audit log data from multiple network devices to acquire a clear understanding of events. In order to correlate auditable events, time stamps are needed on all of the log records.

If the internal clock is not used, the system may not be able to provide time stamps for log messages. Additionally, externally generated time stamps may not be accurate. Applications can use the capability of an operating system or purpose-built module for this purpose. (Note that the internal clock is required to be synchronized with authoritative time sources by other requirements.)

Checks

Determine if the network device uses internal system clocks to generate time stamps for audit records. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration, or validated test results. If the network device does not use internal system clocks to generate time stamps for audit records, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to use internal system clocks to generate time stamps for audit records.
V-55167 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000224-NDM-000270 Rule ID: SV-69413r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001188

Discussion

Sequentially generated session IDs can be easily guessed by an attacker. Employing the concept of randomness in the generation of unique session identifiers helps to protect against brute-force attacks to determine future session identifiers.

Unique session IDs address man-in-the-middle attacks, including session hijacking or insertion of false information into a session. If the attacker is unable to identify or guess the session information related to pending application traffic, they will have more difficulty in hijacking the session or otherwise manipulating valid sessions.

This requirement is applicable to devices that use a web interface for device management.

Checks

If the network device uses a web interface for device management, determine if it generates unique session identifiers using a FIPS 140-2 approved random number generator. This requirement may be verified by validated NIST certification and vendor documentation. If the network device does not use unique session identifiers for its web interface for device management, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate unique session identifiers using a FIPS 140-2 approved random number generator.
V-55169 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000118-NDM-000235 Rule ID: SV-69415r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000162

Discussion

Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity.

If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In addition, access to audit records provides information an attacker could use to his or her advantage.

To ensure the veracity of audit data, the information system and/or the network device must protect audit information from any and all unauthorized read access.

This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods which will depend upon system architecture and design. Commonly employed methods for protecting audit information include least privilege permissions as well as restricting the location and number of log file repositories.

Additionally, network devices with user interfaces to audit records should not allow for the unfettered manipulation of or access to those records via the device interface. If the device provides access to the audit data, the device becomes accountable for ensuring audit information is protected from unauthorized access.

Checks

Determine if the network device protects audit information from any type of unauthorized read access with such methods as least privilege permissions, restrictions on the location and number of log file repositories and not allowing for the unfettered manipulation of or access to audit records via the device interface. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration, or validated test results. If the network device does not protect audit information from any type of unauthorized read access, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to protect audit information from any type of unauthorized read access.
V-55171 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000231-NDM-000271 Rule ID: SV-69417r23_rule Severity: mediumhigh CCI: CCI-001199

Discussion

This requirement is intended to address the confidentiality and integrity of system information at rest (e.g., network device rule sets) when it is located on a storage device within the network device or as a component of the network device. This protection is required to prevent unauthorized alteration, corruption, or disclosure of information when not stored directly on the network device.

Files on the network device or on removable media used by the device must have their permissions set to allow read or write access to those accounts that are specifically authorized to access or change them. Note that different administrative accounts or roles will have varying levels of access.

File permissions must be set so that only authorized administrators can read or change their contents. Whenever files are written to removable media and the media removed from the device, the media must be handled appropriately for the classification and sensitivity of the data stored on the device.

Checks

List the contents of the network device’s local storage, including any drives supporting removable media (such as flash drives or CDs) and check the file permissions of all files on those drives. If any files allow read or write access by accounts not specifically authorized access or by non-privileged accounts, this is a finding.

Fix

Set the file permissions on files on the network device or on removable media used by the device so that only authorized administrators can read or change their contents.
V-55173 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000119-NDM-000236 Rule ID: SV-69419r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000163

Discussion

Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit network device activity.

If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve.

To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized modification.

This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions and limiting log data locations.

Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights that the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the modification of audit data.

Checks

Determine if the network device protects audit information from any type of unauthorized modification with such methods as ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions, limiting log data locations and leveraging user permissions and roles to identify the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights that the user enjoys. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration, or validated test results. If the network device does not protect audit information from unauthorized modification, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to protect audit information from unauthorized modification.
V-55175 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000234-NDM-000272 Rule ID: SV-69421r24_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001682

Discussion

Emergency accounts are administrator accounts which are established in response to crisis situations where the need for rapid account activation is required. Therefore, emergency account activation may bypass normal account authorization processes.

If emergencythese accounts aremain active when no longer needed, they may be used to gain unauthorized access. The risk is greater for t automatically disabled, system maintenance during emergencies may not be possible, thus adversely affecting system availability.

Emergency accounts are different from infrequently used accounts (i.e., local logon accounts used by system administrators w
hen network device since theor normal logon/access is not available). Infrequently used accounts have elevated privileges. To mitigate this risk,also remain available and are not subject to automatedic termination of these accounts must be set upon account creation.

It is important to note the difference between emergency accounts and the emergency administration account. The emergency administr
dates. However, an emergency account is normally a different account that is created for use by vendors or system maintainers.

To address access requirements, many application developers choose to integrate their applications with enterprise-level authentic
ation /account, also known as the acess mechanisms that meet or exceed access count of last resort, is an infrequently used account used by network administrators only when network or normal logon/access is not available. The emergency administrarol policy requirements. Such integration allows the application developer to off-load those access control functions account is not subject to automatic termination datesnd focus on core application features and functionality.

Checks

Review the network device configurIf the use of emergency administrator accounts is prohibited by the organization, to determine if it automatically disables or removes emergency accounts, except the emergency administration account, after 72 hours or is configured to use an authentication server which would perform this function. If the use of emergency accounts is prohibithis is not a finding.
If the system does not have the capability to remove or disable accounts based on account type or cannot be configured to remove or disable accounts automatically, this is not a finding.

Interview site personnel and ask if emergency administrator accounts are allow
ed, this is not a finding. If the network device or its associated authentication server does not automatically disable or remove emergency accounts, except theo be configured locally on the network device. Review the network device configuration to determine if it is configured to automatically disable or remove emergency administrator accounts.

If an
emergency administrationor account, after 72 hours type has been configured to be automatically removed or disabled, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication serverRemove the expiration date or other method which is used to automatically disable or remove emergency accounts, except the emergency administrationor account, after 72 hours. An acceptable method would be to place an expiration date on the accounts upon creations which are configured on the network device.
V-55177 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000267-NDM-000273 Rule ID: SV-69423r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001314

Discussion

Only authorized personnel should be aware of errors and the details of the errors. Error messages are an indicator of an organization's operational state. Additionally, sensitive account information must not be revealed through error messages to unauthorized personnel or their designated representatives.

Checks

Determine if the network device is configured to reveal error messages only to authorized individuals. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. This requirement can be met by a central audit server if the network device is configured to send audit logs to that audit server. If the network device reveals error messages to any unauthorized individuals, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated audit server to reveal error messages only to authorized individuals.
V-55179 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000120-NDM-000237 Rule ID: SV-69425r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000164

Discussion

Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity.

If audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve.

To ensure the veracity of audit data, the network device must protect audit information from unauthorized deletion. This requirement can be achieved through multiple methods, which will depend upon system architecture and design. Some commonly employed methods include: ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions utilizing file system protections, restricting access, and backing up log data to ensure log data is retained.

Network devices providing a user interface to audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the deletion of audit data.

Checks

Determine if the network device protects audit information from any type of unauthorized deletion with such methods as ensuring log files receive the proper file system permissions utilizing file system protections, restricting access to log data and backing up log data to ensure log data is retained, and leveraging user permissions and roles to identify the user accessing the data and the corresponding rights the user enjoys. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration, or validated test results. If the network device does not protect audit information from unauthorized deletion, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to protect audit information from unauthorized deletion.
V-55181 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000268-NDM-000274 Rule ID: SV-69427r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Predictable failure prevention requires organizational planning to address device failure issues. If components key to maintaining the device's security fail to function, the device could continue operating in an insecure state. If appropriate actions are not taken when a network device failure occurs, a denial of service condition may occur which could result in mission failure since the network would be operating without a critical security monitoring and prevention function. Upon detecting a failure of network device security components, the network device must activate a system alert message, send an alarm, or shut down.

Checks

Determine if the network device activates a system alert message, sends an alarm, and/or automatically shuts down when a component failure is detected. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. If the network device does not activate a system alert message, send an alarm, or automatically shut down when a component failure is detected, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to activate a system alert message, send an alarm, and/or automatically shut down when a component failure is detected.
V-55183 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000121-NDM-000238 Rule ID: SV-69429r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001493

Discussion

Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Therefore, protecting audit tools is necessary to prevent unauthorized operation on audit data.

Network devices providing tools to interface with audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the tools and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the access to audit tools.

Audit tools include, but are not limited to, vendor-provided and open source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records. Audit tools include custom queries and report generators.

Checks

If the network device provides audit tools, check the device to determine if it protects audit tools from unauthorized access. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. If the network device does not protect its audit tools from unauthorized access, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to protect audit tools from unauthorized access.
V-55185 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000291-NDM-000275 Rule ID: SV-69431r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001683

Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply create a new account. Notification of account creation is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of accounts and notifies administrators and Information Assurance Officers (IAO). Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Checks

Determine if the network device generates alerts that can be forwarded to the administrators and IAO when accounts are created. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. If the network device is configured to use an authentication server which would perform this function, this is not a finding. If alerts are not generated when accounts are created and forwarded to the administrators and IAO, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to send a notification message to the administrators and IAO when accounts are created.
V-55187 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000292-NDM-000276 Rule ID: SV-69433r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001684

Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply modify an existing account. Notification of account modification is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the modification of device administrator accounts and notifies administrators and Information Assurance Officers (IAO)SSO. Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously modified and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

The network device must generate the alert.
Notification may be done by a management server.Notification may be done by a management server. This control applies to locally defined accounts, including the root account and the account of last resort.

Checks

Determine if the network device generates alerts that can be forwarded to the administrators and IASSO when accounts are modified. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. If the network device is configured to use an authentication server which would perform this function, this is not a finding.

If alerts are not generated when accounts are modified and forwarded to the administrators and IASSO, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to send a notification message to the administrators and IASSO when accounts are modified.
V-55189 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000293-NDM-000277 Rule ID: SV-69435r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001685

Discussion

When application accounts are disabled, administrator accessibility is affected. Accounts are utilized for identifying individual device administrators or for identifying the device processes themselves.

In order to detect and respond to events that affect administrator accessibility and device processing, devices must audit account disabling actions and, as required, notify the appropriate individuals so they can investigate the event. Such a capability greatly reduces the risk that device accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and also provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Checks

Determine if the network device generates alerts that can be forwarded to the administrators and IAO when accounts are disabled. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. If the network device is configured to use an authentication server which would perform this function, this is not a finding. If alerts are not generated when accounts are disabled and forwarded to the administrators and IAO, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to send a notification message to the administrators and IAO when accounts are disabled.
V-55191 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000122-NDM-000239 Rule ID: SV-69437r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001494

Discussion

Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Therefore, protecting audit tools is necessary to prevent unauthorized operation on audit data.

Network devices providing tools to interface with audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the tools and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the access to audit tools.

Audit tools include, but are not limited to, vendor-provided and open source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records. Audit tools include custom queries and report generators.

Checks

If the network device provides audit tools, check the device to determine if it protects audit tools from unauthorized modification. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. If the network device does not protect its audit tools from unauthorized modification, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to protect audit tools from unauthorized modification.
V-55193 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000294-NDM-000278 Rule ID: SV-69439r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001686

Discussion

When application accounts are removed, administrator accessibility is affected. Accounts are utilized for identifying individual device administrators or for identifying the device processes themselves.

In order to detect and respond to events that affect administrator accessibility and device processing, devices must audit account removal actions and, as required, notify the appropriate individuals so they can investigate the event. Such a capability greatly reduces the risk that device accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and also provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Checks

Determine if the network device generates alerts that can be forwarded to the administrators and IAO when accounts are removed. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. If the network device is configured to use an authentication server which would perform this function, this is not a finding. If alerts are not generated when accounts are removed and forwarded to the administrators and IAO, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to send a notification message to the administrators and IAO when accounts are removed.
V-55195 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000295-NDM-000279 Rule ID: SV-69441r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002361

Discussion

Automatic session termination addresses the termination of administrator-initiated logical sessions in contrast to the termination of network connections that are associated with communications sessions (i.e., network disconnect). A logical session (for local, network, and remote access) is initiated whenever an administrator (or process acting on behalf of a user) accesses a network device. Such administrator sessions can be terminated (and thus terminate network administrator access) without terminating network sessions.

Session termination terminates all processes associated with an administrator's logical session except those processes that are specifically created by the administrator (i.e., session owner) to continue after the session is terminated.

Conditions or trigger events requiring automatic session termination can include, for example, organization-defined periods of user inactivity, targeted responses to certain types of incidents, and time-of-day restrictions on information system use. These conditions will vary across environments and network device types.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if the device automatically terminates an administrator session after organization-defined conditions or trigger events requiring session disconnect. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. If the device does not automatically terminate an administrator session under the designated conditions or trigger events, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to automatically terminate an administrator session after organization-defined conditions or trigger events requiring session disconnect.
V-55197 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000296-NDM-000280 Rule ID: SV-69443r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002363

Discussion

If an administrator cannot explicitly end a device management session, the session may remain open and be exploited by an attacker; this is referred to as a zombie session.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if it provides a logout capability for administrator-initiated communication sessions. This requirement may be verified by demonstration. If the network device does not provide a logout capability for these sessions, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to provide a logout capability for administrator-initiated communication sessions.
V-55199 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000297-NDM-000281 Rule ID: SV-69445r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002364

Discussion

If an explicit logout message is not displayed and the administrator does not expect to see one, the administrator may inadvertently leave a management session un-terminated. The session may remain open and be exploited by an attacker; this is referred to as a zombie session. Administrators need to be aware of whether or not the session has been terminatedThe session may remain open and be exploited by an attacker; this is referred to as a zombie session. Administrators need to be aware of whether or not the session has been terminated.

A prompt for new logon is an acceptable indication of previous session termination. If the device takes the user back to the logon page or prompt after selecting the logoff button, it is considered an explicit logout message. In the case of terminal sessions (such as SSH), an explicit logoff message is displayed by the client application. Usually this is a message such as "connect closed by remote host" displayed by the client. For a terminal connected to the console port of a network device, either a logoff message is displayed or the device takes the user back to the logon prompt
.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if it displaysThis requirement may be verified by demonstration. If an explicit logoutff message to administrators indicating the reliable termination of authenticated communications sessions. This requirement may be verified by demonstration. If an explicit logout message is not displayis not displayed, or provides clear evidence that the session has been terminated, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to display an explicit logoutff message to administrators indicating the reliable termination of authenticated communications sessions. This may be a capability the device is inherently capable of.
V-55201 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000317-NDM-000282 Rule ID: SV-69447r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002142

Discussion

A shared/group account credential is a shared form of authentication that allows multiple individuals to access the network device using a single account. If shared/group account credentials are not terminated when individuals leave the group, the user that left the group can still gain access even though they are no longer authorized. There may also be instances when specific user actions need to be performed on the network device without unique administrator identification or authentication. Examples of credentials include passwords and group membership certificates.

Checks

Determine if the network device terminates shared/group account credentials when members leave the group. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. This requirement is not applicable if the device does not support shared/group credentials. If the network device does not terminate shared/group credentials when members leave the group, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to terminate shared/group account credentials when members leave the group.
V-55203 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000319-NDM-000283 Rule ID: SV-69449r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002130

Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply enable a new or disabled account. Notification of account enabling is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of application user accounts and notifies administrators and Information Assurance Officers (IAO). Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously created and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

Checks

Determine if the network device automatically audits account enabling actions. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. If account enabling actions are not automatically audited, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to automatically audit account enabling actions.
V-55205 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000123-NDM-000240 Rule ID: SV-69451r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001495

Discussion

Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Therefore, protecting audit tools is necessary to prevent unauthorized operations on audit data.

Network devices providing tools to interface with audit data will leverage user permissions and roles identifying the user accessing the tools and the corresponding rights the user enjoys in order to make access decisions regarding the access to audit tools.

Audit tools include, but are not limited to, vendor-provided and open source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records. Audit tools include custom queries and report generators.

Checks

If the network device provides audit tools, check to see that the network device protects audit tools from unauthorized deletion. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. If the network device does not protect its audit tools from unauthorized deletion, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to protect audit tools from unauthorized deletion.
V-55207 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000320-NDM-000284 Rule ID: SV-69453r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002132

Discussion

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of reestablishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to simply enable a new or disabled account. Notification of account enabling is one method for mitigating this risk. A comprehensive account management process will ensure an audit trail which documents the creation of application user accounts and notifies SAs and ISSMs. Such a process greatly reduces the risk that accounts will be surreptitiously enabled and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes.

In order to detect and respond to events that affect network administrator accessibility and device processing, network devices must audit account enabling actions and, as required, notify the appropriate individuals so they can investigate the event.

Checks

Determine if the network device generates an immediate alert for account enabling actions. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. If the network device does not generate an immediate alert for account enabling actions, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to generate an immediate alert for account enabling actions.
V-55209 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000125-NDM-000241 Rule ID: SV-69455r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001348

Discussion

Protection of log data includes assuring log data is not accidentally lost or deleted. Regularly backing up audit records to a different system or onto separate media than the system being audited helps to assure, in the event of a catastrophic system failure, the audit records will be retained.

This helps to ensure a compromise of the information system being audited does not also result in a compromise of the audit records.

Checks

Determine if the network device backs up audit records at least every seven days onto a different system or system component than the system or component being audited. This requirement may be verified by configuration review. This requirement can be met by use of a syslog/audit log server if the device is configured to send logs to that server. Backup requirements would be levied on the target server but are not a part of this check. If the network device does not back up audit records at least every seven days onto a different system or system component than the system or component being audited, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to back up audit records at least every seven days onto a different system or system component than the system or component being audited.
V-55211 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000325-NDM-000285 Rule ID: SV-69457r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Protecting access authorization information (i.e., access control decisions) ensures that authorization information cannot be altered, spoofed, or otherwise compromised during transmission.

In distributed information systems, authorization processes and access control decisions may occur in separate parts of the systems. In such instances, authorization information is transmitted securely so timely access control decisions can be enforced at the appropriate locations. To support the access control decisions, it may be necessary to transmit, as part of the access authorization information, supporting security attributes. This is because, in distributed information systems, there are various access control decisions that need to be made, and different entities (e.g., services) make these decisions in a serial fashion, each requiring some security attributes to make the decisions.


The network device must be compliant with at least one IETF standard authentication protocol such as Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS), Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), and Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System Plus (TACACS+). Protocols that are clearly defined in IETF RFC Internet standards (a.k.a. full standards), and are capable of securely conveying authorization information, are suitable for use.

Checks

Determine if the network device transmits organization-defined access authorization information using organization-defined security safeguards to organization-defined information systems which enforce access control decisions. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. If the network device transmits organization-defined access authorization information without using organization-defined security safeguardsReview the device configuration to determine if it uses an IETF Internet standard authentication protocol. Examples include RADIUS, EAP, LDAP, and TACACS+. If it is not configured to use an IETF Internet standard authentication protocol, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to transmit organization-defined access authorization information using organization-defined security safeguards to organization-defined information systems which enforce access control decisionsuse an IETF Internet standard authentication protocol.
V-55213 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000126-NDM-000242 Rule ID: SV-69459r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001350

Discussion

Audit records may be tampered with. If the integrity of audit data were to become compromised, then forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve.

Protection of audit records and audit data, including audit configuration settings, is of critical importance. Cryptographic mechanisms are the industry-established standard used to protect the integrity of audit data. An example of a cryptographic mechanism is the computation and application of a cryptographic-signed hash using asymmetric cryptography.

This requirement is not intended to cause a new cryptographic hash to be generated every time a record is added to a log file.

Checks

Determine if the network device uses cryptographic mechanisms to protect the integrity of audit information. This requirement may be verified by configuration review or validated test results. If the network device does not use cryptographic mechanisms to protect the integrity of audit information, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to use cryptographic mechanisms to protect the integrity of audit information.
V-55215 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000328-NDM-000286 Rule ID: SV-69461r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002165

Discussion

Discretionary Access Control (DAC) is based on the notion that individual network administrators are "owners" of objects and therefore have discretion over who should be authorized to access the object and in which mode (e.g., read or write). Ownership is usually acquired as a consequence of creating the object or via specified ownership assignment. DAC allows the owner to determine who will have access to objects they control. An example of DAC includes user-controlled file permissions.

When discretionary access control policies are implemented, subjects are not constrained with regard to what actions they can take with information for which they have already been granted access. Thus, subjects that have been granted access to information are not prevented from passing (i.e., the subjects have the discretion to pass) the information to other subjects or objects. A subject that is constrained in its operation by Mandatory Access Control policies is still able to operate under the less rigorous constraints of this requirement. Thus, while Mandatory Access Control imposes constraints preventing a subject from passing information to another subject operating at a different sensitivity level, this requirement permits the subject to pass the information to any subject at the same sensitivity level. The policy is bounded by the information system boundary. Once the information is passed outside of the control of the information system, additional means may be required to ensure the constraints remain in effect. While the older, more traditional definitions of discretionary access control require identity-based access control, that limitation is not required for this use of discretionary access control.

The discretionary access control policies and the subjects and objects are defined uniquely for each network device, so they cannot be specified in the requirement.

Checks

Check the network device to determine if organization-defined discretionary access control policies are enforced over defined subjects and objects. If it does not use discretionary access control, this is not a finding. If organization-defined discretionary access control policies are not enforced over defined subjects and objects, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to enforce organization-defined discretionary access control policies over defined subjects and objects.
V-55217 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000329-NDM-000287 Rule ID: SV-69463r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Organizations can create specific roles based on job functions and the authorizations (i.e., privileges) to perform needed operations on organizational information systems associated with the organization-defined roles. When administrators are assigned to the organizational roles, they inherit the authorizations or privileges defined for those roles. RBAC simplifies privilege administration for organizations because privileges are not assigned directly to every administrator (which can be a significant number of individuals for mid- to large-size organizations) but are instead acquired through role assignments. RBAC can be implemented either as a mandatory or discretionary form of access control.

The RBAC policies and the subjects and objects are defined uniquely for each network device, so they cannot be specified in the requirement.

Checks

Determine if the network device enforces role-based access control policy over defined subjects and objects. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. If role-based access control policy is not enforced over defined subjects and objects, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to enforce role-based access control policy over defined subjects and objects.
V-55219 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000131-NDM-000243 Rule ID: SV-69465r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001749

Discussion

Changes to any software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the network device. Verifying software components have been digitally signed using a certificate that is recognized and approved by the organization ensures the software has not been tampered with and has been provided by a trusted vendor.

Accordingly, patches, service packs, or application components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.

Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. The device should not have to verify the software again. This requirement does not mandate DoD certificates for this purpose; however, the certificate used to verify the software must be from an approved CA.

Checks

Determine if the network device prevents the installation of patches, service packs, or application components without verification the software component has been digitally signed using a certificate that is recognized and approved by the organization. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. If the network device does not prevent the installation of patches, service packs, or application components without verification the software component has been digitally signed using a certificate that is recognized and approved by the organization, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to prevent the installation of patches, service packs, or application components without verification the software component has been digitally signed using a certificate that is recognized and approved by the organization.
V-55221 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000340-NDM-000288 Rule ID: SV-69467r12_rule Severity: mediumhigh CCI: CCI-002235

Discussion

Preventing non-privileged users from executing privileged functions mitigates the risk that unauthorized individuals or processes may gain unnecessary access to information or privileges.

Privileged functions include, for example, establishing accounts, performing system integrity checks, or administering cryptographic key management activities. Non-privileged users are individuals that do not possess appropriate authorizations.

Checks

Determine if the network device prevents non-privileged users from executing privileged functions to include disabling, circumventing, or altering implemented security safeguards/countermeasures. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. If the network device does not prevent non-privileged users from executing privileged functions, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to prevent non-privileged users from executing privileged functions.
V-55231 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000373-NDM-000298 Rule ID: SV-69477r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The loss of connectivity to a particular authoritative time source will result in the loss of time synchronization (free-run mode) and increasingly inaccurate time stamps on audit events and other functions.

Multiple time sources provide redundancy by including a secondary source. Time synchronization is usually a hierarchy; clients synchronize time to a local source while that source synchronizes its time to a more accurate source. The network device must utilize an authoritative time server and/or be configured to use redundant authoritative time sources. This requirement is related to the comparison done in CCI-001891.

DoD-approved solutions consist of a combination of a primary and secondary time source using a combination or multiple instances of the following: a time server designated for the appropriate DoD network (NIPRNet/SIPRNet); United States Naval Observatory (USNO) time servers; and/or the Global Positioning System (GPS). The secondary time source must be located in a different geographic region than the primary time source.

Checks

Determine if the network device is configured to synchronize internal information system clocks with the primary and secondary time sources located in different geographic regions using redundant authoritative time sources.

If the network device is not configured to synchronize internal information system clocks with the primary and secondary time sources located in different geographic regions using redundant authoritative time sources, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to synchronize internal information system clocks with the primary and secondary time sources located in different geographic regions using redundant authoritative time sources.
V-55233 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000374-NDM-000299 Rule ID: SV-69479r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001890

Discussion

If time stamps are not consistently applied and there is no common time reference, it is difficult to perform forensic analysis.

Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Time is commonly expressed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), a modern continuation of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), or local time with an offset from UTC.

Checks

Determine if the network device records time stamps for audit records that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review.

If the network device does not record time stamps for audit records that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to record time stamps for audit records that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
V-55235 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000375-NDM-000300 Rule ID: SV-69481r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001889

Discussion

Without sufficient granularity of time stamps, it is not possible to adequately determine the chronological order of records. Time stamps generated by the application include date and time. Granularity of time measurements refers to the degree of synchronization between information system clocks and reference clocks.

Checks

Determine if the network device records time stamps for audit records that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration.

If the network device does not record time stamps for audit records that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to record time stamps for audit records that meet a granularity of one second for a minimum degree of precision.
V-55237 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000377-NDM-000301 Rule ID: SV-69483r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001811

Discussion

Unauthorized software not only increases risk by increasing the number of potential vulnerabilities, it also can contain malicious code. Sending an alert (in real time) when unauthorized software is detected allows designated personnel to take action on the installation of unauthorized software. Note that while the device must generate the alert, the notification may be done by a management server.

Checks

Determine if the network device generates an alert when the unauthorized installation of software is detected. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review. The management/audit server that the network device sends alerts to would typically perform the function of sending these alerts to specific individuals.

If the network device does not generate an alert when the unauthorized installation of software is detected, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate an alert when the unauthorized installation of software is detected.
V-55239 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000378-NDM-000302 Rule ID: SV-69485r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001812

Discussion

Allowing anyone to install software, without explicit privileges, creates the risk that untested or potentially malicious software will be installed on the system. This requirement applies to code changes and upgrades for all network devices.

Checks

Determine if the network device prohibits installation of software without explicit privileged status. This requirement may be verified by demonstration or configuration review.

If installation of software is not prohibited without explicit privileged status, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to prohibit installation of software without explicit privileged status.
V-55243 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000380-NDM-000304 Rule ID: SV-69489r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001813

Discussion

Failure to provide logical access restrictions associated with changes to device configuration may have significant effects on the overall security of the system.

When dealing with access restrictions pertaining to change control, it should be noted that any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the device can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the device.

Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed to obtain access to device components for the purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications.

Logical access restrictions include, for example, controls that restrict access to workflow automation, media libraries, abstract layers (e.g., changes implemented into third-party interfaces rather than directly into information systems), and change windows (e.g., changes occur only during specified times, making unauthorized changes easy to discover).

Checks

Determine if the network device enforces access restrictions associated with changes to device configuration.

If the network device does not enforce such access restrictions, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to enforce access restrictions associated with changes to device configuration.
V-55245 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000381-NDM-000305 Rule ID: SV-69491r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001814

Discussion

Without auditing the enforcement of access restrictions against changes to the device configuration, it will be difficult to identify attempted attacks, and an audit trail will not be available for forensic investigation for after-the-fact actions.

Enforcement actions are the methods or mechanisms used to prevent unauthorized changes to configuration settings. Enforcement action methods may be as simple as denying access to a file based on the application of file permissions (access restriction). Audit items may consist of lists of actions blocked by access restrictions or changes identified after the fact.

Checks

Determine if the network device audits the enforcement actions used to restrict access associated with changes to the device. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review or validated test results.

If the network device does not audit the enforcement actions used to restrict access associated with changes to the device, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to audit the enforcement actions used to restrict access associated with changes to the device.
V-55247 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000389-NDM-000306 Rule ID: SV-69493r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002038

Discussion

Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization.

When devices provide the capability to change security roles, it is critical the user re-authenticate.

In addition to the re-authentication requirements associated with session locks, organizations may require re-authentication of individuals and/or devices in other situations, including (but not limited to) the following circumstances.

(i) When authenticators change;
(ii) When roles change;
(iii) When security categories of information systems change;
(iv) When the execution of privileged functions occurs;
(v) After a fixed period of time; or
(vi) Periodically.

Within the DoD, the minimum circumstances requiring re-authentication are privilege escalation and role changes.

Checks

Determine if the network device requires users to re-authenticate when privilege escalation or role changes occur. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server.

If users are not required to re-authenticate when privilege escalation or role changes occur, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to require users to re-authenticate when privilege escalation or role changes occur.
V-55251 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000391-NDM-000308 Rule ID: SV-69497r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001953

Discussion

The use of PIV credentials facilitates standardization and reduces the risk of unauthorized access.

DoD has mandated the use of the CAC to support identity management and personal authentication for systems covered under HSPD 12, as well as a primary component of layered protection for national security systems.

Checks

Determine if the network device accepts PIV credentials. This requirement may be verified by demonstration. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server.

If the network device does not accept PIV credentials, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to accept PIV credentials.
V-55253 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000392-NDM-000309 Rule ID: SV-69499r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001954

Discussion

The use of PIV credentials facilitates standardization and reduces the risk of unauthorized access.

DoD has mandated the use of the CAC to support identity management and personal authentication for systems covered under HSPD 12, as well as a primary component of layered protection for national security systems.

Checks

Determine if the network device electronically verifies PIV credentials. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server.

If the network device does not electronically verify PIV credentials, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to electronically verify PIV credentials.
V-55255 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000395-NDM-000310 Rule ID: SV-69501r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001967

Discussion

Without authenticating devices, unidentified or unknown devices may be introduced, thereby facilitating malicious activity. Bidirectional authentication provides stronger safeguards to validate the identity of other devices for connections that are of greater risk.

A local connection is any connection with a device communicating without the use of a network. A network connection is any connection with a device that communicates through a network (e.g., local area or wide area network, Internet). A remote connection is any connection with a device communicating through an external network (e.g., the Internet).

Because of the challenges of applying this requirement on a large scale, organizations are encouraged to only apply the requirement to those limited number (and type) of devices that truly need to support this capability.
For network device management, this has been determined to be network management device addresses, SNMP authentication, and NTP authentication.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if the network device authenticates network management, SNMP, and NTP endpoint devices before establishing a local, remote, and/or network connection using bidirectional authentication that is cryptographically based.

If the network device does not authenticate the endpoint
devices before establishing a connection using bidirectional authentication that is cryptographically based, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to authenticate network management, SNMP, and NTP endpoint devices before establishing a local, remote, and/or network connection using bidirectional authentication that is cryptographically based.
V-55257 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000396-NDM-000311 Rule ID: SV-69503r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Dynamic identifier management prevents disruption of operations by minimizing the need for system restarts. Dynamic establishment of new identifiers will occur while the system is operational. New identifiers or changes to existing identifiers must take effect without the need for a system or session restart. Preestablished trust relationships and mechanisms with appropriate authorities (e.g., Active Directory or authentication server) which validate each identifier are essential to prevent unauthorized access by changed or revoked accounts.

Checks

Determine if the network device dynamically manages identifiers. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server.

If identifiers are not dynamically managed, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to dynamically manage identifiers.
V-55259 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000397-NDM-000312 Rule ID: SV-69505r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002041

Discussion

Without providing this capability, an account may be created without a password. Non-repudiation cannot be guaranteed once an account is created if a user is not forced to change the temporary password upon initial login.

Temporary passwords are typically used to allow access to applications when new accounts are created or passwords are changed. It is common practice for administrators to create temporary passwords for user accounts that allow the users to log in yet force them to change the password once they have successfully authenticated.

Checks

Determine if the network device allows the use of a temporary password for system logons with an immediate change to a permanent password. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server.

If the use of a temporary password for system logons with an immediate change to a permanent password is not allowed, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to allow the use of a temporary password for system logons with an immediate change to a permanent password.
V-55261 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000400-NDM-000313 Rule ID: SV-69507r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002007

Discussion

Some authentication implementations can be configured to use cached authenticators.

If cached authentication information is out-of-date, the validity of the authentication information may be questionable.

The organization-defined time period should be established for each device depending on the nature of the device; for example, a device with just a few administrators in a facility with spotty network connectivity may merit a longer caching time period than a device with many administrators.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if the network device or its associated authentication server prohibits the use of cached authenticators after an organization-defined time period.

If cached authenticators are used after an organization-defined time period, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device or its associated authentication server to prohibit the use of cached authenticators after an organization-defined time period.
V-55263 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000408-NDM-000314 Rule ID: SV-69509r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

There are security-related issues arising from software brought into the network device specifically for diagnostic and repair actions (e.g., a software packet sniffer installed on a device in order to troubleshoot system traffic, or a vendor installing or running a diagnostic application in order to troubleshoot an issue with a vendor-supported device). If maintenance tools are used by unauthorized personnel, they may accidentally or intentionally damage or compromise the system.

This requirement addresses security-related issues associated with maintenance tools used specifically for diagnostic and repair actions on organizational network devices. Maintenance tools can include hardware, software, and firmware items. Maintenance tools are potential vehicles for transporting malicious code, either intentionally or unintentionally, into a facility and subsequently into organizational information systems. Maintenance tools can include, for example, hardware/software diagnostic test equipment and hardware/software packet sniffers. This requirement does not cover hardware/software components that may support information system maintenance yet are a part of the system (e.g., the software implementing "ping," "ls," "ipconfig," or the hardware and software implementing the monitoring port of an Ethernet switch).

Checks

Determine if the network device restricts the use of maintenance functions to authorized personnel only.

If other personnel can use maintenance functions on the network device, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to restrict use of maintenance functions to authorized personnel only.
V-55265 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000411-NDM-000330 Rule ID: SV-69511r13_rule Severity: mediumhigh CCI: CCI-002890

Discussion

This requires the use of secure protocolsUnapproved mechanisms that are used for authentication to the cryptographic module are not verified and therefore cannot be relied upon to provide confidentiality or instead of their unsecured counterparts, such as SSH instead of telnet, SCP instead of FTP, and HTTPS instead of HTTP. If unsecured protocols (lacking cryptographic mechanisms) are used for sessions, the contents of those sessions will be susceptible to manipulation, potentially allowing alteration and hijacking of maintenance sessiongrity, and DoD data may be compromised.

Nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network, either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network.

Currently, HMAC is the only FIPS-approved algorithm for generating and verifying message/data authentication codes in accordance with FIPS 198-1. Products that are FIPS 140-2 validated will have an HMAC that meets specification; however, the option must be configured for use as the only message authentication code used for authentication to cryptographic modules.

Separate requirements for configuring applications and protocols used by each application (e.g., SNMPv3, SSHv2, NTP, HTTPS, and other protocols and applications that require server/client authentication) are required to implement this requirement. Where SSH is used, the SSHv2 protocol suite is required because it includes Layer 7 protocols such as SCP and SFTP, which can be used for secure file transfer
s.

Checks

Determine Verify the network device implements cryptographic mechanismsuses FIPS-validated HMAC to protect the integrity of nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic communications.

If
any such communications are not protected by cryptographic mechanismthe network device does not use FIPS-validated HMAC to protect the integrity of nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic communications, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to implement cryptographic mechanismsuse FIPS-validated HMAC to protect the integrity of nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic communications.
V-55267 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000412-NDM-000331 Rule ID: SV-69513r12_rule Severity: mediumhigh CCI: CCI-003123

Discussion

This requires the use of secure protocols instead of their unsecured counterparts, such as SSH instead of telnet, SCP instead of FTP, and HTTPS instead of HTTP. If unsecured protocols (lacking cryptographic mechanisms) are used for sessions, the contents of those sessions will be susceptible to eavesdropping, potentially putting sensitive data (including administrator passwords) at risk of compromise and potentially allowing hijacking of maintenance sessions.

Checks

Determine if the network device implements cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic communications.

If any such communications are not protected by cryptographic mechanisms, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to implement cryptographic mechanisms to protect the confidentiality of nonlocal maintenance and diagnostic communications.
V-55269 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000435-NDM-000315 Rule ID: SV-69515r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002385

Discussion

DoS is a condition when a resource is not available for legitimate users. When this occurs, the organization either cannot accomplish its mission or must operate at degraded capacity.

This requirement addresses the configuration of network devices to mitigate the impact of DoS attacks that have occurred or are ongoing on device availability. For each network device, known and potential DoS attacks must be identified and solutions for each type implemented. A variety of technologies exist to limit or, in some cases, eliminate the effects of DoS attacks (e.g., limiting processes or restricting the number of sessions the device opens at one time). Employing increased capacity and bandwidth, combined with service redundancy, may reduce the susceptibility to some DoS attacks.

The security safeguards cannot be defined at the DoD level because they vary according to the capabilities of the individual network devices and the security controls applied on the adjacent networks (for example, firewalls performing packet filtering to block DoS attacks).

Checks

Determine if the network device protects against or limits the effects of all known types of DoS attacks by employing organization-defined security safeguards.

If the network device does not protect against or limit the effects of all known types of DoS attacks by employing organization-defined security safeguards, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to protect against or limit the effects of all known types of DoS attacks by employing organization-defined security safeguards.
V-55271 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000491-NDM-000316 Rule ID: SV-69517r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Mandatory access control policies constrain what actions subjects can take with information obtained from data objects for which they have already been granted access, thus preventing the subjects from passing the information to unauthorized subjects and objects. This class of mandatory access control policies also constrains what actions subjects can take with respect to the propagation of access control privileges; that is, a subject with a privilege cannot pass that privilege to other subjects.

Enforcement of mandatory access control is typically provided via an implementation that meets the reference monitor concept. The reference monitor enforces (mediates) access relationships between all subjects and objects based on privilege and need to know.

The mandatory access control policies are defined uniquely for each network device, so they cannot be specified in the requirement. An example of where mandatory access control may be needed is to prevent administrators from tampering with audit objects.

Checks

Check the network device to determine if organization-defined mandatory access control policies are enforced over all subjects and objects. If it does not use mandatory access control, this is not a finding.

If organization-defined mandatory access control policies are not enforced over all subjects and objects, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to enforce organization-defined mandatory access control policies over all subjects and objects.
V-55273 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000495-NDM-000318 Rule ID: SV-69519r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000172

Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one.

Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Checks

Determine if the network device generates audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to modify administrator privileges occur.

If the network device does not generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to modify administrator privileges occur, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to modify administrator privileges occur.
V-55275 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000499-NDM-000319 Rule ID: SV-69521r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000172

Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one.

Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Checks

Determine if the network device generates audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to delete administrator privileges occur.

If the network device does not generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to delete administrator privileges occur, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful attempts to delete administrator privileges occur.
V-55277 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000503-NDM-000320 Rule ID: SV-69523r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000172

Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one.

Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Checks

Determine if the network device generates audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur.

If it does not generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate audit records when successful/unsuccessful logon attempts occur.
V-55279 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000504-NDM-000321 Rule ID: SV-69525r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000172

Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one.

Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Checks

Determine if the network device generates audit records for privileged activities or other system-level access.

If the network device does not generate audit records for privileged activities or other system-level access, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate audit records for privileged activities or other system-level access.
V-55281 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000505-NDM-000322 Rule ID: SV-69527r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000172

Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one.

Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Checks

Determine if the network device generates audit records showing starting and ending time for administrator access to the system.

If the network device does not generate audit records showing starting and ending time for administrator access to the system, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate audit records showing starting and ending time for administrator access to the system.
V-55283 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000506-NDM-000323 Rule ID: SV-69529r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000172

Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one.

Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Checks

Determine if the network device generates audit records when concurrent logons from different workstations occur.

If the network device does not generate audit records when concurrent logons from different workstations occur, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate audit records when concurrent logons from different workstations occur.
V-55285 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000509-NDM-000324 Rule ID: SV-69531r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000172

Discussion

Without generating audit records that are specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one.

Audit records can be generated from various components within the network device (e.g., module or policy filter).

Checks

Determine if the network device generates audit records for all account creations, modifications, disabling, and termination events.

If the network device does not generate audit records for all account creations, modifications, disabling, and termination events, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate audit records for all account creations, modifications, disabling, and termination events.
V-55287 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000515-NDM-000325 Rule ID: SV-69533r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001851

Discussion

Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration.

Off-loading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity.

Checks

Check the network device configuration to determine if the device off-loads audit records onto a different system or media than the system being audited.

If the device does not off-load audit records onto a different system or media, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to off-load audit records onto a different system or media than the system being audited.
V-55289 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000317 Rule ID: SV-69535r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Configuring the network device to implement organization-wide security implementation guides and security checklists ensures compliance with federal standards and establishes a common security baseline across DoD that reflects the most restrictive security posture consistent with operational requirements.

Configuration settings are the set of parameters that can be changed that affect the security posture and/or functionality of the network device. Security-related parameters are those parameters impacting the security state of the network device, including the parameters required to satisfy other security control requirements.

Checks

Determine if the network device is configured in accordance with the security configuration settings based on DoD security configuration or implementation guidance, including STIGs, NSA configuration guides, CTOs, and DTMs.

If it is not configured in accordance with the designated security configuration settings, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to be configured in accordance with the security configuration settings based on DoD security configuration or implementation guidance, including STIGs, NSA configuration guides, CTOs, and DTMs.
V-55291 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000332 Rule ID: SV-69537r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Administrators need to be aware of activity that occurs regarding their network device management account. Providing administrators with information regarding the date and time of their last successful login allows the administrator to determine if any unauthorized activity has occurred. This incorporates all methods of login including, but not limited to, SSH, HTTP, HTTPS, and physical connectivity. The organization-defined time period is dependent on the frequency with which administrators typically log in to the network device.

Checks

Determine if the network device notifies the administrator of the number of successful login attempts occurring during an organization-defined time period. This can be accomplished by connecting to the network device and noting if the number of successful login attempts is displayed.

If the administrator is not notified of the number of successful login attempts occurring during an organization-defined time period, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to notify the administrator of the number of successful login attempts occurring during an organization-defined time period.
V-55293 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000333 Rule ID: SV-69539r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

By immediately displaying an alarm message, potential security violations can be identified more quickly even when administrators are not logged into the network device. An example of a mechanism to facilitate this would be through the utilization of SNMP traps.

Checks

Determine if the network device uses automated mechanisms to alert security personnel to threats identified by authoritative sources (e.g. CTOs) and IAW with CJCSM 6510.01B.

If the network device does not use automated mechanisms to alert security personnel to threats identified by authoritative sources (e.g. CTOs) and IAW with CJCSM 6510.01B, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to use automated mechanisms to alert security personnel to threats identified by authoritative sources (e.g. CTOs) and IAW with CJCSM 6510.01B.
V-55295 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000334 Rule ID: SV-69541r12_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366169

Discussion

Auditing and logging are key components of any security architecture. Logging the actions of specific events provides a means to investigate an attack; to recognize resource utilization or capacity thresholds; or to identify an improperly configured network device. If auditing is not comprehensive, it will not be useful for intrusion monitoring, security investigations, and forensic analysis.

Checks

Determine if the network device generates audit log events for a locally developed list of auditable events.

If the network device is not configured to generate audit log events for a locally developed list of auditable events, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to generate audit log events for a locally developed list of auditable events.
V-55297 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000335 Rule ID: SV-69543r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000345

Discussion

Changes to the hardware or software components of the network device can have significant effects on the overall security of the network. Therefore, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed administrative access to the network device for implementing any changes or upgrades. This requirement applies to updates of the application files, configuration, ACLs, and policy filters.

Checks

Check the network device to determine if only authorized administrators have permissions for changes, deletions and updates on the network device. Inspect the maintenance log to verify changes are being made only by the system administrators.

If unauthorized users are allowed to change the hardware or software, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to enforce access restrictions associated with changes to the system components.
V-55299 Updated
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000336 Rule ID: SV-69545r13_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The use of authentication servers or other centralized management servers for providing centralized authentication services is required for network devicCentralized management of authentication settings increases the security of remote management. Maintaining local administrator acd nonlocal access methods. This counts for daily usage on each network device without centralized management is not scalable or feasible. Without centralized management, it is likely that credentials for some network devices will be forgotten, leading to delays rol is particularly important protection against the insider threat. With robust centralized management, audit records for administrator account access to the organization's network devices can be more readily analyzed for trends and anomalies. The alternative method of defining administration, which itself leads to delays in remediating production problems and in addressing compromises in a timely fashionor accounts on each device exposes the device configuration to remote access authentication attacks and system administrators with multiple authenticators for each network device.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to d. Determine if it employs automated mechanisms to centrally managany user access accounts other than the account of last resort are configured locally. User access account roles should also be limited to those needed to configure authentication settingrver services.

If a
uthentication settings are not managed centrally using automated mechanismsny User access accounts other than the account of last resort exist on the device, this is a finding.

If authentication services are not configured
, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to employ automated mechanisms to centrally manage authentication settingsRemove all local accounts from the network device except for an account of last resort. Configure the device to use an authentication server for user account authentication services (e.g., AAA or LDAP).
V-55301 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000337 Rule ID: SV-69547r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The use of authentication servers or other centralized management servers for providing centralized authentication services is required for network device management. Maintaining local administrator accounts for daily usage on each network device without centralized management is not scalable or feasible. Without centralized management, it is likely that credentials for some network devices will be forgotten, leading to delays in administration, which itself leads to delays in remediating production problems and in addressing compromises in a timely fashion.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if it employs automated mechanisms to centrally apply authentication settings.

If authentication settings are not applied centrally using automated mechanisms, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to employ automated mechanisms to centrally apply authentication settings.
V-55303 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000338 Rule ID: SV-69549r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

The use of authentication servers or other centralized management servers for providing centralized authentication services is required for network device management. Maintaining local administrator accounts for daily usage on each network device without centralized management is not scalable or feasible. Without centralized management, it is likely that credentials for some network devices will be forgotten, leading to delays in administration, which itself leads to delays in remediating production problems and in addressing compromises in a timely fashion.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if it employs automated mechanisms to centrally verify authentication settings.

If authentication settings are not verified centrally using automated mechanisms, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to employ automated mechanisms to centrally verify authentication settings.
V-55305 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000339 Rule ID: SV-69551r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

This requirement addresses configuration management of the network device. The network device must automatically detect the installation of unauthorized software or hardware onto the device itself. Monitoring may be accomplished on an ongoing basis or by periodic monitoring. Automated mechanisms can be implemented within the network device and/or in another separate information system or device. If the addition of unauthorized components or devices is not automatically detected, then such components or devices could be used for malicious purposes, such as transferring sensitive data to removable media for compromise.

Checks

Determine if the network device employs automated mechanisms to detect the addition of any unauthorized components or devices.

If the network device does not employ automated mechanisms to detect the addition of unauthorized components or devices, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to employ automated mechanisms to detect the addition of unauthorized components or devices.
V-55307 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000340 Rule ID: SV-69553r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

System-level information includes default and customized settings and security attributes, including ACLs that relate to the network device configuration, as well as software required for the execution and operation of the device. Information system backup is a critical step in ensuring system integrity and availability. If the system fails and there is no backup of the system-level information, a denial of service condition is possible for all who utilize this critical network component.

This control requires the network device to support the organizational central backup process for system-level information associated with the network device. This function may be provided by the network device itself; however, the preferred best practice is a centralized backup rather than each network device performing discrete backups.

Checks

Check the network device to determine if the network device is configured to conduct backups of system level information contained in the information system when changes occur or weekly, whichever is sooner.

If the network device does not support the organizational requirements to conduct backups of system-level data according to the defined frequency, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to conduct backups of system-level information contained in the information system when changes occur or weekly, whichever is sooner.
V-55309 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000341 Rule ID: SV-69555r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Information system backup is a critical step in maintaining data assurance and availability. Information system and security-related documentation contains information pertaining to system configuration and security settings. If this information were not backed up, and a system failure were to occur, the security settings would be difficult to reconfigure quickly and accurately. Maintaining a backup of information system and security-related documentation provides for a quicker recovery time when system outages occur.

This control requires the network device to support the organizational central backup process for user account information associated with the network device. This function may be provided by the network device itself; however, the preferred best practice is a centralized backup rather than each network device performing discrete backups.

Checks

Review the network device backup configuration to determine if the network device backs up the information system documentation, including security-related documentation, when changes occur or weekly, whichever is sooner.

If the network device does not backup the information system documentation, including security-related documentation, when changes occur or weekly, whichever is sooner, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to conduct backups of information system documentation, including security-related documentation, when changes occur or weekly, whichever is sooner.
V-55311 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000342 Rule ID: SV-69557r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

Despite the investment in perimeter defense technologies, enclaves are still faced with detecting, analyzing, and remediating network breaches and exploits that have made it past the network device. An automated incident response infrastructure allows network operations to immediately react to incidents by identifying, analyzing, and mitigating any network device compromise. Incident response teams can perform root cause analysis, determine how the exploit proliferated, and identify all affected nodes, as well as contain and eliminate the threat.

The network device assists in the tracking of security incidents by logging detected security events. The audit log and network device application logs capture different types of events. The audit log tracks audit events occurring on the components of the network device. The application log tracks the results of the network device content filtering function. These logs must be aggregated into a centralized server and can be used as part of the organization's security incident tracking and analysis.

Checks

Determine if the network device employs automated mechanisms to assist in the tracking of security incidents.

If such automated mechanisms are not employed, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to employ automated mechanisms to assist in the tracking of security incidents.
V-55313 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000516-NDM-000344 Rule ID: SV-69559r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000366

Discussion

For user certificates, each organization obtains certificates from an approved, shared service provider, as required by OMB policy. For federal agencies operating a legacy public key infrastructure cross-certified with the Federal Bridge Certification Authority at medium assurance or higher, this Certification Authority will suffice.

Checks

Determine if the network device obtains public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider.

If the network device does not obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to obtain its public key certificates from an appropriate certificate policy through an approved service provider.
V-55315 No Change
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000133-NDM-000244 Rule ID: SV-69561r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001499

Discussion

Changes to any software components of the network device can have significant effects on the overall security of the network. Therefore, only qualified and authorized individuals should be allowed administrative access to the network device for implementing any changes or upgrades. If the network device were to enable non-authorized users to make changes to software libraries, those changes could be implemented without undergoing testing, validation, and approval.

Checks

Determine if the network device limits privileges to change the software resident within software libraries.

If it does not limit privileges to change the software resident within software libraries, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to limit privileges to change the software resident within software libraries.
V-63997 Added
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000080-NDM-000345 Rule ID: SV-78487r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002041

Discussion

Network devices not protected with strong password schemes provide the opportunity for anyone to crack the password and gain access to the device, which can result in loss of availability, confidentiality, or integrity of network traffic. Many default vendor passwords are well known or are easily guessed; therefore, not removing them prior to deploying the network device into production provides an opportunity for a malicious user to gain unauthorized access to the device.

Checks

Review the configuration of the network device to determine if the vendor default password is present. This may involve showing the passwords configured on the device in the clear.

Fix

Remove any vendor default passwords from the network device configuration.
V-64001 Added
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000148-NDM-000346 Rule ID: SV-78491r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001358

Discussion

Authentication for administrative (privileged level) access to the device is required at all times. An account can be created on the device's local database for use when the authentication server is down or connectivity between the device and the authentication server is not operable. This account is referred to as the account of last resort since it is intended to be used as a last resort and when immediate administrative access is absolutely necessary. The account of last resort logon credentials must be stored in a sealed envelope and kept in a safe. The safe must be periodically audited to verify the envelope remains sealed. The signature of the auditor and the date of the audit should be added to the envelope as a record. Administrators should secure the credentials and disable the root account (if possible) when not needed for system administration functions.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if there is more than one account enabled Verify that the account of last resort is configured with the privileges needed to perform privileged functions when the authentication server is not available. Verify default admin and other vendor-provided accounts are disabled, removed, or renamed where possible. Verify the username and password for the account of last resort is contained within a sealed envelope and kept in a safe. Check the log to verify periodic auditing has occurred. If one local account does not exist for use as the account of last resort, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the device to only allow one local account for use as the account of last resort.
V-68747 Added
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000395-NDM-000347 Rule ID: SV-83339r2_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-001967

Discussion

If Network Time Protocol is not authenticated, an attacker can introduce a rogue NTP server. This rogue server can then be used to send incorrect time information to network devices, which will make log timestamps inaccurate and affect scheduled actions. NTP authentication is used to prevent this tampering by authenticating the time source.

Checks

Review the network device configuration to determine if the network device authenticates NTP endpoints before establishing a local, remote, or network connection using authentication that is cryptographically based. If the network device does not authenticate Network Time Protocol sources using authentication that is cryptographically based, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to authenticate Network Time Protocol sources using authentication that is cryptographically based.
V-80967 Added
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000175-NDM-000350 Rule ID: SV-95679r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-000185

Discussion

Without path validation, an informed trust decision by the relying party cannot be made when presented with any certificate not already explicitly trusted. When there is a chain of trust, usually the top entity to be trusted becomes the trust anchor; it can be, for example, a Certification Authority (CA). A certification path starts with the subject certificate and proceeds through a number of intermediate certificates up to a trusted root certificate, typically issued by a trusted CA.

Checks

When PKI-based authentication is used, verify the network device does not accept revoked certificates. Determine if the CA trust point defined on the network device references a CRL and that revocation check has been enabled. An alternate mechanism for checking the validity of a certificate is the use of the Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP). Unlike CRLs, which provide only periodic certificate status checks, OCSP can provide timely information regarding the status of a certificate. This requirement may be verified by configuration review or validated test results. If PKI-based authentication is used and the network device accepts revoked certificates, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to not accept revoked certificates.
V-55249 Removed
Findings ID: SRG-APP-000390-NDM-000307 Rule ID: SV-69495r1_rule Severity: medium CCI: CCI-002039

Discussion

Without re-authenticating devices, unidentified or unknown devices may be introduced; thereby facilitating malicious activity.

Checks

Check to see if the network device requires devices to re-authenticate when authenticators change. This requirement may be verified by demonstration, configuration review, or validated test results. This requirement may be met through use of a properly configured authentication server if the device is configured to use the authentication server. If devices are not required to re-authenticate when authenticators change, this is a finding.

Fix

Configure the network device to require devices to re-authenticate when authenticators change.