Database Security Requirements Guide

Description

This Security Requirements Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: [email protected]

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Version / Release: V3R1

Published: 2020-12-16

Updated At: 2021-02-04 18:21:08

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    Vuln Rule Version CCI Severity Title Description Status Finding Details Comments
    SV-206519r617447_rule SRG-APP-000001-DB-000031 CCI-000054 MEDIUM The DBMS must limit the number of concurrent sessions to an organization-defined number per user for all accounts and/or account types. Database management includes the ability to control the number of users and user sessions utilizing a DBMS. Unlimited concurrent connections to the DBMS could allow a successful Denial of Service (DoS) attack by exhausting connection resources; and a syst
    SV-206520r617447_rule SRG-APP-000023-DB-000001 CCI-000015 MEDIUM The DBMS must integrate with an organization-level authentication/access mechanism providing account management and automation for all users, groups, roles, and any other principals. Enterprise environments make account management for applications and databases challenging and complex. A manual process for account management functions adds the risk of a potential oversight or other error. Managing accounts for the same person in multi
    SV-206521r617447_rule SRG-APP-000033-DB-000084 CCI-000213 MEDIUM The DBMS must enforce approved authorizations for logical access to information and system resources in accordance with applicable access control policies. Authentication with a DoD-approved PKI certificate does not necessarily imply authorization to access the DBMS. To mitigate the risk of unauthorized access to sensitive information by entities that have been issued certificates by DoD-approved PKIs, all
    SV-206522r617447_rule SRG-APP-000080-DB-000063 CCI-000166 MEDIUM The DBMS must protect against a user falsely repudiating having performed organization-defined actions. Non-repudiation of actions taken is required in order to maintain data integrity. Examples of particular actions taken by individuals include creating information, sending a message, approving information (e.g., indicating concurrence or signing a contrac
    SV-206523r617447_rule SRG-APP-000089-DB-000064 CCI-000169 MEDIUM The DBMS must provide audit record generation capability for DoD-defined auditable events within all DBMS/database components. Without the capability to generate audit records, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. Audit records can be generated from various components within the
    SV-206524r617447_rule SRG-APP-000090-DB-000065 CCI-000171 MEDIUM The DBMS must allow only the ISSM (or individuals or roles appointed by the ISSM) to select which auditable events are to be audited. Without the capability to restrict which roles and individuals can select which events are audited, unauthorized personnel may be able to prevent or interfere with the auditing of critical events. Suppression of auditing could permit an adversary to evad
    SV-206525r617447_rule SRG-APP-000091-DB-000066 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must be able to generate audit records when privileges/permissions are retrieved. Under some circumstances, it may be useful to monitor who/what is reading privilege/permission/role information. Therefore, it must be possible to configure auditing to do this. DBMSs typically make such information available through views or functions.
    SV-206526r617447_rule SRG-APP-000091-DB-000325 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must be able to generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to retrieve privileges/permissions occur. Under some circumstances, it may be useful to monitor who/what is reading privilege/permission/role information. Therefore, it must be possible to configure auditing to do this. DBMSs typically make such information available through views or functions.
    SV-206527r617447_rule SRG-APP-000092-DB-000208 CCI-001464 MEDIUM The DBMS must initiate session auditing upon startup. Session auditing is for use when a user's activities are under investigation. To be sure of capturing all activity during those periods when session auditing is in use, it needs to be in operation for the whole time the DBMS is running.
    SV-206528r617447_rule SRG-APP-000095-DB-000039 CCI-000130 MEDIUM The DBMS must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish what type of events occurred. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without establishing what type of event occurred, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those respon
    SV-206529r617447_rule SRG-APP-000096-DB-000040 CCI-000131 MEDIUM The DBMS must produce audit records containing time stamps to establish when the events occurred. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without establishing when events occurred, it is impossible to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident. In order to compile an accurate ri
    SV-206530r617447_rule SRG-APP-000097-DB-000041 CCI-000132 MEDIUM The DBMS must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish where the events occurred. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without establishing where events occurred, it is impossible to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident. In order to compile an accurate r
    SV-206531r617447_rule SRG-APP-000098-DB-000042 CCI-000133 MEDIUM The DBMS must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish the sources (origins) of the events. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without establishing the source of the event, it is impossible to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident. In order to compile an accurate
    SV-206532r617447_rule SRG-APP-000099-DB-000043 CCI-000134 MEDIUM The DBMS must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish the outcome (success or failure) of the events. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without information about the outcome of events, security personnel cannot make an accurate assessment as to whether an attack was successful or if changes were made to the
    SV-206533r617447_rule SRG-APP-000100-DB-000201 CCI-001487 MEDIUM The DBMS must produce audit records containing sufficient information to establish the identity of any user/subject or process associated with the event. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without information that establishes the identity of the subjects (i.e., users or processes acting on behalf of users) associated with the events, security personnel cannot
    SV-206534r617447_rule SRG-APP-000101-DB-000044 CCI-000135 MEDIUM The DBMS must include additional, more detailed, organization-defined information in the audit records for audit events identified by type, location, or subject. Information system auditing capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Reconstruction of harmful events or forensic analysis is not possible if audit records do not contain enough information. To support analysis, some types of events will nee
    SV-206535r617447_rule SRG-APP-000109-DB-000049 CCI-000140 MEDIUM The DBMS must by default shut down upon audit failure, to include the unavailability of space for more audit log records; or must be configurable to shut down upon audit failure. It is critical that when the DBMS is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required, it take action to mitigate the failure. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors; failures in the audit capturing mechanisms; and audit storage c
    SV-206536r617447_rule SRG-APP-000109-DB-000321 CCI-000140 MEDIUM The DBMS must be configurable to overwrite audit log records, oldest first (First-In-First-Out - FIFO), in the event of unavailability of space for more audit log records. It is critical that when the DBMS is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required, it take action to mitigate the failure. Audit processing failures include: software/hardware errors; failures in the audit capturing mechanisms; and audit storage c
    SV-206537r617447_rule SRG-APP-000116-DB-000057 CCI-000159 MEDIUM The DBMS must use system clocks to generate time stamps for use in audit records and application data. Internal system clocks are typically a feature of server hardware and are maintained and used by the operating system. They are typically synchronized with an authoritative time server at regular intervals. Without an internal system clock used as the re
    SV-206538r617447_rule SRG-APP-000118-DB-000059 CCI-000162 MEDIUM The audit information produced by the DBMS must be protected from unauthorized read access. If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In addition, access to audit records provides information an
    SV-206539r617447_rule SRG-APP-000119-DB-000060 CCI-000163 MEDIUM The audit information produced by the DBMS must be protected from unauthorized modification. If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data the information system and/or the applica
    SV-206540r617447_rule SRG-APP-000120-DB-000061 CCI-000164 MEDIUM The audit information produced by the DBMS must be protected from unauthorized deletion. If audit data were to become compromised, then competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity is impossible to achieve. To ensure the veracity of audit data, the information system and/or the applica
    SV-206541r617447_rule SRG-APP-000121-DB-000202 CCI-001493 MEDIUM The DBMS must protect its audit features from unauthorized access. Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Depending upon the log format and application, system and application log tools may provide the only means to manipulate and manage applicatio
    SV-206542r617447_rule SRG-APP-000122-DB-000203 CCI-001494 MEDIUM The DBMS must protect its audit configuration from unauthorized modification. Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Therefore, protecting audit tools is necessary to prevent unauthorized operation on audit data. Applications providing tools to interface with
    SV-206543r617447_rule SRG-APP-000123-DB-000204 CCI-001495 MEDIUM The DBMS must protect its audit features from unauthorized removal. Protecting audit data also includes identifying and protecting the tools used to view and manipulate log data. Therefore, protecting audit tools is necessary to prevent unauthorized operation on audit data. Applications providing tools to interface with
    SV-206544r617447_rule SRG-APP-000133-DB-000179 CCI-001499 MEDIUM The DBMS must limit privileges to change software modules, to include stored procedures, functions and triggers, and links to software external to the DBMS. If the system were to allow any user to make changes to software libraries, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process. Accordingly, only qualified
    SV-206545r617447_rule SRG-APP-000133-DB-000198 CCI-001499 MEDIUM The DBMS software installation account must be restricted to authorized users. When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can have significant effects on the overall security of the system. If the system
    SV-206546r617447_rule SRG-APP-000133-DB-000199 CCI-001499 MEDIUM Database software, including DBMS configuration files, must be stored in dedicated directories, or DASD pools, separate from the host OS and other applications. When dealing with change control issues, it should be noted any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system and/or application can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. Mul
    SV-206547r617447_rule SRG-APP-000133-DB-000200 CCI-001499 MEDIUM Database objects (including but not limited to tables, indexes, storage, stored procedures, functions, triggers, links to software external to the DBMS, etc.) must be owned by database/DBMS principals authorized for ownership. Within the database, object ownership implies full privileges to the owned object, including the privilege to assign access to the owned objects to other subjects. Database functions and procedures can be coded using definer's rights. This allows anyone w
    SV-206548r617447_rule SRG-APP-000133-DB-000362 CCI-001499 MEDIUM The role(s)/group(s) used to modify database structure (including but not necessarily limited to tables, indexes, storage, etc.) and logic modules (stored procedures, functions, triggers, links to software external to the DBMS, etc.) must be restricted to authorized users. If the DBMS were to allow any user to make changes to database structure or logic, then those changes might be implemented without undergoing the appropriate testing and approvals that are part of a robust change management process. Accordingly, only qua
    SV-206549r617447_rule SRG-APP-000141-DB-000090 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Default demonstration and sample databases, database objects, and applications must be removed. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is det
    SV-206550r617447_rule SRG-APP-000141-DB-000091 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Unused database components, DBMS software, and database objects must be removed. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is det
    SV-206551r617447_rule SRG-APP-000141-DB-000092 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Unused database components that are integrated in the DBMS and cannot be uninstalled must be disabled. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is de
    SV-206552r617447_rule SRG-APP-000141-DB-000093 CCI-000381 MEDIUM Access to external executables must be disabled or restricted. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). It is de
    SV-206553r617447_rule SRG-APP-000142-DB-000094 CCI-000382 MEDIUM The DBMS must be configured to prohibit or restrict the use of organization-defined functions, ports, protocols, and/or services, as defined in the PPSM CAL and vulnerability assessments. In order to prevent unauthorized connection of devices, unauthorized transfer of information, or unauthorized tunneling (i.e., embedding of data types within data types), organizations must disable or restrict unused or unnecessary physical and logical po
    SV-206554r617447_rule SRG-APP-000148-DB-000103 CCI-000764 MEDIUM The DBMS must uniquely identify and authenticate organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of organizational users). To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, organizational users must be identified and authenticated to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system. Organizational users include organizational employees or individuals the org
    SV-206555r617447_rule SRG-APP-000164-DB-000401 CCI-000192 MEDIUM If DBMS authentication, using passwords, is employed, the DBMS must enforce the DoD standards for password complexity and lifetime. OS/enterprise authentication and identification must be used (SRG-APP-000023-DB-000001). Native DBMS authentication may be used only when circumstances make it unavoidable; and must be documented and AO-approved. The DoD standard for authentication is D
    SV-206556r617447_rule SRG-APP-000171-DB-000074 CCI-000196 MEDIUM If passwords are used for authentication, the DBMS must store only hashed, salted representations of passwords. The DoD standard for authentication is DoD-approved PKI certificates. Authentication based on User ID and Password may be used only when it is not possible to employ a PKI certificate, and requires AO approval. In such cases, database passwords stored i
    SV-206557r617447_rule SRG-APP-000172-DB-000075 CCI-000197 MEDIUM If passwords are used for authentication, the DBMS must transmit only encrypted representations of passwords. The DoD standard for authentication is DoD-approved PKI certificates. Authentication based on User ID and Password may be used only when it is not possible to employ a PKI certificate, and requires AO approval. In such cases, passwords need to be protec
    SV-206558r617447_rule SRG-APP-000175-DB-000067 CCI-000185 MEDIUM The DBMS, when utilizing PKI-based authentication, must validate certificates by performing RFC 5280-compliant certification path validation. The DoD standard for authentication is DoD-approved PKI certificates. A certificate’s certification path is the path from the end entity certificate to a trusted root certification authority (CA). Certification path validation is necessary for a relyi
    SV-206559r617447_rule SRG-APP-000176-DB-000068 CCI-000186 MEDIUM The DBMS must enforce authorized access to all PKI private keys stored/utilized by the DBMS. The DoD standard for authentication is DoD-approved PKI certificates. PKI certificate-based authentication is performed by requiring the certificate holder to cryptographically prove possession of the corresponding private key. If the private key is stol
    SV-206560r617447_rule SRG-APP-000177-DB-000069 CCI-000187 MEDIUM The DBMS must map the PKI-authenticated identity to an associated user account. The DoD standard for authentication is DoD-approved PKI certificates. Once a PKI certificate has been validated, it must be mapped to a DBMS user account for the authenticated identity to be meaningful to the DBMS and useful for authorization decisions.
    SV-206561r617447_rule SRG-APP-000178-DB-000083 CCI-000206 MEDIUM The DBMS must obscure feedback of authentication information during the authentication process to protect the information from possible exploitation/use by unauthorized individuals. The DoD standard for authentication is DoD-approved PKI certificates. Normally, with PKI authentication, the interaction with the user for authentication will be handled by a software component separate from the DBMS, such as ActivIdentity ActivClient. H
    SV-206562r617447_rule SRG-APP-000179-DB-000114 CCI-000803 MEDIUM The DBMS must use NIST FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic modules for cryptographic operations. Use of weak or not validated cryptographic algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption and digital signatures to protect data. Weak algorithms can be easily broken and not validated cryptographic modules may not implement algorithms correc
    SV-206563r617447_rule SRG-APP-000180-DB-000115 CCI-000804 MEDIUM The DBMS must uniquely identify and authenticate non-organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of non-organizational users). Non-organizational users include all information system users other than organizational users, which include organizational employees or individuals the organization deems to have equivalent status of employees (e.g., contractors, guest researchers, indiv
    SV-206564r617447_rule SRG-APP-000211-DB-000122 CCI-001082 MEDIUM The DBMS must separate user functionality (including user interface services) from database management functionality. Information system management functionality includes functions necessary to administer databases, network components, workstations, or servers and typically requires privileged user access. The separation of user functionality from information system ma
    SV-206565r617447_rule SRG-APP-000220-DB-000149 CCI-001185 MEDIUM The DBMS must invalidate session identifiers upon user logout or other session termination. Captured sessions can be reused in "replay" attacks. This requirement limits the ability of adversaries to capture and continue to employ previously valid session IDs. This requirement focuses on communications protection for the DBMS session rather than
    SV-206566r617447_rule SRG-APP-000223-DB-000168 CCI-001664 MEDIUM The DBMS must recognize only system-generated session identifiers. DBMSs utilize sessions and session identifiers to control application behavior and user access. If an attacker can guess the session identifier or can inject or manually insert session information, the session may be compromised. This requirement focuses
    SV-206567r617447_rule SRG-APP-000224-DB-000384 CCI-001188 MEDIUM The DBMS must maintain the authenticity of communications sessions by guarding against man-in-the-middle attacks that guess at Session ID values. One class of man-in-the-middle, or session hijacking, attack involves the adversary guessing at valid session identifiers based on patterns in identifiers already known. The preferred technique for thwarting guesses at Session IDs is the generation of un
    SV-206568r617447_rule SRG-APP-000225-DB-000153 CCI-001190 MEDIUM The DBMS must fail to a secure state if system initialization fails, shutdown fails, or aborts fail. Failure to a known state can address safety or security in accordance with the mission/business needs of the organization. Failure to a known secure state helps prevent a loss of confidentiality, integrity, or availability in the event of a failure of t
    SV-206569r617447_rule SRG-APP-000226-DB-000147 CCI-001665 MEDIUM In the event of a system failure, the DBMS must preserve any information necessary to determine cause of failure and any information necessary to return to operations with least disruption to mission processes. Failure to a known state can address safety or security in accordance with the mission/business needs of the organization. Failure to a known secure state helps prevent a loss of confidentiality, integrity, or availability in the event of a failure of th
    SV-206570r617447_rule SRG-APP-000231-DB-000154 CCI-001199 MEDIUM The DBMS must protect the confidentiality and integrity of all information at rest. This control is intended to address the confidentiality and integrity of information at rest in non-mobile devices and covers user information and system information. Information at rest refers to the state of information when it is located on a secondary
    SV-206571r617447_rule SRG-APP-000233-DB-000124 CCI-001084 MEDIUM The DBMS must isolate security functions from non-security functions. An isolation boundary provides access control and protects the integrity of the hardware, software, and firmware that perform security functions. Security functions are the hardware, software, and/or firmware of the information system responsible for en
    SV-206572r617447_rule SRG-APP-000243-DB-000128 CCI-001090 MEDIUM Database contents must be protected from unauthorized and unintended information transfer by enforcement of a data-transfer policy. Applications, including DBMSs, must prevent unauthorized and unintended information transfer via shared system resources. Data used for the development and testing of applications often involves copying data from production. It is important that specifi
    SV-206573r617447_rule SRG-APP-000243-DB-000373 CCI-001090 MEDIUM The DBMS must prevent unauthorized and unintended information transfer via shared system resources. The purpose of this control is to prevent information, including encrypted representations of information, produced by the actions of a prior user/role (or the actions of a process acting on behalf of a prior user/role) from being available to any current
    SV-206574r617447_rule SRG-APP-000243-DB-000374 CCI-001090 MEDIUM Access to database files must be limited to relevant processes and to authorized, administrative users. Applications, including DBMSs, must prevent unauthorized and unintended information transfer via shared system resources. Permitting only DBMS processes and authorized, administrative users to have access to the files where the database resides helps ensu
    SV-206575r617447_rule SRG-APP-000251-DB-000160 CCI-001310 MEDIUM The DBMS must check the validity of all data inputs except those specifically identified by the organization. Invalid user input occurs when a user inserts data or characters into an application's data entry fields and the application is unprepared to process that data. This results in unanticipated application behavior, potentially leading to an application or i
    SV-206576r617447_rule SRG-APP-000251-DB-000391 CCI-001310 MEDIUM The DBMS and associated applications must reserve the use of dynamic code execution for situations that require it. With respect to database management systems, one class of threat is known as SQL Injection, or more generally, code injection. It takes advantage of the dynamic execution capabilities of various programming languages, including dialects of SQL. In such ca
    SV-206577r617447_rule SRG-APP-000251-DB-000392 CCI-001310 MEDIUM The DBMS and associated applications, when making use of dynamic code execution, must scan input data for invalid values that may indicate a code injection attack. With respect to database management systems, one class of threat is known as SQL Injection, or more generally, code injection. It takes advantage of the dynamic execution capabilities of various programming languages, including dialects of SQL. In such ca
    SV-206578r617447_rule SRG-APP-000266-DB-000162 CCI-001312 MEDIUM The DBMS must provide non-privileged users with error messages that provide information necessary for corrective actions without revealing information that could be exploited by adversaries. Any DBMS or associated application providing too much information in error messages on the screen or printout risks compromising the data and security of the system. The structure and content of error messages need to be carefully considered by the organi
    SV-206579r617447_rule SRG-APP-000267-DB-000163 CCI-001314 MEDIUM The DBMS must reveal detailed error messages only to the ISSO, ISSM, SA and DBA. If the DBMS provides too much information in error logs and administrative messages to the screen, this could lead to compromise. The structure and content of error messages need to be carefully considered by the organization and development team. The ext
    SV-206580r617447_rule SRG-APP-000295-DB-000305 CCI-002361 MEDIUM The DBMS must automatically terminate a user session after organization-defined conditions or trigger events requiring session disconnect. This addresses the termination of user-initiated logical sessions in contrast to the termination of network connections that are associated with communications sessions (i.e., network disconnect). A logical session (for local, network, and remote access)
    SV-206581r617447_rule SRG-APP-000296-DB-000306 CCI-002363 MEDIUM The DBMS must provide logout functionality to allow the user to manually terminate a session initiated by that user. If a user cannot explicitly end a DBMS session, the session may remain open and be exploited by an attacker; this is referred to as a zombie session. Such logout may be explicit or implicit. Examples of explicit are: clicking on a "Log Out" link or butto
    SV-206582r617447_rule SRG-APP-000311-DB-000308 CCI-002262 MEDIUM The DBMS must associate organization-defined types of security labels having organization-defined security label values with information in storage. Without the association of security labels to information, there is no basis for the DBMS to make security-related access-control decisions. Security labels are abstractions representing the basic properties or characteristics of an entity (e.g., subject
    SV-206583r617447_rule SRG-APP-000313-DB-000309 CCI-002263 MEDIUM The DBMS must associate organization-defined types of security labels having organization-defined security label values with information in process. Without the association of security labels to information, there is no basis for the DBMS to make security-related access-control decisions. Security labels are abstractions representing the basic properties or characteristics of an entity (e.g., subject
    SV-206584r617447_rule SRG-APP-000314-DB-000310 CCI-002264 MEDIUM The DBMS must associate organization-defined types of security labels having organization-defined security label values with information in transmission. Without the association of security labels to information, there is no basis for the DBMS to make security-related access-control decisions. Security labels are abstractions representing the basic properties or characteristics of an entity (e.g., subject
    SV-206585r617447_rule SRG-APP-000328-DB-000301 CCI-002165 MEDIUM The DBMS must enforce discretionary access control policies, as defined by the data owner, over defined subjects and objects. Discretionary Access Control (DAC) is based on the notion that individual users are "owners" of objects and therefore have discretion over who should be authorized to access the object and in which mode (e.g., read or write). Ownership is usually acquired
    SV-206586r617447_rule SRG-APP-000340-DB-000304 CCI-002235 MEDIUM The DBMS must prevent non-privileged users from executing privileged functions, to include disabling, circumventing, or altering implemented security safeguards/countermeasures. Preventing non-privileged users from executing privileged functions mitigates the risk that unauthorized individuals or processes may gain unnecessary access to information or privileges. System documentation should include a definition of the functiona
    SV-206587r617447_rule SRG-APP-000342-DB-000302 CCI-002233 MEDIUM Execution of software modules (to include stored procedures, functions, and triggers) with elevated privileges must be restricted to necessary cases only. In certain situations, to provide required functionality, a DBMS needs to execute internal logic (stored procedures, functions, triggers, etc.) and/or external code modules with elevated privileges. However, if the privileges required for execution are at
    SV-206589r617447_rule SRG-APP-000356-DB-000314 CCI-001844 MEDIUM The DBMS must utilize centralized management of the content captured in audit records generated by all components of the DBMS. Without the ability to centrally manage the content captured in the audit records, identification, troubleshooting, and correlation of suspicious behavior would be difficult and could lead to a delayed or incomplete analysis of an ongoing attack. The con
    SV-206590r617447_rule SRG-APP-000356-DB-000315 CCI-001844 MEDIUM The DBMS must provide centralized configuration of the content to be captured in audit records generated by all components of the DBMS. If the configuration of the DBMS's auditing is spread across multiple locations in the database management software, or across multiple commands, only loosely related, it is harder to use and takes longer to reconfigure in response to events. The DBMS mu
    SV-206591r617447_rule SRG-APP-000357-DB-000316 CCI-001849 MEDIUM The DBMS must allocate audit record storage capacity in accordance with organization-defined audit record storage requirements. In order to ensure sufficient storage capacity for the audit logs, the DBMS must be able to allocate audit record storage capacity. Although another requirement (SRG-APP-000515-DB-000318) mandates that audit data be off-loaded to a centralized log managem
    SV-206592r617447_rule SRG-APP-000359-DB-000319 CCI-001855 MEDIUM The DBMS must provide a warning to appropriate support staff when allocated audit record storage volume reaches 75% of maximum audit record storage capacity. Organizations are required to use a central log management system, so, under normal conditions, the audit space allocated to the DBMS on its own server will not be an issue. However, space will still be required on the DBMS server for audit records in tra
    SV-206593r617447_rule SRG-APP-000360-DB-000320 CCI-001858 MEDIUM The DBMS must provide an immediate real-time alert to appropriate support staff of all audit log failures. It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without a real-time alert, security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability, and system operatio
    SV-206594r617447_rule SRG-APP-000374-DB-000322 CCI-001890 MEDIUM The DBMS must record time stamps, in audit records and application data, that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, formerly GMT). If time stamps are not consistently applied and there is no common time reference, it is difficult to perform forensic analysis. Time stamps generated by the DBMS must include date and time. Time is commonly expressed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC),
    SV-206595r617447_rule SRG-APP-000375-DB-000323 CCI-001889 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate time stamps, for audit records and application data, with a minimum granularity of one second. Without sufficient granularity of time stamps, it is not possible to adequately determine the chronological order of records. Time stamps generated by the DBMS must include date and time. Granularity of time measurements refers to the precision availabl
    SV-206596r617447_rule SRG-APP-000378-DB-000365 CCI-001812 MEDIUM The DBMS must prohibit user installation of logic modules (stored procedures, functions, triggers, views, etc.) without explicit privileged status. Allowing regular users to install software, without explicit privileges, creates the risk that untested or potentially malicious software will be installed on the system. Explicit privileges (escalated or administrative privileges) provide the regular use
    SV-206597r617447_rule SRG-APP-000380-DB-000360 CCI-001813 MEDIUM The DBMS must enforce access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of the DBMS or database(s). Failure to provide logical access restrictions associated with changes to configuration may have significant effects on the overall security of the system. When dealing with access restrictions pertaining to change control, it should be noted that any c
    SV-206598r617447_rule SRG-APP-000381-DB-000361 CCI-001814 MEDIUM The DBMS must produce audit records of its enforcement of access restrictions associated with changes to the configuration of the DBMS or database(s). Without auditing the enforcement of access restrictions against changes to configuration, it would be difficult to identify attempted attacks and an audit trail would not be available for forensic investigation for after-the-fact actions. Enforcement ac
    SV-206599r617447_rule SRG-APP-000383-DB-000364 CCI-001762 MEDIUM The DBMS must disable network functions, ports, protocols, and services deemed by the organization to be nonsecure, in accord with the Ports, Protocols, and Services Management (PPSM) guidance. Use of nonsecure network functions, ports, protocols, and services exposes the system to avoidable threats.
    SV-206600r617447_rule SRG-APP-000389-DB-000372 CCI-002038 MEDIUM The DBMS must require users to re-authenticate when organization-defined circumstances or situations require re-authentication. The DoD standard for authentication of an interactive user is the presentation of a Common Access Card (CAC) or other physical token bearing a valid, current, DoD-issued Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) certificate, coupled with a Personal Identification N
    SV-206601r617447_rule SRG-APP-000400-DB-000367 CCI-002007 MEDIUM The DBMS must prohibit the use of cached authenticators after an organization-defined time period. If cached authentication information is out-of-date, the validity of the authentication information may be questionable.
    SV-206603r617447_rule SRG-APP-000427-DB-000385 CCI-002470 MEDIUM The DBMS must only accept end entity certificates issued by DoD PKI or DoD-approved PKI Certification Authorities (CAs) for the establishment of all encrypted sessions. Only DoD-approved external PKIs have been evaluated to ensure that they have security controls and identity vetting procedures in place which are sufficient for DoD systems to rely on the identity asserted in the certificate. PKIs lacking sufficient secu
    SV-206604r617447_rule SRG-APP-000428-DB-000386 CCI-002475 MEDIUM The DBMS must implement cryptographic mechanisms to prevent unauthorized modification of organization-defined information at rest (to include, at a minimum, PII and classified information) on organization-defined information system components. DBMSs handling data requiring "data at rest" protections must employ cryptographic mechanisms to prevent unauthorized disclosure and modification of the information at rest. These cryptographic mechanisms may be native to the DBMS or implemented via addit
    SV-206605r617447_rule SRG-APP-000429-DB-000387 CCI-002476 MEDIUM The DBMS must implement cryptographic mechanisms preventing the unauthorized disclosure of organization-defined information at rest on organization-defined information system components. DBMSs handling data requiring "data at rest" protections must employ cryptographic mechanisms to prevent unauthorized disclosure and modification of the information at rest. These cryptographic mechanisms may be native to the DBMS or implemented via addit
    SV-206606r617447_rule SRG-APP-000431-DB-000388 CCI-002530 MEDIUM The DBMS must maintain a separate execution domain for each executing process. Database management systems can maintain separate execution domains for each executing process by assigning each process a separate address space. Each process has a distinct address space so that communication between processes is controlled through the
    SV-206607r617447_rule SRG-APP-000441-DB-000378 CCI-002420 MEDIUM The DBMS must maintain the confidentiality and integrity of information during preparation for transmission. Information can be either unintentionally or maliciously disclosed or modified during preparation for transmission, including, for example, during aggregation, at protocol transformation points, and during packing/unpacking. These unauthorized disclosures
    SV-206608r617447_rule SRG-APP-000442-DB-000379 CCI-002422 MEDIUM The DBMS must maintain the confidentiality and integrity of information during reception. Information can be either unintentionally or maliciously disclosed or modified during reception, including, for example, during aggregation, at protocol transformation points, and during packing/unpacking. These unauthorized disclosures or modifications c
    SV-206609r617447_rule SRG-APP-000447-DB-000393 CCI-002754 MEDIUM When invalid inputs are received, the DBMS must behave in a predictable and documented manner that reflects organizational and system objectives. A common vulnerability is unplanned behavior when invalid inputs are received. This requirement guards against adverse or unintended system behavior caused by invalid inputs, where information system responses to the invalid input may be disruptive or cau
    SV-206610r617447_rule SRG-APP-000454-DB-000389 CCI-002617 MEDIUM When updates are applied to the DBMS software, any software components that have been replaced or made unnecessary must be removed. Previous versions of DBMS components that are not removed from the information system after updates have been installed may be exploited by adversaries. Some DBMSs' installation tools may remove older versions of software automatically from the informat
    SV-206611r617447_rule SRG-APP-000456-DB-000390 CCI-002605 MEDIUM Security-relevant software updates to the DBMS must be installed within the time period directed by an authoritative source (e.g. IAVM, CTOs, DTMs, and STIGs). Security flaws with software applications, including database management systems, are discovered daily. Vendors are constantly updating and patching their products to address newly discovered security vulnerabilities. Organizations (including any contract
    SV-206612r617447_rule SRG-APP-000492-DB-000332 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must be able to generate audit records when security objects are accessed. Changes to the security configuration must be tracked. This requirement applies to situations where security data is retrieved or modified via data manipulation operations, as opposed to via specialized security functionality. In an SQL environment, typ
    SV-206613r617447_rule SRG-APP-000492-DB-000333 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to access security objects occur. Changes to the security configuration must be tracked. This requirement applies to situations where security data is retrieved or modified via data manipulation operations, as opposed to via specialized security functionality. In an SQL environment, typ
    SV-206614r617447_rule SRG-APP-000494-DB-000344 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when categories of information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) are accessed. Changes in categories of information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categoriz
    SV-206615r617447_rule SRG-APP-000494-DB-000345 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to access categories of information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur. Changes in categories of information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For detail
    SV-206616r617447_rule SRG-APP-000495-DB-000326 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are added. Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functio
    SV-206617r617447_rule SRG-APP-000495-DB-000327 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to add privileges/permissions occur. Failed attempts to change the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized attempts to elevate or restrict privileges could go undetected. In an SQL environment, adding permissions i
    SV-206618r617447_rule SRG-APP-000495-DB-000328 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are modified. Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functio
    SV-206619r617447_rule SRG-APP-000495-DB-000329 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to modify privileges/permissions occur. Failed attempts to change the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized attempts to elevate or restrict privileges could go undetected. In an SQL environment, modifying permission
    SV-206620r617447_rule SRG-APP-000496-DB-000334 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when security objects are modified. Changes in the database objects (tables, views, procedures, functions) that record and control permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized changes to the security subsystem could go u
    SV-206621r617447_rule SRG-APP-000496-DB-000335 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to modify security objects occur. Changes in the database objects (tables, views, procedures, functions) that record and control permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized changes to the security subsystem could go u
    SV-206622r617447_rule SRG-APP-000498-DB-000346 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when categories of information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) are modified. Changes in categories of information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categoriz
    SV-206623r617447_rule SRG-APP-000498-DB-000347 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to modify categories of information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur. Changes in categories of information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For detail
    SV-206624r617447_rule SRG-APP-000499-DB-000330 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when privileges/permissions are deleted. Changes in the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized elevation or restriction of privileges could go undetected. Elevated privileges give users access to information and functio
    SV-206625r617447_rule SRG-APP-000499-DB-000331 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to delete privileges/permissions occur. Failed attempts to change the permissions, privileges, and roles granted to users and roles must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized attempts to elevate or restrict privileges could go undetected. In an SQL environment, deleting permissions
    SV-206626r617447_rule SRG-APP-000501-DB-000336 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when security objects are deleted. The removal of security objects from the database/DBMS would seriously degrade a system's information assurance posture. If such an event occurs, it must be logged.
    SV-206627r617447_rule SRG-APP-000501-DB-000337 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to delete security objects occur. The removal of security objects from the database/DBMS would seriously degrade a system's information assurance posture. If such an action is attempted, it must be logged. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition
    SV-206628r617447_rule SRG-APP-000502-DB-000348 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when categories of information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) are deleted. Changes in categories of information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. For detailed information on categorizing information, refer to FIPS Publication 199, Standards for Security Categoriz
    SV-206629r617447_rule SRG-APP-000502-DB-000349 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to delete categories of information (e.g., classification levels/security levels) occur. Changes in categories of information must be tracked. Without an audit trail, unauthorized access to protected data could go undetected. To aid in diagnosis, it is necessary to keep track of failed attempts in addition to the successful ones. For detail
    SV-206630r617447_rule SRG-APP-000503-DB-000350 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when successful logons or connections occur. For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track who/what (a user or other principal) logs on to the DBMS.
    SV-206631r617447_rule SRG-APP-000503-DB-000351 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when unsuccessful logons or connection attempts occur. For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track failed attempts to log on to the DBMS. While positive identification may not be possible in a case of failed authentication, as much information as possible about the incident must be capture
    SV-206632r617447_rule SRG-APP-000504-DB-000354 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records for all privileged activities or other system-level access. Without tracking privileged activity, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. System documentation should include a definition of the functionality consider
    SV-206633r617447_rule SRG-APP-000504-DB-000355 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when unsuccessful attempts to execute privileged activities or other system-level access occur. Without tracking privileged activity, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for one. System documentation should include a definition of the functionality consider
    SV-206634r617447_rule SRG-APP-000505-DB-000352 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records showing starting and ending time for user access to the database(s). For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to know how long a user's (or other principal's) connection to the DBMS lasts. This can be achieved by recording disconnections, in addition to logons/connections, in the audit logs. Disconnection m
    SV-206635r617447_rule SRG-APP-000506-DB-000353 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when concurrent logons/connections by the same user from different workstations occur. For completeness of forensic analysis, it is necessary to track who logs on to the DBMS. Concurrent connections by the same user from multiple workstations may be valid use of the system; or such connections may be due to improper circumvention of the re
    SV-206636r617447_rule SRG-APP-000507-DB-000356 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must be able to generate audit records when successful accesses to objects occur. Without tracking all or selected types of access to all or selected objects (tables, views, procedures, functions, etc.), it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident, or identify those responsible for
    SV-206637r617447_rule SRG-APP-000507-DB-000357 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records when unsuccessful accesses to objects occur. Without tracking all or selected types of access to all or selected objects (tables, views, procedures, functions, etc.), it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident or identify those responsible for o
    SV-206638r617447_rule SRG-APP-000508-DB-000358 CCI-000172 MEDIUM The DBMS must generate audit records for all direct access to the database(s). In this context, direct access is any query, command, or call to the DBMS that comes from any source other than the application(s) that it supports. Examples would be the command line or a database management utility program. The intent is to capture all
    SV-206639r617447_rule SRG-APP-000514-DB-000381 CCI-002450 MEDIUM The DBMS must implement NIST FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic modules to provision digital signatures. Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides ass
    SV-206640r617447_rule SRG-APP-000514-DB-000382 CCI-002450 MEDIUM The DBMS must implement NIST FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic modules to generate and validate cryptographic hashes. Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides ass
    SV-206641r617447_rule SRG-APP-000514-DB-000383 CCI-002450 MEDIUM The DBMS must implement NIST FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic modules to protect unclassified information requiring confidentiality and cryptographic protection, in accordance with the data owners requirements. Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data. The application must implement cryptographic modules adhering to the higher standards approved by the federal government since this provides ass
    SV-206642r617447_rule SRG-APP-000515-DB-000318 CCI-001851 MEDIUM The DBMS must off-load audit data to a separate log management facility; this shall be continuous and in near real time for systems with a network connection to the storage facility and weekly or more often for stand-alone systems. Information stored in one location is vulnerable to accidental or incidental deletion or alteration. Off-loading is a common process in information systems with limited audit storage capacity. The DBMS may write audit records to database tables, to fil
    SV-206643r617447_rule SRG-APP-000516-DB-000363 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The DBMS must be configured in accordance with the security configuration settings based on DoD security configuration and implementation guidance, including STIGs, NSA configuration guides, CTOs, DTMs, and IAVMs. Configuring the DBMS to implement organization-wide security implementation guides and security checklists ensures compliance with federal standards and establishes a common security baseline across DoD that reflects the most restrictive security posture
    SV-233492r617447_rule SRG-APP-000456-DB-000400 CCI-002605 MEDIUM DBMS products must be a version supported by the vendor. Unsupported commercial and database systems should not be used because fixes to newly identified bugs will not be implemented by the vendor. The lack of support can result in potential vulnerabilities. Systems at unsupported servicing levels or releases w