Fortinet FortiGate Firewall Security Technical Implementation Guide

Description

This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: [email protected]

Details

Version / Release: V1R2

Published: 2022-06-07

Updated At: 2022-08-25 11:35:58

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    Vuln Rule Version CCI Severity Title Description Status Finding Details Comments
    SV-234133r611399_rule FNFG-FW-000005 CCI-001414 HIGH The FortiGate firewall must use filters that use packet headers and packet attributes, including source and destination IP addresses and ports. Information flow control regulates where information is allowed to travel within a network and between interconnected networks. Blocking or restricting detected harmful or suspicious communications between interconnected networks enforces approved authori
    SV-234134r611402_rule FNFG-FW-000015 CCI-000067 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must use organization-defined filtering rules that apply to the monitoring of remote access traffic for the traffic from the VPN access points. Remote access devices (such as those providing remote access to network devices and information systems) that lack automated capabilities increase risk and make remote user access management difficult at best. Remote access is access to DoD non-public in
    SV-234135r611405_rule FNFG-FW-000020 CCI-000130 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must generate traffic log entries containing information to establish what type of events occurred. Without establishing what type of event occurred, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events leading up to an outage or attack. Audit event content that may be necessary to satisfy this requirement includes, for example, ti
    SV-234136r611408_rule FNFG-FW-000025 CCI-000131 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must generate traffic log entries containing information to establish when (date and time) the events occurred. Without establishing when events occurred, it is impossible to establish, correlate, and investigate the events leading up to an outage or attack. To compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis of network traffic patterns, it is ess
    SV-234137r611411_rule FNFG-FW-000030 CCI-000132 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must generate traffic log entries containing information to establish the network location where the events occurred. Without establishing where events occurred, it is impossible to establish, correlate, and investigate the events leading up to an outage or attack. To compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, it is essential for security personn
    SV-234138r611414_rule FNFG-FW-000035 CCI-000133 LOW The FortiGate firewall must generate traffic log entries containing information to establish the source of the events, such as the source IP address at a minimum. Without establishing the source of the event, it is impossible to establish, correlate, and investigate the events leading up to an outage or attack. In order to compile an accurate risk assessment and provide forensic analysis, security personnel need to
    SV-234139r611417_rule FNFG-FW-000040 CCI-000134 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must generate traffic log entries containing information to establish the outcome of the events, such as, at a minimum, the success or failure of the application of the firewall rule. Without information about the outcome of events, security personnel cannot make an accurate assessment as to whether an attack was successful or if changes were made to the security state of the network. Event outcomes can include indicators of event suc
    SV-234140r628894_rule FNFG-FW-000045 CCI-000140 MEDIUM In the event that communication with the central audit server is lost, the FortiGate firewall must continue to queue traffic log records locally. It is critical that when the network element is at risk of failing to process traffic logs as required, it takes action to mitigate the failure. Audit processing failures include software/hardware errors, failures in the audit capturing mechanisms, and au
    SV-234141r835165_rule FNFG-FW-000050 CCI-000162 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must protect traffic log records from unauthorized access while in transit to the central audit server. Auditing and logging are key components of any security architecture. Logging the actions of specific events provides a means to investigate an attack, recognize resource utilization or capacity thresholds, or identify an improperly configured firewall. T
    SV-234142r611426_rule FNFG-FW-000055 CCI-000163 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must protect the traffic log from unauthorized modification of local log records. If audit data were to become compromised, forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity would be impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the information system and/or the application must
    SV-234143r611429_rule FNFG-FW-000060 CCI-000164 HIGH The FortiGate firewall must protect the traffic log from unauthorized deletion of local log files and log records. If audit data were to become compromised, forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity would be impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the information system and/or the application must
    SV-234144r611432_rule FNFG-FW-000065 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must disable or remove unnecessary network services and functions that are not used as part of its role in the architecture. Network devices are capable of providing a wide variety of functions (capabilities or processes) and services. Some of these functions and services are installed and enabled by default. The organization must determine which functions and services are requ
    SV-234145r611435_rule FNFG-FW-000070 CCI-001094 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must block outbound traffic containing denial-of-service (DoS) attacks to protect against the use of internal information systems to launch any DoS attacks against other networks or endpoints. DoS attacks can take multiple forms but have the common objective of overloading or blocking a network or host to deny or seriously degrade performance. If the network does not provide safeguards against DoS attacks, network resources will be unavailable
    SV-234146r611438_rule FNFG-FW-000075 CCI-001095 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall implementation must manage excess bandwidth to limit the effects of packet flooding types of denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. A firewall experiencing a DoS attack will not be able to handle production traffic load. The high utilization and CPU caused by a DoS attack will also have an effect on control keep-alives and timers used for neighbor peering resulting in route flapping a
    SV-234147r628789_rule FNFG-FW-000085 CCI-001097 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must filter traffic destined to the internal enclave in accordance with the specific traffic that is approved and registered in the Ports, Protocols, and Services Management (PPSM) Category Assurance List (CAL), Vulnerability Assessments (VAs) for that the enclave. The enclave's internal network contains the servers where mission-critical data and applications reside. Malicious traffic can enter from an external boundary or originate from a compromised host internally. Vulnerability assessments must be reviewed by
    SV-234148r611444_rule FNFG-FW-000090 CCI-001190 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must fail to a secure state if the firewall filtering functions fail unexpectedly. Firewalls that fail suddenly and with no incorporated failure state planning may leave the hosting system available but with a reduced security protection. Failure to a known safe state helps prevent systems from failing to a state that may cause unauthor
    SV-234149r835167_rule FNFG-FW-000100 CCI-001851 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must send traffic log entries to a central audit server for management and configuration of the traffic log entries. Without the ability to centrally manage the content captured in the traffic log entries, identification, troubleshooting, and correlation of suspicious behavior would be difficult and could lead to a delayed or incomplete analysis of an ongoing attack. T
    SV-234150r611450_rule FNFG-FW-000105 CCI-001858 MEDIUM If communication with the central audit server is lost, the FortiGate firewall must generate a real-time alert to, at a minimum, the SCA and ISSO. Without a real-time alert (less than a second), security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit functions and system operation may be adversely impacted. Alerts provide organizations with urgent messages. Automated alerts can be con
    SV-234151r611453_rule FNFG-FW-000110 CCI-002385 HIGH The FortiGate firewall must employ filters that prevent or limit the effects of all types of commonly known denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, including flooding, packet sweeps, and unauthorized port scanning. Not configuring a key boundary security protection device such as the firewall against commonly known attacks is an immediate threat to the protected enclave because they are easily implemented by those with little skill. Directions for the attack are obt
    SV-234152r611456_rule FNFG-FW-000115 CCI-002403 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must apply ingress filters to traffic that is inbound to the network through any active external interface. Unrestricted traffic to the trusted networks may contain malicious traffic that poses a threat to an enclave or to other connected networks. Additionally, unrestricted traffic may transit a network, which uses bandwidth and other resources. Firewall filt
    SV-234153r611459_rule FNFG-FW-000120 CCI-002403 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must apply egress filters to traffic outbound from the network through any internal interface. If outbound communications traffic is not filtered, hostile activity intended to harm other networks or packets from networks destined to unauthorized networks may not be detected and prevented. Access control policies and access control lists implemente
    SV-234154r628898_rule FNFG-FW-000125 CCI-002403 MEDIUM When employed as a premise firewall, FortiGate must block all outbound management traffic. The management network must still have its own subnet in order to enforce control and access boundaries provided by layer 3 network nodes such as routers and firewalls. Management traffic between the managed network elements and the management network is
    SV-234155r611465_rule FNFG-FW-000130 CCI-002403 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must restrict traffic entering the VPN tunnels to the management network to only the authorized management packets based on destination address. Protect the management network with a filtering firewall configured to block unauthorized traffic. This requirement is similar to the out-of-band management (OOBM) model, in which the production network is managed in-band. The management network could als
    SV-234156r611468_rule FNFG-FW-000135 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must be configured to inspect all inbound and outbound traffic at the application layer. Application inspection enables the firewall to control traffic based on different parameters that exist within the packets such as enforcing application-specific message and field length. Inspection provides improved protection against application-based a
    SV-234157r611471_rule FNFG-FW-000145 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must be configured to restrict it from accepting outbound packets that contain an illegitimate address in the source address field via an egress filter or by enabling Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding (uRPF). A compromised host in an enclave can be used by a malicious platform to launch cyberattacks on third parties. This is a common practice in "botnets", which are a collection of compromised computers using malware to attack other computers or networks. Deni
    SV-234158r611474_rule FNFG-FW-000150 CCI-002664 LOW The FortiGate firewall must generate an alert that can be forwarded to, at a minimum, the Information System Security Officer (ISSO) and Information System Security Manager (ISSM) when denial-of-service (DoS) incidents are detected. Without an alert, security personnel may be unaware of major detection incidents that require immediate action, and this delay may result in the loss or compromise of information. The firewall generates an alert that notifies designated personnel of the
    SV-234159r611477_rule FNFG-FW-000155 CCI-001462 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must allow authorized users to record a packet-capture-based IP, traffic type (TCP, UDP, or ICMP), or protocol. Without the ability to capture, record, and log content related to a user session, investigations into suspicious user activity would be hampered. This configuration ensures the ability to select specific sessions to capture in order to support general a
    SV-234160r611480_rule FNFG-FW-000160 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must generate traffic log records when traffic is denied, restricted, or discarded. Without generating log records that log usage of objects by subjects and other objects, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Security objects are data obj
    SV-234161r611483_rule FNFG-FW-000165 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The FortiGate firewall must generate traffic log records when attempts are made to send packets between security zones that are not authorized to communicate. Without generating log records specific to the security and mission needs of the organization, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Access for different s