Microsoft Azure SQL Database Security Technical Implementation Guide

Description

This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DOD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: [email protected]

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Version / Release: V1R1

Published: 2022-11-16

Updated At: 2023-01-25 00:41:58

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    Vuln Rule Version CCI Severity Title Description Status Finding Details Comments
    SV-255301r871029_rule ASQL-00-000100 CCI-000015 HIGH Azure SQL Databases must integrate with Azure Active Directory for providing account management and automation for all users, groups, roles, and any other principals. Enterprise environments make account management for applications and databases challenging and complex. A manual process for account management functions adds the risk of a potential oversight or other error. Managing accounts for the same person in multi
    SV-255302r871032_rule ASQL-00-000200 CCI-000015 HIGH Azure SQL Database must enforce approved authorizations for logical access to database information and system resources in accordance with applicable access control policies. Enterprise environments make account management for applications and databases challenging and complex. A manual process for account management functions adds the risk of a potential oversight or other error. Managing accounts for the same person in multi
    SV-255303r871035_rule ASQL-00-000300 CCI-000213 HIGH Azure SQL Database must enforce approved authorizations for logical access to server information and system resources in accordance with applicable access control policies. Authentication with a DOD-approved PKI certificate does not necessarily imply authorization to access Azure SQL Database. To mitigate the risk of unauthorized access to sensitive information by entities that have been issued certificates by DOD-approved P
    SV-255304r871038_rule ASQL-00-000400 CCI-000166 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must protect against a user falsely repudiating by ensuring only clearly unique Active Directory user accounts can connect to the database. Nonrepudiation of actions taken is required in order to maintain data integrity. Examples of particular actions taken by individuals include creating information, sending a message, approving information (e.g., indicating concurrence or signing a contract
    SV-255305r871041_rule ASQL-00-000500 CCI-000166 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must protect against a user falsely repudiating by use of system-versioned tables (Temporal Tables). Nonrepudiation of actions taken is required in order to maintain data integrity. Examples of particular actions taken by individuals include creating information, sending a message, approving information (e.g., indicating concurrence or signing a contract
    SV-255306r871044_rule ASQL-00-001300 CCI-001499 MEDIUM Database objects (including but not limited to tables, indexes, storage, stored procedures, functions, triggers, links to software external to Azure SQL Database, etc.) must be owned by database/Azure SQL Database principals authorized for ownership. Within the database, object ownership implies full privileges to the owned object, including the privilege to assign access to the owned objects to other subjects. Database functions and procedures can be coded using definer's rights. This allows anyone w
    SV-255307r871047_rule ASQL-00-001400 CCI-001499 MEDIUM The role(s)/group(s) used to modify database structure (including but not necessarily limited to tables, indexes, storage, etc.) and logic modules (stored procedures, functions, triggers, links to software external to Azure SQL Database, etc.) must be restricted to authorized users. If the Azure SQL Database were to allow any user to make changes to database structure or logic, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process. Accordi
    SV-255308r871050_rule ASQL-00-001900 CCI-001084 MEDIUM The Azure SQL Database must isolate security functions from nonsecurity functions. An isolation boundary provides access control and protects the integrity of the hardware, software, and firmware that perform security functions. Security functions are the hardware, software, and/or firmware of the information system responsible for en
    SV-255309r871053_rule ASQL-00-002000 CCI-001090 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database contents must be protected from unauthorized and unintended information transfer by enforcement of a data-transfer policy. Applications, including DBMSs, must prevent unauthorized and unintended information transfer via shared system resources. Data used for the development and testing of applications often involves copying data from production. It is important that specific
    SV-255310r871056_rule ASQL-00-002100 CCI-001310 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must check the validity of all data inputs except those specifically identified by the organization. Invalid user input occurs when a user inserts data or characters into an application's data entry fields and the application is unprepared to process that data. This results in unanticipated application behavior, potentially leading to an application or i
    SV-255311r871059_rule ASQL-00-002200 CCI-001310 MEDIUM The Azure SQL Database and associated applications must reserve the use of dynamic code execution for situations that require it. With respect to database management systems, one class of threat is known as SQL Injection, or more generally, code injection. It takes advantage of the dynamic execution capabilities of various programming languages, including dialects of SQL. In such ca
    SV-255312r871062_rule ASQL-00-002300 CCI-001310 MEDIUM The Azure SQL Database and associated applications, when making use of dynamic code execution, must scan input data for invalid values that may indicate a code injection attack. With respect to database management systems, one class of threat is known as SQL Injection, or more generally, code injection. It takes advantage of the dynamic execution capabilities of various programming languages, including dialects of SQL. In such ca
    SV-255313r877295_rule ASQL-00-002500 CCI-002262 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must associate organization-defined types of security labels having organization-defined security label values with information in storage. Without the association of security labels to information, there is no basis for Azure SQL Database to make security-related access-control decisions. Security labels are abstractions representing the basic properties or characteristics of an entity (e.
    SV-255314r877284_rule ASQL-00-002600 CCI-002263 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must associate organization-defined types of security labels having organization-defined security label values with information in process. Without the association of security labels to information, there is no basis for Azure SQL Database to make security-related access-control decisions. Security labels are abstractions representing the basic properties or characteristics of an entity (e.
    SV-255315r877285_rule ASQL-00-002700 CCI-002264 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must associate organization-defined types of security labels having organization-defined security label values with information in transmission. Without the association of security labels to information, there is no basis for Azure SQL Database to make security-related access-control decisions. Security labels are abstractions representing the basic properties or characteristics of an entity (e.
    SV-255316r871074_rule ASQL-00-002800 CCI-002165 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must enforce discretionary access control policies, as defined by the data owner, over defined subjects and objects. Discretionary Access Control (DAC) is based on the notion that individual users are "owners" of objects and therefore have discretion over who should be authorized to access the object and in which mode (e.g., read, write, execute). Ownership is usually a
    SV-255317r871077_rule ASQL-00-002900 CCI-002233 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must restrict execution of stored procedures and functions that utilize [execute as] to necessary cases only. In certain situations, to provide required functionality, a DBMS needs to execute internal logic (stored procedures, functions, triggers, etc.) and/or external code modules with elevated privileges. However, if the privileges required for execution are at
    SV-255318r871080_rule ASQL-00-003000 CCI-001812 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must prohibit user installation of logic modules (stored procedures, functions, triggers, views, etc.) without explicit privileged status. Allowing regular users to install software, without explicit privileges, creates the risk that untested or potentially malicious software will be installed on the system. Explicit privileges (escalated or administrative privileges) provide the regular use
    SV-255319r877253_rule ASQL-00-003100 CCI-001813 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must enforce access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of the Azure SQL Database server or database(s). Failure to provide logical access restrictions associated with changes to configuration may have significant effects on the overall security of the system. When dealing with access restrictions pertaining to change control, it should be noted that any c
    SV-255320r877278_rule ASQL-00-003200 CCI-002450 HIGH Azure SQL Database must use NSA-approved cryptography to protect classified information in accordance with the data owners requirements. Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides ass
    SV-255321r871089_rule ASQL-00-003300 CCI-002475 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must implement cryptographic mechanisms to prevent unauthorized modification of organization-defined information at rest (to include, at a minimum, PII and classified information) on organization-defined information system components. Azure SQL Databases handling data requiring "data at rest" protections must employ cryptographic mechanisms to prevent unauthorized disclosure and modification of the information at rest. Selection of a cryptographic mechanism is based on the need to pro
    SV-255322r871092_rule ASQL-00-003400 CCI-002476 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must implement cryptographic mechanisms preventing the unauthorized disclosure of organization-defined information at rest on organization-defined information system components. Azure SQL Databases handling data requiring "data at rest" protections must employ cryptographic mechanisms to prevent unauthorized disclosure and modification of the information at rest. Selection of a cryptographic mechanism is based on the need to p
    SV-255323r871095_rule ASQL-00-003500 CCI-002754 MEDIUM When invalid inputs are received, the Azure SQL Database must behave in a predictable and documented manner that reflects organizational and system objectives. A common vulnerability is unplanned behavior when invalid inputs are received. This requirement guards against adverse or unintended system behavior caused by invalid inputs, where information system responses to the invalid input may be disruptive or cau
    SV-255324r877276_rule ASQL-00-004300 CCI-000169 MEDIUM The Azure SQL Database must be configured to generate audit records for DOD-defined auditable events within all DBMS/database components. Without the capability to generate audit records, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within Azur
    SV-255325r877275_rule ASQL-00-004400 CCI-000171 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must allow only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be audited. Without the capability to restrict which roles and individuals can select which events are audited, unauthorized personnel may be able to prevent or interfere with the auditing of critical events. Suppression of auditing could permit an adversary to ev
    SV-255326r877251_rule ASQL-00-004500 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The Azure SQL Database must be able to generate audit records when privileges/permissions are retrieved. Under some circumstances, it may be useful to monitor who/what is reading privilege/permission/role information. Therefore, it must be possible to configure auditing to do this. DBMSs typically make such information available through views or functions.
    SV-255327r877245_rule ASQL-00-004600 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The Azure SQL Database must be able to generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to retrieve privileges/permissions occur. Under some circumstances, it may be useful to monitor who/what is reading privilege/permission/role information. Therefore, it must be possible to configure auditing to do this. DBMSs typically make such information available through views or functions.
    SV-255328r877243_rule ASQL-00-004700 CCI-001464 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must initiate session auditing upon startup. Session auditing is for use when a user's activities are under investigation. To ensure capture of all activity during those periods when session auditing is in use, it needs to be in operation for the whole time Azure SQL Database is running.
    SV-255329r871113_rule ASQL-00-005500 CCI-000135 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must include additional, more detailed, organization-defined information in the audit records for audit events identified by type, location, or subject. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Reconstruction of harmful events or forensic analysis is not possible if audit records do not contain enough information. To support analysis, some types of events will nee
    SV-255330r877270_rule ASQL-00-005900 CCI-000162 MEDIUM The audit information produced by Azure SQL Database must be protected from unauthorized read access. If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In addition, access to audit records provides information an
    SV-255331r877296_rule ASQL-00-006000 CCI-000163 MEDIUM The audit information produced by Azure SQL Database must be protected from unauthorized modification. If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In addition, access to audit records provides information an
    SV-255332r877269_rule ASQL-00-006100 CCI-000164 MEDIUM The audit information produced by Azure SQL Database must be protected from unauthorized deletion. If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the information system and/or the applica
    SV-255333r877268_rule ASQL-00-006900 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database default demonstration and sample databases, database objects, and applications must be removed. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is det
    SV-255334r871128_rule ASQL-00-007700 CCI-000382 MEDIUM The Azure SQL Database must be configured to prohibit or restrict the use of organization-defined functions, ports, protocols, and/or services, as defined in the PPSM CAL and vulnerability assessments. To prevent unauthorized connection of devices, unauthorized transfer of information, or unauthorized tunneling (i.e., embedding of data types within data types), organizations must disable or restrict unused or unnecessary physical and logical ports/proto
    SV-255335r871131_rule ASQL-00-007800 CCI-000764 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must uniquely identify and authenticate organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of organizational users). To ensure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, organizational users must be identified and authenticated to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system. Organizational users include organizational employees or individuals the org
    SV-255336r877266_rule ASQL-00-008500 CCI-000187 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must map the PKI-authenticated identity to an associated user account. The DOD standard for authentication is DOD-approved PKI certificates. Once a PKI certificate has been validated, it must be mapped to an Azure SQL Database user account for the authenticated identity to be meaningful to Azure SQL Database and useful for a
    SV-255337r871137_rule ASQL-00-008800 CCI-000804 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must uniquely identify and authenticate nonorganizational users (or processes acting on behalf of nonorganizational users). Nonorganizational users include all information system users other than organizational users, which include organizational employees or individuals the organization deems to have equivalent status of employees (e.g., contractors, guest researchers, indivi
    SV-255338r871140_rule ASQL-00-008900 CCI-001082 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must separate user functionality (including user interface services) from database management functionality. Information system management functionality includes functions necessary to administer databases, network components, workstations, or servers and typically requires privileged user access. The separation of user functionality from information system ma
    SV-255339r871143_rule ASQL-00-009500 CCI-001199 HIGH Azure SQL Database must protect the confidentiality and integrity of all information at rest. This control is intended to address the confidentiality and integrity of information at rest in nonmobile devices and covers user information and system information. Information at rest refers to the state of information when it is located on a secondary
    SV-255340r871146_rule ASQL-00-010200 CCI-002361 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must automatically terminate a user session after organization-defined conditions or trigger events requiring session disconnect. This addresses the termination of user-initiated logical sessions in contrast to the termination of network connections that are associated with communications sessions (i.e., network disconnect). A logical session (for local, network, and remote access)
    SV-255341r871149_rule ASQL-00-010400 CCI-002235 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must prevent nonprivileged users from executing privileged functions, to include disabling, circumventing, or altering implemented security safeguards/countermeasures. Preventing nonprivileged users from executing privileged functions mitigates the risk that unauthorized individuals or processes may gain unnecessary access to information or privileges. System documentation must include a definition of the functionalit
    SV-255342r871152_rule ASQL-00-010700 CCI-001844 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must utilize centralized management of the content captured in audit records generated by all components of the DBMS. Without the ability to centrally manage the content captured in the audit records, identification, troubleshooting, and correlation of suspicious behavior would be difficult and could lead to a delayed or incomplete analysis of an ongoing attack. The con
    SV-255343r877294_rule ASQL-00-010900 CCI-001849 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must be able to allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements. To ensure sufficient storage capacity for the audit logs, the Azure SQL Database must be able to allocate audit record storage capacity. Although another requirement (SRG-APP-000515-DB-000318) mandates that audit data be offloaded to a centralized log man
    SV-255344r871158_rule ASQL-00-011000 CCI-001855 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must provide a warning to appropriate support staff when allocated audit record storage volume reaches 75 percent of maximum audit record storage capacity. Auditing for Azure SQL Database tracks database events and writes them to an audit log in the Azure storage account, Log Analytics workspace, or Event Hubs. Under normal conditions, the audit space allocated by an Azure Storage account can grow quite lar
    SV-255345r877228_rule ASQL-00-011800 CCI-001814 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must produce audit records of its enforcement of access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of Azure SQL Database(s). Without auditing the enforcement of access restrictions against changes to configuration, it would be difficult to identify attempted attacks and an audit trail would not be available for forensic investigation for after-the-fact actions. Enforcement ac
    SV-255346r871164_rule ASQL-00-011900 CCI-001762 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must only use approved firewall settings deemed by the organization to be secure, including denying public network access. Use of nonsecure firewall settings, such as allowing public access, exposes the system to avoidable threats.
    SV-255347r877262_rule ASQL-00-011950 CCI-001762 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must only use approved firewall settings deemed by the organization to be secure, including denying azure services access to the server. Use of nonsecure firewall settings, such as allowing azure services to access the server, exposes the system to avoidable threats.
    SV-255348r871170_rule ASQL-00-012500 CCI-002420 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must maintain the confidentiality and integrity of information during preparation for transmission. Information can be either unintentionally or maliciously disclosed or modified during preparation for transmission, including, for example, during aggregation, at protocol transformation points, and during packing/unpacking. These unauthorized disclosures
    SV-255349r877260_rule ASQL-00-012600 CCI-002422 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must maintain the confidentiality and integrity of information during reception. Information can be either unintentionally or maliciously disclosed or modified during reception, including, for example, during aggregation, at protocol transformation points, and during packing/unpacking. These unauthorized disclosures or modifications c
    SV-255350r871176_rule ASQL-00-012900 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL DB must be able to generate audit records when security objects are accessed. Changes to the security configuration must be tracked. This requirement applies to situations where security data is retrieved or modified via data manipulation operations, as opposed to via specialized security functionality. In an SQL environment, t
    SV-255351r877258_rule ASQL-00-013000 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL DB must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to access security objects occur. Changes to the security configuration must be tracked. This requirement applies to situations where security data is retrieved or modified via data manipulation operations, as opposed to via specialized security functionality. In a SQL environment, ty
    SV-255352r871182_rule ASQL-00-013100 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL DB must generate audit records when categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) is accessed. Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categoriza
    SV-255353r871185_rule ASQL-00-013200 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL DB must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to access categories of information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur. Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For detail
    SV-255354r871188_rule ASQL-00-013300 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL DB must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are added. Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functio
    SV-255355r871191_rule ASQL-00-013400 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL DB must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to add privileges/permissions occur. Failed attempts to change the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized attempts to elevate or restrict privileges could go undetected. In an Azure SQL Database environment, addin
    SV-255356r871194_rule ASQL-00-013500 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL DB must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are modified. Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functio
    SV-255357r871197_rule ASQL-00-013600 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL DB must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to modify privileges/permissions occur. Failed attempts to change the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized attempts to elevate or restrict privileges could go undetected. In an SQL environment, modifying permission
    SV-255358r871200_rule ASQL-00-013700 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when security objects are modified. Changes in the database objects (tables, views, procedures, functions) that record and control permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized changes to the security subsystem could go u
    SV-255359r871203_rule ASQL-00-013800 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL DB must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to modify security objects occur. Changes in the database objects (tables, views, procedures, functions) that record and control permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized changes to the security subsystem could go u
    SV-255360r871206_rule ASQL-00-013900 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) is modified. Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categoriza
    SV-255361r871209_rule ASQL-00-014000 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to modify categorized information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur. Changes in categories of information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For deta
    SV-255362r871212_rule ASQL-00-014100 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are deleted. Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functio
    SV-255363r871215_rule ASQL-00-014200 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to delete privileges/permissions occur. Failed attempts to change the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized attempts to elevate or restrict privileges could go undetected. In an SQL environment, deleting permissions
    SV-255364r871218_rule ASQL-00-014300 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when security objects are deleted. The removal of security objects from the database/DBMS would seriously degrade a system's information assurance posture. If such an event occurs, it must be logged.
    SV-255365r871221_rule ASQL-00-014400 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to delete security objects occur. The removal of security objects from the database/DBMS would seriously degrade a system's information assurance posture. If such an action is attempted, it must be logged. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition
    SV-255366r871224_rule ASQL-00-014500 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when categories of information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) are deleted. Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categoriza
    SV-255367r871227_rule ASQL-00-014600 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to delete categories of information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur. Changes in categorized information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For detail
    SV-255368r871230_rule ASQL-00-014700 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when successful logons or connections occur. For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track who/what (a user or other principal) logs on to Azure SQL Database.
    SV-255369r871233_rule ASQL-00-014800 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when unsuccessful logons or connection attempts occur. For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track failed attempts to log on to Azure SQL Database. While positive identification may not be possible in a case of failed authentication, as much information as possible about the incident must
    SV-255370r871236_rule ASQL-00-014900 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records for all privileged activities or other system-level access. Without tracking privileged activity, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. System documentation should include a definition of the functionality consider
    SV-255371r871239_rule ASQL-00-015000 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records for all unsuccessful attempts to execute privileged activities or other system-level access. Without tracking privileged activity, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. System documentation should include a definition of the functionality consider
    SV-255372r871242_rule ASQL-00-015100 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when concurrent logons/connections by the same user from different workstations occur. For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to know how long a user's (or other principal's) connection to the Azure Database lasts. This can be achieved by recording disconnections, in addition to logons/connections, in the audit logs. Disco
    SV-255373r877256_rule ASQL-00-015200 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when concurrent logons/connections by the same user from different workstations occur. For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track who logs on to Azure SQL Database. Concurrent connections by the same user from multiple workstations may be valid use of the system; or such connections may be due to improper circumvention
    SV-255374r871248_rule ASQL-00-015300 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must be able to generate audit records when successful accesses to objects occur. Without tracking all or selected types of access to all or selected objects (tables, views, procedures, functions, etc.), it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident, or identify those responsible for
    SV-255375r871251_rule ASQL-00-015400 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records when unsuccessful accesses to objects occur. Without tracking all or selected types of access to all or selected objects (tables, views, procedures, functions, etc.), it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for o
    SV-255376r871254_rule ASQL-00-015500 CCI-000172 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must generate audit records for all direct access to the database(s). In this context, direct access is any query, command, or call to Azure SQL Database that comes from any source other than the application(s) that it supports. Examples would be the command line or a database management utility program. The intent is to ca
    SV-255377r877255_rule ASQL-00-015900 CCI-001851 MEDIUM Azure SQL Database must offload audit data to a separate log management facility; this must be continuous and in near real time for systems with a network connection to the storage facility and weekly or more often for stand-alone systems. Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration. Offloading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity. Azure SQL Database may write audit records blob storage, log