MS SQL Server 2016 Instance Security Technical Implementation Guide

This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: [email protected]

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Version / Release: V1R10

Published: 2020-06-15

Updated At: 2020-08-15 20:23:25

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Drop CKL or SCAP (XCCDF) results here.

    Vuln Rule Version CCI Severity Title Description Status Finding Details Comments
    SV-93825r1_rule SQL6-D0-003600 CCI-000054 MEDIUM SQL Server must limit the number of concurrent sessions to an organization-defined number per user for all accounts and/or account types. Database management includes the ability to control the number of users and user sessions utilizing SQL Server. Unlimited concurrent connections to SQL Server could allow a successful Denial of Service (DoS) attack by exhausting connection resources; and
    SV-93827r1_rule SQL6-D0-003700 CCI-000015 MEDIUM SQL Server must integrate with an organization-level authentication/access mechanism providing account management and automation for all users, groups, roles, and any other principals. Enterprise environments make account management for applications and databases challenging and complex. A manual process for account management functions adds the risk of a potential oversight or other error. Managing accounts for the same person in multi
    SV-93829r2_rule SQL6-D0-003800 CCI-000015 MEDIUM SQL Server must be configured to utilize the most-secure authentication method available. Enterprise environments make account management for applications and databases challenging and complex. A manual process for account management functions adds the risk of a potential oversight or other error. Managing accounts for the same person in multi
    SV-93831r1_rule SQL6-D0-003900 CCI-000213 HIGH SQL Server must enforce approved authorizations for logical access to information and system resources in accordance with applicable access control policies. Authentication with a DoD-approved PKI certificate does not necessarily imply authorization to access SQL Server. To mitigate the risk of unauthorized access to sensitive information by entities that have been issued certificates by DoD-approved PKIs, al
    SV-93833r1_rule SQL6-D0-004000 CCI-000166 MEDIUM SQL Server must protect against a user falsely repudiating by ensuring all accounts are individual, unique, and not shared. Non-repudiation of actions taken is required in order to maintain data integrity. Examples of particular actions taken by individuals include creating information, sending a message, approving information (e.g., indicating concurrence or signing a contrac
    SV-93835r4_rule SQL6-D0-004100 CCI-000166 HIGH SQL Server must protect against a user falsely repudiating by ensuring the NT AUTHORITY SYSTEM account is not used for administration. Non-repudiation of actions taken is required in order to maintain data integrity. Examples of particular actions taken by individuals include creating information, sending a message, approving information (e.g., indicating concurrence or signing a contrac
    SV-93837r3_rule SQL6-D0-004200 CCI-000166 MEDIUM SQL Server must protect against a user falsely repudiating by ensuring only clearly unique Active Directory user accounts can connect to the instance. Non-repudiation of actions taken is required in order to maintain data integrity. Examples of particular actions taken by individuals include creating information, sending a message, approving information (e.g., indicating concurrence or signing a contrac
    SV-93839r1_rule SQL6-D0-004300 CCI-000169 MEDIUM SQL Server must be configured to generate audit records for DoD-defined auditable events within all DBMS/database components. Without the capability to generate audit records, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within SQ
    SV-93841r1_rule SQL6-D0-004400 CCI-000171 MEDIUM SQL Server must allow only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be audited. Without the capability to restrict which roles and individuals can select which events are audited, unauthorized personnel may be able to prevent or interfere with the auditing of critical events. Suppression of auditing could permit an adversary to ev
    SV-93843r1_rule SQL6-D0-004500 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are retrieved. Under some circumstances, it may be useful to monitor who/what is reading privilege/permission/role information. Therefore, it must be possible to configure auditing to do this. DBMSs typically make such information available through views or functions.
    SV-93845r2_rule SQL6-D0-004600 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to retrieve privileges/permissions occur. Under some circumstances, it may be useful to monitor who/what is reading privilege/permission/role information. Therefore, it must be possible to configure auditing to do this. DBMSs typically make such information available through views or functions.
    SV-93847r1_rule SQL6-D0-004700 CCI-001464 MEDIUM SQL Server must initiate session auditing upon startup. Session auditing is for use when a user's activities are under investigation. To be sure of capturing all activity during those periods when session auditing is in use, it needs to be in operation for the whole time SQL Server is running.
    SV-93851r1_rule SQL6-D0-005500 CCI-000135 MEDIUM SQL Server must include additional, more detailed, organization-defined information in the audit records for audit events identified by type, location, or subject. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Reconstruction of harmful events or forensic analysis is not possible if audit records do not contain enough information. To support analysis, some types of events will nee
    SV-93853r1_rule SQL6-D0-005600 CCI-000140 MEDIUM SQL Server must by default shut down upon audit failure, to include the unavailability of space for more audit log records; or must be configurable to shut down upon audit failure. It is critical that when SQL Server is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required, it takes action to mitigate the failure. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors; failures in the audit capturing mechanisms; and audit storag
    SV-93855r3_rule SQL6-D0-005700 CCI-000140 MEDIUM SQL Server must be configurable to overwrite audit log records, oldest first (First-In-First-Out - FIFO), in the event of unavailability of space for more audit log records. It is critical that when SQL Server is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required, it take action to mitigate the failure. Audit processing failures include; software/hardware errors; failures in the audit capturing mechanisms; and audit storage
    SV-93857r1_rule SQL6-D0-005900 CCI-000162 MEDIUM The audit information produced by SQL Server must be protected from unauthorized read access. If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In addition, access to audit records provides information an
    SV-93859r1_rule SQL6-D0-006000 CCI-000163 MEDIUM The audit information produced by SQL Server must be protected from unauthorized modification. If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data the information system and/or the applica
    SV-93861r1_rule SQL6-D0-006100 CCI-000164 MEDIUM The audit information produced by SQL Server must be protected from unauthorized deletion. If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the information system and/or the appli
    SV-93863r2_rule SQL6-D0-006200 CCI-001493 MEDIUM SQL Server must protect its audit features from unauthorized access. Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Depending upon the log format and application, system and application log tools may provide the only means to manipulate and manage applicati
    SV-93865r1_rule SQL6-D0-006300 CCI-001494 MEDIUM SQL Server must protect its audit configuration from unauthorized modification. Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Therefore, protecting audit tools is necessary to prevent unauthorized operation on audit data. Applications providing tools to interface wit
    SV-93867r1_rule SQL6-D0-006400 CCI-001495 MEDIUM SQL Server must protect its audit features from unauthorized removal. Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Therefore, protecting audit tools is necessary to prevent unauthorized operation on audit data. Applications providing tools to interface wit
    SV-93869r1_rule SQL6-D0-006500 CCI-001499 MEDIUM SQL Server must limit privileges to change software modules and links to software external to SQL Server. If the system were to allow any user to make changes to software libraries, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process. Accordingly, only qualifie
    SV-93871r1_rule SQL6-D0-006600 CCI-001499 MEDIUM SQL Server must limit privileges to change software modules, to include stored procedures, functions and triggers, and links to software external to SQL Server. If the system were to allow any user to make changes to software libraries, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process. Accordingly, only qualifie
    SV-93873r1_rule SQL6-D0-006700 CCI-001499 MEDIUM SQL Server software installation account must be restricted to authorized users. When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can have significant effects on the overall security of the system. If the system
    SV-93875r2_rule SQL6-D0-006800 CCI-001499 MEDIUM Database software, including DBMS configuration files, must be stored in dedicated directories, separate from the host OS and other applications. When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. M
    SV-93877r2_rule SQL6-D0-006900 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Default demonstration and sample databases, database objects, and applications must be removed. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is d
    SV-93879r1_rule SQL6-D0-007000 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Unused database components, DBMS software, and database objects must be removed. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is d
    SV-93881r1_rule SQL6-D0-007100 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Unused database components that are integrated in SQL Server and cannot be uninstalled must be disabled. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is
    SV-93883r1_rule SQL6-D0-007200 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Access to xp_cmdshell must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is
    SV-93885r2_rule SQL6-D0-007300 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Access to CLR code must be disabled or restricted, unless specifically required and approved. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is
    SV-93887r2_rule SQL6-D0-007400 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Access to Non-Standard extended stored procedures must be disabled or restricted, unless specifically required and approved. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is
    SV-93889r1_rule SQL6-D0-007500 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Access to linked servers must be disabled or restricted, unless specifically required and approved. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is detr
    SV-93891r1_rule SQL6-D0-007600 CCI-000382 MEDIUM SQL Server must be configured to prohibit or restrict the use of organization-defined protocols as defined in the PPSM CAL and vulnerability assessments. In order to prevent unauthorized connection of devices, unauthorized transfer of information, or unauthorized tunneling (i.e., embedding of data types within data types), organizations must disable or restrict unused or unnecessary protocols on informatio
    SV-93893r1_rule SQL6-D0-007700 CCI-000382 MEDIUM SQL Server must be configured to prohibit or restrict the use of organization-defined ports, as defined in the PPSM CAL and vulnerability assessments. In order to prevent unauthorized connection of devices, unauthorized transfer of information, or unauthorized tunneling (i.e., embedding of data types within data types), organizations must disable or restrict unused or unnecessary physical and logical po
    SV-93895r1_rule SQL6-D0-007800 CCI-000764 MEDIUM SQL Server must uniquely identify and authenticate organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of organizational users). To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, organizational users must be identified and authenticated to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system. Organizational users include organizational employees or individuals the o
    SV-93897r4_rule SQL6-D0-007900 CCI-000192 MEDIUM If DBMS authentication, using passwords, is employed, SQL Server must enforce the DoD standards for password complexity and lifetime. OS/enterprise authentication and identification must be used (SRG-APP-000023-DB-000001). Native DBMS authentication may be used only when circumstances make it unavoidable; and must be documented and AO-approved. The DoD standard for authentication is
    SV-93899r1_rule SQL6-D0-008000 CCI-000192 MEDIUM Contained databases must use Windows principals. OS/enterprise authentication and identification must be used (SRG-APP-000023-DB-000001). Native DBMS authentication may be used only when circumstances make it unavoidable; and must be documented and AO-approved. The DoD standard for authentication is
    SV-93901r3_rule SQL6-D0-008200 CCI-000197 HIGH If passwords are used for authentication, SQL Server must transmit only encrypted representations of passwords. The DoD standard for authentication is DoD-approved PKI certificates. Authentication based on User ID and Password may be used only when it is not possible to employ a PKI certificate, and requires AO approval. In such cases, passwords need to be pr
    SV-93903r1_rule SQL6-D0-008400 CCI-000186 LOW SQL Server must enforce authorized access to all PKI private keys stored/utilized by SQL Server. The DoD standard for authentication is DoD-approved PKI certificates. PKI certificate-based authentication is performed by requiring the certificate holder to cryptographically prove possession of the corresponding private key. If the private key is st
    SV-93905r1_rule SQL6-D0-008700 CCI-000803 MEDIUM SQL Server must use NIST FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic modules for cryptographic operations. Use of weak or not validated cryptographic algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption and digital signatures to protect data. Weak algorithms can be easily broken and not validated cryptographic modules may not implement algorithms correc
    SV-93907r1_rule SQL6-D0-008800 CCI-000804 MEDIUM SQL Server must uniquely identify and authenticate non-organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of non-organizational users). Non-organizational users include all information system users other than organizational users, which include organizational employees or individuals the organization deems to have equivalent status of employees (e.g., contractors, guest researchers, indiv
    SV-93909r1_rule SQL6-D0-009200 CCI-001188 MEDIUM SQL Server must maintain the authenticity of communications sessions by guarding against man-in-the-middle attacks that guess at Session ID values. One class of man-in-the-middle, or session hijacking, attack involves the adversary guessing at valid session identifiers based on patterns in identifiers already known. The preferred technique for thwarting guesses at Session IDs is the generation of
    SV-93911r1_rule SQL6-D0-009500 CCI-001199 HIGH SQL Server must protect the confidentiality and integrity of all information at rest. This control is intended to address the confidentiality and integrity of information at rest in non-mobile devices and covers user information and system information. Information at rest refers to the state of information when it is located on a secondary
    SV-93913r1_rule SQL6-D0-009600 CCI-001199 MEDIUM The Service Master Key must be backed up, stored offline and off-site. Backup and recovery of the Service Master Key may be critical to the complete recovery of the database. Creating this backup should be one of the first administrative actions performed on the server. Not having this key can lead to loss of data during re
    SV-93915r1_rule SQL6-D0-009700 CCI-001199 MEDIUM The Master Key must be backed up, stored offline and off-site. Backup and recovery of the Master Key may be critical to the complete recovery of the database. Not having this key can lead to loss of data during recovery.
    SV-93917r3_rule SQL6-D0-009800 CCI-001090 MEDIUM SQL Server must prevent unauthorized and unintended information transfer via shared system resources. The purpose of this control is to prevent information, including encrypted representations of information, produced by the actions of a prior user/role (or the actions of a process acting on behalf of a prior user/role) from being available to any current
    SV-93919r2_rule SQL6-D0-009900 CCI-001090 MEDIUM SQL Server must prevent unauthorized and unintended information transfer via shared system resources. The purpose of this control is to prevent information, including encrypted representations of information, produced by the actions of a prior user/role (or the actions of a process acting on behalf of a prior user/role) from being available to any current
    SV-93921r2_rule SQL6-D0-010000 CCI-001090 MEDIUM Access to database files must be limited to relevant processes and to authorized, administrative users. SQL Server must prevent unauthorized and unintended information transfer via shared system resources. Permitting only SQL Server processes and authorized, administrative users to have access to the files where the database resides helps ensure that those
    SV-93923r2_rule SQL6-D0-010100 CCI-001314 MEDIUM SQL Server must reveal detailed error messages only to the ISSO, ISSM, SA, and DBA. If SQL Server provides too much information in error logs and administrative messages to the screen, this could lead to compromise. The structure and content of error messages need to be carefully considered by the organization and development team. The e
    SV-93925r1_rule SQL6-D0-010400 CCI-002235 MEDIUM SQL Server must prevent non-privileged users from executing privileged functions, to include disabling, circumventing, or altering implemented security safeguards/countermeasures. Preventing non-privileged users from executing privileged functions mitigates the risk that unauthorized individuals or processes may gain unnecessary access to information or privileges. System documentation should include a definition of the functio
    SV-93927r1_rule SQL6-D0-010500 CCI-002233 MEDIUM Use of credentials and proxies must be restricted to necessary cases only. In certain situations, to provide required functionality, a DBMS needs to execute internal logic (stored procedures, functions, triggers, etc.) and/or external code modules with elevated privileges. However, if the privileges required for execution are at
    SV-93929r1_rule SQL6-D0-010700 CCI-001844 MEDIUM SQL Server must utilize centralized management of the content captured in audit records generated by all components of SQL Server. Without the ability to centrally manage the content captured in the audit records, identification, troubleshooting, and correlation of suspicious behavior would be difficult and could lead to a delayed or incomplete analysis of an ongoing attack. The c
    SV-93931r1_rule SQL6-D0-010800 CCI-001844 MEDIUM SQL Server must provide centralized configuration of the content to be captured in audit records generated by all components of SQL Server. If the configuration of SQL Server's auditing is spread across multiple locations in the database management software, or across multiple commands, only loosely related, it is harder to use and takes longer to reconfigure in response to events. SQL Serv
    SV-93933r1_rule SQL6-D0-010900 CCI-001849 MEDIUM SQL Server must allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements. In order to ensure sufficient storage capacity for the audit logs, SQL Server must be able to allocate audit record storage capacity. Although another requirement (SRG-APP-000515-DB-000318) mandates that audit data be off-loaded to a centralized log manag
    SV-93935r1_rule SQL6-D0-011000 CCI-001855 MEDIUM SQL Server must provide a warning to appropriate support staff when allocated audit record storage volume reaches 75% of maximum audit record storage capacity. Organizations are required to use a central log management system, so, under normal conditions, the audit space allocated to SQL Server on its own server will not be an issue. However, space will still be required on the server for SQL Server audit record
    SV-93937r2_rule SQL6-D0-011100 CCI-001858 MEDIUM SQL Server must provide an immediate real-time alert to appropriate support staff of all audit log failures. It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without a real-time alert, security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability, and system operatio
    SV-93939r1_rule SQL6-D0-011200 CCI-001890 MEDIUM SQL Server must record time stamps in audit records and application data that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, formerly GMT). If time stamps are not consistently applied and there is no common time reference, it is difficult to perform forensic analysis. Time stamps generated by SQL Server must include date and time. Time is commonly expressed in Coordinated Universal Time (U
    SV-93941r1_rule SQL6-D0-011400 CCI-001813 MEDIUM SQL Server must enforce access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of the instance. Failure to provide logical access restrictions associated with changes to configuration may have significant effects on the overall security of the system. When dealing with access restrictions pertaining to change control, it should be noted that any
    SV-93943r1_rule SQL6-D0-011500 CCI-001813 MEDIUM Windows must enforce access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of the SQL Server instance. Failure to provide logical access restrictions associated with changes to configuration may have significant effects on the overall security of the system. When dealing with access restrictions pertaining to change control, it should be noted that any
    SV-93945r3_rule SQL6-D0-011800 CCI-001814 MEDIUM SQL Server must produce audit records of its enforcement of access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of SQL Server or database(s). Without auditing the enforcement of access restrictions against changes to configuration, it would be difficult to identify attempted attacks and an audit trail would not be available for forensic investigation for after-the-fact actions. Enforcement
    SV-93947r1_rule SQL6-D0-011900 CCI-001762 MEDIUM SQL Server must disable network functions, ports, protocols, and services deemed by the organization to be nonsecure, in accord with the Ports, Protocols, and Services Management (PPSM) guidance. Use of nonsecure network functions, ports, protocols, and services exposes the system to avoidable threats.
    SV-93949r1_rule SQL6-D0-012300 CCI-002530 MEDIUM SQL Server must maintain a separate execution domain for each executing process. Database management systems can maintain separate execution domains for each executing process by assigning each process a separate address space. Each process has a distinct address space so that communication between processes is controlled through
    SV-93951r1_rule SQL6-D0-012400 CCI-002530 MEDIUM SQL Server services must be configured to run under unique dedicated user accounts. Database management systems can maintain separate execution domains for each executing process by assigning each process a separate address space. Each process has a distinct address space so that communication between processes is controlled through the
    SV-93953r1_rule SQL6-D0-012700 CCI-002617 MEDIUM When updates are applied to SQL Server software, any software components that have been replaced or made unnecessary must be removed. Previous versions of DBMS components that are not removed from the information system after updates have been installed may be exploited by adversaries. Some DBMSs' installation tools may remove older versions of software automatically from the inform
    SV-93955r1_rule SQL6-D0-012800 CCI-002605 MEDIUM Security-relevant software updates to SQL Server must be installed within the time period directed by an authoritative source (e.g. IAVM, CTOs, DTMs, and STIGs). Security flaws with software applications, including database management systems, are discovered daily. Vendors are constantly updating and patching their products to address newly discovered security vulnerabilities. Organizations (including any contract
    SV-93957r2_rule SQL6-D0-012900 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must be able to generate audit records when security objects are accessed. Changes to the security configuration must be tracked. This requirement applies to situations where security data is retrieved or modified via data manipulation operations, as opposed to via specialized security functionality. In an SQL environment,
    SV-93959r1_rule SQL6-D0-013000 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to access security objects occur. Changes to the security configuration must be tracked. This requirement applies to situations where security data is retrieved or modified via data manipulation operations, as opposed to via specialized security functionality. In an SQL environment,
    SV-93961r2_rule SQL6-D0-013100 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) is accessed. Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categori
    SV-93963r1_rule SQL6-D0-013200 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to access categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur. Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For deta
    SV-93965r3_rule SQL6-D0-013300 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are added. Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functio
    SV-93967r3_rule SQL6-D0-013400 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to add privileges/permissions occur. Failed attempts to change the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized attempts to elevate or restrict privileges could go undetected. In an SQL environment, adding permissions
    SV-93969r3_rule SQL6-D0-013500 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are modified. Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functio
    SV-93971r3_rule SQL6-D0-013600 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to modify privileges/permissions occur. Failed attempts to change the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized attempts to elevate or restrict privileges could go undetected. In an SQL environment, modifying permissi
    SV-93973r1_rule SQL6-D0-013700 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when security objects are modified. Changes in the database objects (tables, views, procedures, functions) that record and control permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized changes to the security subsystem could go u
    SV-93975r2_rule SQL6-D0-013800 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to modify security objects occur. Changes in the database objects (tables, views, procedures, functions) that record and control permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized changes to the security subsystem could go u
    SV-93977r1_rule SQL6-D0-013900 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) is modified. Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categoriz
    SV-93979r1_rule SQL6-D0-014000 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to modify categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur. Changes in categories of information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For de
    SV-93981r2_rule SQL6-D0-014100 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are deleted. Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functio
    SV-93983r2_rule SQL6-D0-014200 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to delete privileges/permissions occur. Failed attempts to change the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized attempts to elevate or restrict privileges could go undetected. In an SQL environment, deleting permissio
    SV-93985r2_rule SQL6-D0-014300 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when security objects are deleted. The removal of security objects from the database/DBMS would seriously degrade a system's information assurance posture. If such an event occurs, it must be logged.
    SV-93987r2_rule SQL6-D0-014400 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to delete security objects occur. The removal of security objects from the database/DBMS would seriously degrade a system's information assurance posture. If such an action is attempted, it must be logged. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in additio
    SV-93989r1_rule SQL6-D0-014500 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) is deleted. Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categoriz
    SV-93991r1_rule SQL6-D0-014600 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to delete categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur. Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For deta
    SV-93993r1_rule SQL6-D0-014700 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when successful logons or connections occur. For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track who/what (a user or other principal) logs on to SQL Server.
    SV-93995r1_rule SQL6-D0-014800 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful logons or connection attempts occur. For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track failed attempts to log on to SQL Server. While positive identification may not be possible in a case of failed authentication, as much information as possible about the incident must be captu
    SV-93997r2_rule SQL6-D0-014900 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records for all privileged activities or other system-level access. Without tracking privileged activity, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. System documentation should include a definition of the functionality consid
    SV-93999r4_rule SQL6-D0-015000 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to execute privileged activities or other system-level access occur. Without tracking privileged activity, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. System documentation should include a definition of the functionality consid
    SV-94001r4_rule SQL6-D0-015100 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records showing starting and ending time for user access to the database(s). For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to know how long a user's (or other principal's) connection to SQL Server lasts. This can be achieved by recording disconnections, in addition to logons/connections, in the audit logs. Disconnecti
    SV-94003r1_rule SQL6-D0-015200 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when concurrent logons/connections by the same user from different workstations occur. For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track who logs on to SQL Server. Concurrent connections by the same user from multiple workstations may be valid use of the system; or such connections may be due to improper circumvention of th
    SV-94005r1_rule SQL6-D0-015300 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when successful accesses to objects occur. Without tracking all or selected types of access to all or selected objects (tables, views, procedures, functions, etc.), it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident, or identify those responsible for
    SV-94007r1_rule SQL6-D0-015400 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records when unsuccessful accesses to objects occur. Without tracking all or selected types of access to all or selected objects (tables, views, procedures, functions, etc.), it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident, or identify those responsible for
    SV-94009r1_rule SQL6-D0-015500 CCI-000172 MEDIUM SQL Server must generate audit records for all direct access to the database(s). In this context, direct access is any query, command, or call to SQL Server that comes from any source other than the application(s) that it supports. Examples would be the command line or a database management utility program. The intent is to capture al
    SV-94011r1_rule SQL6-D0-015600 CCI-002450 HIGH SQL Server must implement NIST FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic modules to provision digital signatures. Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides ass
    SV-94013r1_rule SQL6-D0-015700 CCI-002450 HIGH SQL Server must implement NIST FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic modules to generate and validate cryptographic hashes. Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides ass
    SV-94015r1_rule SQL6-D0-015800 CCI-002450 MEDIUM SQL Server must implement NIST FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic modules to protect unclassified information requiring confidentiality and cryptographic protection, in accordance with the data owners requirements. Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides ass
    SV-94017r1_rule SQL6-D0-015900 CCI-001851 MEDIUM The system SQL Server must off-load audit data to a separate log management facility; this must be continuous and in near real time for systems with a network connection to the storage facility and weekly or more often for stand-alone systems. Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration. Off-loading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity. The system SQL Server may write audit records to databas
    SV-94019r1_rule SQL6-D0-016000 CCI-000366 MEDIUM SQL Server must configure Customer Feedback and Error Reporting. By default, Microsoft SQL Server enables participation in the customer experience improvement program (CEIP). This program collects information about how its customers are using the product. Specifically, SQL Server collects information about the installa
    SV-94021r1_rule SQL6-D0-016100 CCI-000366 MEDIUM SQL Server must configure SQL Server Usage and Error Reporting Auditing. By default, Microsoft SQL Server enables participation in the customer experience improvement program (CEIP). This program collects information about how its customers are using the product. Specifically, SQL Server collects information about the installa
    SV-94023r2_rule SQL6-D0-016200 CCI-000213 MEDIUM The SQL Server default account [sa] must be disabled. SQL Server's [sa] account has special privileges required to administer the database. The [sa] account is a well-known SQL Server account and is likely to be targeted by attackers and thus more prone to providing unauthorized access to the database. Thi
    SV-94025r1_rule SQL6-D0-016300 CCI-000381 MEDIUM SQL Server default account [sa] must have its name changed. SQL Server's [sa] account has special privileges required to administer the database. The [sa] account is a well-known SQL Server account name and is likely to be targeted by attackers, and is thus more prone to providing unauthorized access to the databa
    SV-94027r1_rule SQL6-D0-016400 CCI-002233 MEDIUM Execution of startup stored procedures must be restricted to necessary cases only. In certain situations, to provide required functionality, a DBMS needs to execute internal logic (stored procedures, functions, triggers, etc.) and/or external code modules with elevated privileges. However, if the privileges required for execution are at
    SV-94029r1_rule SQL6-D0-016500 CCI-000366 MEDIUM SQL Server Mirroring endpoint must utilize AES encryption. Information can be either unintentionally or maliciously disclosed or modified during preparation for transmission, including, for example, during aggregation, at protocol transformation points, and during packing/unpacking. These unauthorized disclosures
    SV-94031r1_rule SQL6-D0-016600 CCI-000366 MEDIUM SQL Server Service Broker endpoint must utilize AES encryption. Information can be either unintentionally or maliciously disclosed or modified during preparation for transmission, including, for example, during aggregation, at protocol transformation points, and during packing/unpacking. These unauthorized disclosures
    SV-94033r2_rule SQL6-D0-016700 CCI-000381 MEDIUM SQL Server execute permissions to access the registry must be revoked, unless specifically required and approved. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is de
    SV-94035r3_rule SQL6-D0-016800 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Filestream must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is de
    SV-94039r1_rule SQL6-D0-017000 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Ole Automation Procedures feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is de
    SV-94041r1_rule SQL6-D0-017100 CCI-000381 MEDIUM SQL Server User Options feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved. SQL Server is capable of providing a wide range of features and services. Some of the features and services, provided by default, may not be necessary, and enabling them could adversely affect the security of the system. The user options option specifies
    SV-94043r1_rule SQL6-D0-017200 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Remote Access feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is de
    SV-94047r1_rule SQL6-D0-017400 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Hadoop Connectivity feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is de
    SV-94049r1_rule SQL6-D0-017500 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Allow Polybase Export feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is de
    SV-94051r1_rule SQL6-D0-017600 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Remote Data Archive feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is de
    SV-94053r1_rule SQL6-D0-017700 CCI-000381 MEDIUM SQL Server External Scripts Enabled feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved. SQL Server is capable of providing a wide range of features and services. Some of the features and services, provided by default, may not be necessary, and enabling them could adversely affect the security of the system. The External Scripts Enabled feat
    SV-94055r1_rule SQL6-D0-017800 CCI-000366 LOW The SQL Server Browser service must be disabled unless specifically required and approved. The SQL Server Browser simplifies the administration of SQL Server, particularly when multiple instances of SQL Server coexist on the same computer. It avoids the need to hard-assign port numbers to the instances and to set and maintain those port numbers
    SV-94057r1_rule SQL6-D0-017900 CCI-000381 MEDIUM SQL Server Replication Xps feature must be disabled, unless specifically required and approved. SQL Server is capable of providing a wide range of features and services. Some of the features and services, provided by default, may not be necessary, and enabling them could adversely affect the security of the system. Enabling the replication XPs open
    SV-94059r2_rule SQL6-D0-018000 CCI-000366 LOW If the SQL Server Browser Service is specifically required and approved, SQL instances must be hidden. The SQL Server Browser simplifies the administration of SQL Server, particularly when multiple instances of SQL Server coexist on the same computer. It avoids the need to hard-assign port numbers to the instances and to set and maintain those port numbers
    SV-94061r1_rule SQL6-D0-018100 CCI-000206 HIGH When using command-line tools such as SQLCMD in a mixed-mode authentication environment, users must use a logon method that does not expose the password. To prevent the compromise of authentication information, such as passwords and PINs, during the authentication process, the feedback from the information system must not provide any information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise the authe
    SV-94063r1_rule SQL6-D0-018200 CCI-000206 HIGH Applications must obscure feedback of authentication information during the authentication process to protect the information from possible exploitation/use by unauthorized individuals. To prevent the compromise of authentication information, such as passwords and PINs, during the authentication process, the feedback from the information system must not provide any information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise the authe
    SV-106625r1_rule SQL6-D0-008300 CCI-000197 MEDIUM Confidentiality of controlled information during transmission through the use of an approved TLS version. Transport Layer Security (TLS) encryption is a required security setting as a number of known vulnerabilities have been reported against Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and earlier versions of TLS. Encryption of private information is essential to ensuring dat