Apache Server 2.4 UNIX Server Security Technical Implementation Guide

This Security Technical Implementation Guide is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. The requirements are derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 and related documents. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via email to the following address: [email protected]

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Version / Release: V1R2

Published: 2019-09-30

Updated At: 2019-11-11 10:44:19

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    Vuln Rule Version CCI Severity Title Description Status Finding Details Comments
    SV-102685r1_rule AS24-U1-000010 CCI-000054 MEDIUM The Apache web server must limit the number of allowed simultaneous session requests. Apache web server management includes the ability to control the number of users and user sessions that utilize an Apache web server. Limiting the number of allowed users and sessions per user is helpful in limiting risks related to several types of denia
    SV-102687r1_rule AS24-U1-000020 CCI-000054 MEDIUM The Apache web server must perform server-side session management. Session management is the practice of protecting the bulk of the user authorization and identity information. This data can be stored on the client system or on the server. When the session information is stored on the client, the session ID, along with
    SV-102689r1_rule AS24-U1-000030 CCI-000068 MEDIUM The Apache web server must use cryptography to protect the integrity of remote sessions. Data exchanged between the user and the Apache web server can range from static display data to credentials used to log on to the hosted application. Even when data appears to be static, the non-displayed logic in a web page may expose business logic or t
    SV-102695r2_rule AS24-U1-000065 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The Apache web server must have system logging enabled. The server error logs are invaluable because they can also be used to identify potential problems and enable proactive remediation. Log data can reveal anomalous behavior such as “not found” or “unauthorized” errors that may be an evidence of atta
    SV-102697r1_rule AS24-U1-000070 CCI-000130 MEDIUM The Apache web server must generate, at a minimum, log records for system startup and shutdown, system access, and system authentication events. Log records can be generated from various components within the Apache web server (e.g., httpd, plug-ins to external backends, etc.). From a web server perspective, certain specific Apache web server functionalities may be logged as well. The Apache web s
    SV-102709r1_rule AS24-U1-000130 CCI-000133 MEDIUM An Apache web server, behind a load balancer or proxy server, must produce log records containing the client IP information as the source and destination and not the load balancer or proxy IP information with each event. Apache web server logging capability is critical for accurate forensic analysis. Without sufficient and accurate information, a correct replay of the events cannot be determined. Ascertaining the correct source of the events (e.g., source IP) is importan
    SV-102715r1_rule AS24-U1-000160 CCI-000139 MEDIUM The Apache web server must use a logging mechanism that is configured to alert the Information System Security Officer (ISSO) and System Administrator (SA) in the event of a processing failure. Reviewing log data allows an investigator to recreate the path of an attacker and to capture forensic data for later use. Log data is also essential to SAs in their daily administrative duties on the hosted system or within the hosted applications. If th
    SV-102717r1_rule AS24-U1-000180 CCI-000162 MEDIUM The Apache web server log files must only be accessible by privileged users. Log data is essential in the investigation of events. If log data were to become compromised, competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity would be difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In addit
    SV-102719r1_rule AS24-U1-000190 CCI-000163 MEDIUM The log information from the Apache web server must be protected from unauthorized modification or deletion. Log data is essential in the investigation of events. If log data were to become compromised, competent forensic analysis and discovery of the true source of potentially malicious system activity would be difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. In addit
    SV-102723r1_rule AS24-U1-000210 CCI-001348 MEDIUM The log data and records from the Apache web server must be backed up onto a different system or media. Protection of log data includes ensuring log data is not accidentally lost or deleted. Backing up log records to an unrelated system or onto separate media than the system the web server is actually running on helps to ensure that, in the event of a catas
    SV-102725r1_rule AS24-U1-000230 CCI-001749 MEDIUM Expansion modules must be fully reviewed, tested, and signed before they can exist on a production Apache web server. In the case of a production web server, areas for content development and testing will not exist, as this type of content is only permissible on a development website. The process of developing on a functional production website entails a degree of trial
    SV-102727r1_rule AS24-U1-000240 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The Apache web server must not perform user management for hosted applications. User management and authentication can be an essential part of any application hosted by the web server. Along with authenticating users, the user management function must perform several other tasks such as password complexity, locking users after a conf
    SV-102729r1_rule AS24-U1-000250 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The Apache web server must only contain services and functions necessary for operation. A web server can provide many features, services, and processes. Some of these may be deemed unnecessary or too unsecure to run on a production DoD system. The web server must provide the capability to disable, uninstall, or deactivate functionality and
    SV-102731r1_rule AS24-U1-000260 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The Apache web server must not be a proxy server. A web server should be primarily a web server or a proxy server but not both, for the same reasons that other multi-use servers are not recommended. Scanning for web servers that will also proxy requests into an otherwise protected network is a very commo
    SV-102733r1_rule AS24-U1-000270 CCI-000381 HIGH The Apache web server must provide install options to exclude the installation of documentation, sample code, example applications, and tutorials. Apache web server documentation, sample code, example applications, and tutorials may be an exploitable threat to an Apache web server because this type of code has not been evaluated and approved. A production Apache web server must only contain componen
    SV-102741r1_rule AS24-U1-000300 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The Apache web server must have resource mappings set to disable the serving of certain file types. Resource mapping is the process of tying a particular file type to a process in the web server that can serve that type of file to a requesting client and to identify which file types are not to be delivered to a client. By not specifying which files can
    SV-102743r1_rule AS24-U1-000310 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The Apache web server must allow the mappings to unused and vulnerable scripts to be removed. Scripts allow server-side processing on behalf of the hosted application user or as processes needed in the implementation of hosted applications. Removing scripts not needed for application operation or deemed vulnerable helps to secure the web server.
    SV-102747r1_rule AS24-U1-000330 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The Apache web server must have Web Distributed Authoring (WebDAV) disabled. A web server can be installed with functionality that, by its nature, is not secure. WebDAV is an extension to the HTTP protocol that, when developed, was meant to allow users to create, change, and move documents on a server, typically a web server or we
    SV-102749r1_rule AS24-U1-000360 CCI-000186 MEDIUM The Apache web server must be configured to use a specified IP address and port. The web server must be configured to listen on a specified IP address and port. Without specifying an IP address and port for the web server to use, the web server will listen on all IP addresses available to the hosting server. If the web server has mult
    SV-102759r1_rule AS24-U1-000430 CCI-001082 MEDIUM Apache web server accounts accessing the directory tree, the shell, or other operating system functions and utilities must only be administrative accounts. As a rule, accounts on a web server are to be kept to a minimum. Only administrators, web managers, developers, auditors, and web authors require accounts on the machine hosting the web server. The resources to which these accounts have access must also b
    SV-102761r1_rule AS24-U1-000440 CCI-000381 HIGH Apache web server application directories, libraries, and configuration files must only be accessible to privileged users. To properly monitor the changes to the web server and the hosted applications, logging must be enabled. Along with logging being enabled, each record must properly contain the changes made and the names of those who made the changes. Allowing anonymous u
    SV-102763r1_rule AS24-U1-000450 CCI-001082 MEDIUM The Apache web server must separate the hosted applications from hosted Apache web server management functionality. The separation of user functionality from web server management can be accomplished by moving management functions to a separate IP address or port. To further separate the management functions, separate authentication methods and certificates should be u
    SV-102765r1_rule AS24-U1-000460 CCI-001185 MEDIUM The Apache web server must invalidate session identifiers upon hosted application user logout or other session termination. Captured sessions can be reused in "replay" attacks. This requirement limits the ability of adversaries from capturing and continuing to employ previously valid session IDs. Session IDs are tokens generated by web applications to uniquely identify an app
    SV-102767r1_rule AS24-U1-000470 CCI-001664 MEDIUM Cookies exchanged between the Apache web server and client, such as session cookies, must have security settings that disallow cookie access outside the originating Apache web server and hosted application. Cookies are used to exchange data between the web server and the client. Cookies, such as a session cookie, may contain session information and user credentials used to maintain a persistent connection between the user and the hosted application since HTT
    SV-102775r1_rule AS24-U1-000510 CCI-001188 MEDIUM The Apache web server must generate a session ID long enough that it cannot be guessed through brute force. Generating a session identifier (ID) that is not easily guessed through brute force is essential to deter several types of session attacks. By knowing the session ID, an attacker can hijack a user session that has already been user authenticated by the ho
    SV-102777r1_rule AS24-U1-000520 CCI-001188 HIGH The Apache web server must generate a session ID using as much of the character set as possible to reduce the risk of brute force. Generating a session identifier (ID) that is not easily guessed through brute force is essential to deter several types of session attacks. By knowing the session ID, an attacker can hijack a user session that has already been user-authenticated by the ho
    SV-102783r1_rule AS24-U1-000550 CCI-001190 MEDIUM The Apache web server must be built to fail to a known safe state if system initialization fails, shutdown fails, or aborts fail. Determining a safe state for failure and weighing that against a potential denial of service for users depends on what type of application the web server is hosting. For an application presenting publicly available information that is not critical, a safe
    SV-102785r1_rule AS24-U1-000590 CCI-001094 MEDIUM The Apache web server must be tuned to handle the operational requirements of the hosted application. A denial of service (DoS) can occur when the Apache web server is so overwhelmed that it can no longer respond to additional requests. A web server not properly tuned may become overwhelmed and cause a DoS condition even with expected traffic from users.
    SV-102787r1_rule AS24-U1-000620 CCI-001312 MEDIUM Warning and error messages displayed to clients must be modified to minimize the identity of the Apache web server, patches, loaded modules, and directory paths. Information needed by an attacker to begin looking for possible vulnerabilities in a web server includes any information about the web server, backend systems being accessed, and plug-ins or modules being used. Web servers will often display error messag
    SV-102789r1_rule AS24-U1-000630 CCI-001312 MEDIUM Debugging and trace information used to diagnose the Apache web server must be disabled. Information needed by an attacker to begin looking for possible vulnerabilities in a web server includes any information about the web server and plug-ins or modules being used. When debugging or trace information is enabled in a production web server, i
    SV-102793r1_rule AS24-U1-000650 CCI-002361 MEDIUM The Apache web server must set an inactive timeout for sessions. Leaving sessions open indefinitely is a major security risk. An attacker can easily use an already authenticated session to access the hosted application as the previously authenticated user. By closing sessions after a set period of inactivity, the Apach
    SV-102797r1_rule AS24-U1-000670 CCI-002314 MEDIUM The Apache web server must restrict inbound connections from nonsecure zones. Remote access to the Apache web server is any access that communicates through an external, non-organization-controlled network. Remote access can be used to access hosted applications or to perform management functions. A web server can be accessed remo
    SV-102799r1_rule AS24-U1-000680 CCI-002322 MEDIUM The Apache web server must be configured to immediately disconnect or disable remote access to the hosted applications. During an attack on the Apache web server or any of the hosted applications, the System Administrator (SA) may need to disconnect or disable access by users to stop the attack. The Apache web server must be configured to disconnect users from a hosted ap
    SV-102801r1_rule AS24-U1-000690 CCI-002235 MEDIUM Non-privileged accounts on the hosting system must only access Apache web server security-relevant information and functions through a distinct administrative account. By separating Apache web server security functions from non-privileged users, roles can be developed that can then be used to administer the Apache web server. Forcing users to change from a non-privileged account to a privileged account when operating on
    SV-102803r1_rule AS24-U1-000710 CCI-001849 MEDIUM The Apache web server must use a logging mechanism that is configured to allocate log record storage capacity large enough to accommodate the logging requirements of the Apache web server. To make certain that the logging mechanism used by the web server has sufficient storage capacity in which to write the logs, the logging mechanism needs to be able to allocate log record storage capacity. The task of allocating log record storage capaci
    SV-102805r1_rule AS24-U1-000720 CCI-001851 MEDIUM The Apache web server must not impede the ability to write specified log record content to an audit log server. Writing events to a centralized management audit system offers many benefits to the enterprise over having dispersed logs. Centralized management of audit records and logs provides for efficiency in maintenance and management of records, enterprise analys
    SV-102807r1_rule AS24-U1-000730 CCI-001851 MEDIUM The Apache web server must be configured to integrate with an organizations security infrastructure. A web server will typically use logging mechanisms for maintaining a historical log of activity that occurs within a hosted application. This information can then be used for diagnostic purposes, forensics purposes, or other purposes relevant to ensuring
    SV-102811r1_rule AS24-U1-000750 CCI-001889 MEDIUM The Apache web server must generate log records that can be mapped to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) which are stamped at a minimum granularity of one second. If time stamps are not consistently applied and there is no common time reference, it is difficult to perform forensic analysis across multiple devices and log records. Time stamps generated by the Apache web server include date and time. Time is commonl
    SV-102815r1_rule AS24-U1-000780 CCI-001762 MEDIUM The Apache web server must prohibit or restrict the use of nonsecure or unnecessary ports, protocols, modules, and/or services. Web servers provide numerous processes, features, and functionalities that use TCP/IP ports. Some of these processes may be deemed unnecessary or too unsecure to run on a production system. The Apache web server must provide the capability to disable or
    SV-102819r1_rule AS24-U1-000820 CCI-002385 MEDIUM The Apache web server must be protected from being stopped by a non-privileged user. An attacker has at least two reasons to stop a web server. The first is to cause a denial of service (DoS), and the second is to put in place changes the attacker made to the web server configuration. To prohibit an attacker from stopping the Apache web
    SV-102829r1_rule AS24-U1-000870 CCI-002418 MEDIUM Cookies exchanged between the Apache web server and the client, such as session cookies, must have cookie properties set to prohibit client-side scripts from reading the cookie data. A cookie can be read by client-side scripts easily if cookie properties are not set properly. By allowing cookies to be read by the client-side scripts, information such as session identifiers could be compromised and used by an attacker who intercepts th
    SV-102833r1_rule AS24-U1-000900 CCI-002418 MEDIUM The Apache web server must remove all export ciphers to protect the confidentiality and integrity of transmitted information. During the initial setup of a Transport Layer Security (TLS) connection to the Apache web server, the client sends a list of supported cipher suites in order of preference. The Apache web server will reply with the cipher suite it will use for communicati
    SV-102837r1_rule AS24-U1-000930 CCI-002605 MEDIUM The Apache web server must install security-relevant software updates within the configured time period directed by an authoritative source (e.g., IAVM, CTOs, DTMs, and STIGs). Security flaws with software applications are discovered daily. Vendors are constantly updating and patching their products to address newly discovered security vulnerabilities. Organizations (including any contractor to the organization) are required to
    SV-102839r1_rule AS24-U1-000940 CCI-000366 HIGH The account used to run the Apache web server must not have a valid login shell and password defined. During installation of the Apache web server software, accounts are created for the Apache web server to operate properly. The accounts installed can have either no password installed or a default password, which will be known and documented by the vendor
    SV-102841r1_rule AS24-U1-000950 CCI-000366 LOW The Apache web server must be configured in accordance with the security configuration settings based on DoD security configuration or implementation guidance, including STIGs, NSA configuration guides, CTOs, and DTMs. Configuring the Apache web server to implement organization-wide security implementation guides and security checklists guarantees compliance with federal standards and establishes a common security baseline across the DoD that reflects the most restricti
    SV-102843r1_rule AS24-U1-000960 CCI-000366 HIGH The Apache web server software must be a vendor-supported version. Many vulnerabilities are associated with older versions of web server software. As hot fixes and patches are issued, these solutions are included in the next version of the server software. Maintaining the web server at a current version makes the ef
    SV-102845r1_rule AS24-U1-000970 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The Apache web server htpasswd files (if present) must reflect proper ownership and permissions. In addition to OS restrictions, access rights to files and directories can be set on a website using the web server software. That is, in addition to allowing or denying all access rights, a rule can be specified that allows or denies partial access right
    SV-102847r1_rule AS24-U1-001000 CCI-001084 MEDIUM HTTP request methods must be limited. The HTTP 1.1 protocol supports several request methods that are rarely used and potentially high risk. For example, methods such as PUT and DELETE are rarely used and should be disabled in keeping with the primary security principal of minimize features a