Apache Server 2.4 Windows Server Security Technical Implementation Guide

This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: [email protected]

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Version / Release: V1R2

Published: 2019-09-30

Updated At: 2019-11-11 10:44:20

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    Vuln Rule Version CCI Severity Title Description Status Finding Details Comments
    SV-102415r1_rule AS24-W1-000010 CCI-000054 MEDIUM The Apache web server must limit the number of allowed simultaneous session requests. Apache web server management includes the ability to control the number of users and user sessions that utilize an Apache web server. Limiting the number of allowed users and sessions per user is helpful in limiting risks related to several types of denia
    SV-102417r1_rule AS24-W1-000020 CCI-000054 MEDIUM The Apache web server must perform server-side session management. Session management is the practice of protecting the bulk of the user authorization and identity information. Storing of this data can occur on the client system or on the server. When the session information is stored on the client, the session ID, alon
    SV-102419r1_rule AS24-W1-000030 CCI-000068 MEDIUM The Apache web server must use encryption strength in accordance with the categorization of data hosted by the Apache web server when remote connections are provided. The Apache web server has several remote communications channels. Examples are user requests via http/https, communication to a backend database, and communication to authenticate users. The encryption used to communicate must match the data that is being
    SV-102425r2_rule AS24-W1-000065 CCI-000366 MEDIUM System logging must be enabled. The server error logs are invaluable because they can also be used to identify potential problems and enable proactive remediation. Log data can reveal anomalous behavior such as “not found” or “unauthorized” errors that may be an evidence of atta
    SV-102427r1_rule AS24-W1-000070 CCI-000169 MEDIUM The Apache web server must generate, at a minimum, log records for system startup and shutdown, system access, and system authentication events. Log records can be generated from various components within the Apache web server (e.g., httpd, plug-ins to external backends, etc.). From a web server perspective, certain specific Apache web server functionalities may be logged as well. The Apache web s
    SV-102431r1_rule AS24-W1-000090 CCI-000130 MEDIUM The Apache web server must produce log records containing sufficient information to establish what type of events occurred. Web server logging capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without sufficient and accurate information, a correct replay of the events cannot be determined. Ascertaining the correct type of event that occurred is important during forensic
    SV-102439r1_rule AS24-W1-000130 CCI-000133 MEDIUM An Apache web server, behind a load balancer or proxy server, must produce log records containing the client IP information as the source and destination and not the load balancer or proxy IP information with each event. Apache web server logging capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without sufficient and accurate information, a correct replay of the events cannot be determined. Ascertaining the correct source, e.g., source IP, of the events is importan
    SV-102445r1_rule AS24-W1-000160 CCI-000139 MEDIUM The Apache web server must use a logging mechanism that is configured to alert the (ISSO) and System Administrator (SA) in the event of a processing failure. Reviewing log data allows an investigator to recreate the path of an attacker and to capture forensic data for later use. Log data is also essential to system administrators in their daily administrative duties on the hosted system or within the hosted ap
    SV-102447r1_rule AS24-W1-000180 CCI-000162 MEDIUM The Apache web server log files must only be accessible by privileged users. Log data is essential in the investigation of events. If log data were to become compromised, competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity would be difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In addit
    SV-102451r1_rule AS24-W1-000200 CCI-000163 MEDIUM The log information from the Apache web server must be protected from unauthorized deletion and modification. Log data is essential in the investigation of events. The accuracy of the information is always pertinent. Information that is not accurate does not help in the revealing of potential security risks and may hinder the early discovery of a system compromis
    SV-102453r1_rule AS24-W1-000210 CCI-001348 MEDIUM The log data and records from the Apache web server must be backed up onto a different system or media. Protection of log data includes ensuring log data is not accidentally lost or deleted. Backing up log records to an unrelated system or onto separate media than the system the web server is actually running on helps to ensure that, in the event of a catas
    SV-102455r1_rule AS24-W1-000230 CCI-001749 MEDIUM Expansion modules must be fully reviewed, tested, and signed before they can exist on a production Apache web server. In the case of a production web server, areas for content development and testing will not exist, as this type of content is only permissible on a development website. The process of developing on a functional production website entails a degree of trial
    SV-102457r1_rule AS24-W1-000240 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The Apache web server must not perform user management for hosted applications. User management and authentication can be an essential part of any application hosted by the web server. Along with authenticating users, the user management function must perform several other tasks such as password complexity, locking users after a conf
    SV-102459r1_rule AS24-W1-000250 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The Apache web server must only contain services and functions necessary for operation. A web server can provide many features, services, and processes. Some of these may be deemed unnecessary or too unsecure to run on a production DoD system. The web server must provide the capability to disable, uninstall, or deactivate functionality and
    SV-102461r1_rule AS24-W1-000260 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The Apache web server must not be a proxy server. A web server should be primarily a web server or a proxy server but not both, for the same reasons that other multi-use servers are not recommended. Scanning for web servers that will also proxy requests into an otherwise protected network is a very commo
    SV-102463r1_rule AS24-W1-000270 CCI-000381 HIGH The Apache web server must provide install options to exclude the installation of documentation, sample code, example applications, and tutorials. Web server documentation, sample code, example applications, and tutorials may be an exploitable threat to a web server because this type of code has not been evaluated and approved. A production web server must only contain components that are operationa
    SV-102465r1_rule AS24-W1-000280 CCI-000381 HIGH Apache web server application directories, libraries, and configuration files must only be accessible to privileged users. When accounts used for web server features such as documentation, sample code, example applications, tutorials, utilities, and services are created even though the feature is not installed, they become an exploitable threat to a web server. These account
    SV-102469r1_rule AS24-W1-000300 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The Apache web server must have resource mappings set to disable the serving of certain file types. Resource mapping is the process of tying a particular file type to a process in the web server that can serve that type of file to a requesting client and to identify which file types are not to be delivered to a client. By not specifying which files can
    SV-102471r1_rule AS24-W1-000310 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The Apache web server must allow the mappings to unused and vulnerable scripts to be removed. Scripts allow server-side processing on behalf of the hosted application user or as processes needed in the implementation of hosted applications. Removing scripts not needed for application operation or deemed vulnerable helps to secure the web server.
    SV-102475r1_rule AS24-W1-000330 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The Apache web server must have Web Distributed Authoring (WebDAV) disabled. A web server can be installed with functionality that, just by its nature, is not secure. WebDAV is an extension to the HTTP protocol that, when developed, was meant to allow users to create, change, and move documents on a server, typically a web server
    SV-102477r1_rule AS24-W1-000360 CCI-000382 MEDIUM The Apache web server must be configured to use a specified IP address and port. The web server must be configured to listen on a specified IP address and port. Without specifying an IP address and port for the web server to use, the web server will listen on all IP addresses available to the hosting server. If the web server has mult
    SV-102479r1_rule AS24-W1-000370 CCI-000197 MEDIUM The Apache web server must encrypt passwords during transmission. Data used to authenticate, especially passwords, needs to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting authentication data during transmission. Data used to authenticate can be passed to and from the web server for many
    SV-102481r1_rule AS24-W1-000380 CCI-000185 MEDIUM The Apache web server must perform RFC 5280-compliant certification path validation. A certificate's certification path is the path from the end entity certificate to a trusted root certification authority (CA). Certification path validation is necessary for a relying party to make an informed decision regarding acceptance of an end entit
    SV-102487r1_rule AS24-W1-000430 CCI-001082 MEDIUM Apache web server accounts accessing the directory tree, the shell, or other operating system functions and utilities must only be administrative accounts. As a rule, accounts on a web server are to be kept to a minimum. Only administrators, web managers, developers, auditors, and web authors require accounts on the machine hosting the web server. The resources to which these accounts have access must also b
    SV-102491r1_rule AS24-W1-000450 CCI-001082 MEDIUM The Apache web server must separate the hosted applications from hosted Apache web server management functionality. The separation of user functionality from web server management can be accomplished by moving management functions to a separate IP address or port. To further separate the management functions, separate authentication methods and certificates should be u
    SV-102493r1_rule AS24-W1-000460 CCI-001185 MEDIUM The Apache web server must invalidate session identifiers upon hosted application user logout or other session termination. Captured sessions can be reused in "replay" attacks. This requirement limits the ability of adversaries from capturing and continuing to employ previously valid session IDs. Session IDs are tokens generated by web applications to uniquely identify an app
    SV-102495r1_rule AS24-W1-000470 CCI-001664 MEDIUM Cookies exchanged between the Apache web server and client, such as session cookies, must have security settings that disallow cookie access outside the originating Apache web server and hosted application. Cookies are used to exchange data between the web server and the client. Cookies, such as a session cookie, may contain session information and user credentials used to maintain a persistent connection between the user and the hosted application since HTT
    SV-102497r1_rule AS24-W1-000480 CCI-001188 MEDIUM The Apache web server must accept only system-generated session identifiers. Communication between a client and the web server is done using the HTTP protocol, but HTTP is a stateless protocol. To maintain a connection or session, a web server will generate a session identifier (ID) for each client session when the session is init
    SV-102501r1_rule AS24-W1-000500 CCI-001188 MEDIUM The Apache web server must generate unique session identifiers that cannot be reliably reproduced. Communication between a client and the Apache web server is done using the HTTP protocol, but HTTP is a stateless protocol. To maintain a connection or session, a web server will generate a session identifier (ID) for each client session when the session
    SV-102507r1_rule AS24-W1-000530 CCI-001188 MEDIUM The Apache web server must generate unique session identifiers with definable entropy. Generating a session identifier (ID) that is not easily guessed through brute force is essential to deter several types of session attacks. By knowing the session ID, an attacker can hijack a user session that has already been user authenticated by the ho
    SV-102511r1_rule AS24-W1-000550 CCI-001190 MEDIUM The Apache web server must be built to fail to a known safe state if system initialization fails, shutdown fails, or aborts fail. Determining a safe state for failure and weighing that against a potential DoS for users depends on what type of application the web server is hosting. For an application presenting publicly available information that is not critical, a safe state for fai
    SV-102513r1_rule AS24-W1-000580 CCI-001084 MEDIUM The Apache web server document directory must be in a separate partition from the Apache web servers system files. A web server is used to deliver content on the request of a client. The content delivered to a client must be controlled, allowing only hosted application files to be accessed and delivered. To allow a client access to system files of any type is a major
    SV-102515r1_rule AS24-W1-000590 CCI-001094 MEDIUM The Apache web server must restrict the ability of users to launch denial-of-service (DoS) attacks against other information systems or networks. Apache web server can limit the ability of the web server being used in a DoS attack through several methods. The methods employed will depend upon the hosted applications and their resource needs for proper operation. An example setting that could be us
    SV-102517r1_rule AS24-W1-000620 CCI-001312 MEDIUM Warning and error messages displayed to clients must be modified to minimize the identity of the Apache web server, patches, loaded modules, and directory paths. Information needed by an attacker to begin looking for possible vulnerabilities in a web server includes any information about the web server, backend systems being accessed, and plug-ins or modules being used. Web servers will often display error messag
    SV-102519r1_rule AS24-W1-000630 CCI-001312 MEDIUM Debugging and trace information used to diagnose the Apache web server must be disabled. Information needed by an attacker to begin looking for possible vulnerabilities in a web server includes any information about the web server and plug-ins or modules being used. When debugging or trace information is enabled in a production web server, in
    SV-102521r1_rule AS24-W1-000640 CCI-002361 MEDIUM The Apache web server must set an absolute timeout for sessions. Leaving sessions open indefinitely is a major security risk. An attacker can easily use an already authenticated session to access the hosted application as the previously authenticated user. By closing sessions after an absolute period of time, the user
    SV-102523r1_rule AS24-W1-000650 CCI-002361 MEDIUM The Apache web server must set an inactive timeout for sessions. Leaving sessions open indefinitely is a major security risk. An attacker can easily use an already authenticated session to access the hosted application as the previously authenticated user. By closing sessions after a set period of inactivity, the Apach
    SV-102527r1_rule AS24-W1-000670 CCI-002314 MEDIUM The Apache web server must restrict inbound connections from nonsecure zones. Remote access to the Apache web server is any access that communicates through an external, non-organization-controlled network. Remote access can be used to access hosted applications or to perform management functions. A web server can be accessed remo
    SV-102529r1_rule AS24-W1-000680 CCI-002322 MEDIUM The Apache web server must be configured to immediately disconnect or disable remote access to the hosted applications. During an attack on the Apache web server or any of the hosted applications, the system administrator may need to disconnect or disable access by users to stop the attack. The Apache web server must be configured to disconnect users to a hosted applicati
    SV-102531r1_rule AS24-W1-000690 CCI-002235 MEDIUM Non-privileged accounts on the hosting system must only access Apache web server security-relevant information and functions through a distinct administrative account. By separating Apache web server security functions from non-privileged users, roles can be developed that can then be used to administer the Apache web server. Forcing users to change from a non-privileged account to a privileged account when operating on
    SV-102533r1_rule AS24-W1-000700 CCI-001844 MEDIUM An Apache web server that is part of a web server cluster must route all remote management through a centrally managed access control point. A web server cluster is a group of independent Apache web servers that are managed as a single system for higher availability, easier manageability, and greater scalability. Without having centralized control of the web server cluster, management of the c
    SV-102535r1_rule AS24-W1-000710 CCI-001849 MEDIUM The Apache web server must use a logging mechanism that is configured to allocate log record storage capacity large enough to accommodate the logging requirements of the Apache web server. To make certain that the logging mechanism used by the web server has sufficient storage capacity in which to write the logs, the logging mechanism needs to be able to allocate log record storage capacity. The task of allocating log record storage capac
    SV-102537r1_rule AS24-W1-000720 CCI-001851 MEDIUM The Apache web server must not impede the ability to write specified log record content to an audit log server. Writing events to a centralized management audit system offers many benefits to the enterprise over having dispersed logs. Centralized management of audit records and logs provides for efficiency in maintenance and management of records, enterprise analys
    SV-102539r1_rule AS24-W1-000730 CCI-001851 MEDIUM The Apache web server must be configurable to integrate with an organizations security infrastructure. A web server will typically use logging mechanisms for maintaining a historical log of activity that occurs within a hosted application. This information can then be used for diagnostic purposes, forensics purposes, or other purposes relevant to ensuring
    SV-102543r1_rule AS24-W1-000740 CCI-001855 MEDIUM The Apache web server must use a logging mechanism that is configured to provide a warning to the Information System Security Officer (ISSO) and System Administrator (SA) when allocated record storage volume reaches 75% of maximum log record storage capacity. It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process logs as required. Log processing failures include software/hardware errors, failures in the log capturing mechanisms, and log storage capacity being reac
    SV-102551r1_rule AS24-W1-000820 CCI-002385 MEDIUM The Apache web server must be protected from being stopped by a non-privileged user. An attacker has at least two reasons to stop a web server. The first is to cause a denial of service (DoS), and the second is to put in place changes the attacker made to the web server configuration. To prohibit an attacker from stopping the Apache web
    SV-102553r1_rule AS24-W1-000830 CCI-002385 MEDIUM The Apache web server must be tuned to handle the operational requirements of the hosted application. A denial of service (DoS) can occur when the Apache web server is so overwhelmed that it can no longer respond to additional requests. A web server not properly tuned may become overwhelmed and cause a DoS condition even with expected traffic from users.
    SV-102557r1_rule AS24-W1-000860 CCI-002418 MEDIUM The Apache web server cookies, such as session cookies, sent to the client using SSL/TLS must not be compressed. A cookie is used when a web server needs to share data with the client's browser. The data is often used to remember the client when the client returns to the hosted application at a later date. A session cookie is a special type of cookie used to remembe
    SV-102563r1_rule AS24-W1-000930 CCI-002605 MEDIUM The Apache web server must install security-relevant software updates within the configured time period directed by an authoritative source (e.g., IAVM, CTOs, DTMs, and STIGs). Security flaws with software applications are discovered daily. Vendors are constantly updating and patching their products to address newly discovered security vulnerabilities. Organizations (including any contractor to the organization) are required to
    SV-102565r1_rule AS24-W1-000940 CCI-000366 HIGH All accounts installed with the Apache web server software and tools must have passwords assigned and default passwords changed. During installation of the Apache web server software, accounts are created for the Apache web server to operate properly. The accounts installed can have either no password installed or a default password, which will be known and documented by the vendor
    SV-102567r1_rule AS24-W1-000950 CCI-000366 LOW The Apache web server must be configured in accordance with the security configuration settings based on DoD security configuration or implementation guidance, including STIGs, NSA configuration guides, CTOs, and DTMs. Configuring the Apache web server to implement organization-wide security implementation guides and security checklists guarantees compliance with federal standards and establishes a common security baseline across the DoD that reflects the most restricti
    SV-102569r1_rule AS24-W1-000960 CCI-000366 HIGH The Apache web server software must be a vendor-supported version. Many vulnerabilities are associated with older versions of web server software. As hot fixes and patches are issued, these solutions are included in the next version of the server software. Maintaining the web server at a current version makes the effo
    SV-102933r1_rule AS24-W1-000800 CCI-002470 MEDIUM The Apache web server must only accept client certificates issued by DoD PKI or DoD-approved PKI Certification Authorities (CAs). Non-DoD-approved PKIs have not been evaluated to ensure they have security controls and identity vetting procedures in place that are sufficient for DoD systems to rely on the identity asserted in the certificate. PKIs lacking sufficient security controls
    SV-104685r1_rule AS24-W1-000970 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The Apache web server must alert the ISSO and SA (at a minimum) in the event of an audit processing failure. It is critical for the appropriate personnel to be aware if a system is at risk of failing to process audit logs as required. Without this notification, the security personnel may be unaware of an impending failure of the audit capability and system opera
    SV-104687r1_rule AS24-W1-000760 CCI-001890 MEDIUM The Apache web server must generate log records that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) with a minimum granularity of one second. If time stamps are not consistently applied and there is no common time reference, it is difficult to perform forensic analysis across multiple devices and log records. Time stamps generated by the Apache web server include date and time. Time is commonl