Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Security Technical Implementation Guide

V1R13 2015-09-03       U_RedHat_5_V1R13_STIG_SCAP_1-1_Benchmark-xccdf.xml
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Security Technical Implementation Guide (STIG) is published as a tool to improve the security of Department of Defense (DoD) information systems. Comments or proposed revisions to this document should be sent via e-mail to the following address: [email protected]
Vuln Rule Version CCI Severity Title Description
SV-37350r2_rule GEN000020 CCI-000213 MEDIUM The system must require authentication upon booting into single-user and maintenance modes. If the system does not require valid root authentication before it boots into single-user or maintenance mode, anyone who invokes single-user or maintenance mode is granted privileged access to all files on the system.System AdministratorIAIA-2, IAIA-1
SV-37169r1_rule GEN000400 CCI-000048 MEDIUM The Department of Defense (DoD) login banner must be displayed immediately prior to, or as part of, console login prompts. Failure to display the logon banner prior to a logon attempt will negate legal proceedings resulting from unauthorized access to system resources.System AdministratorECWM-1
SV-37203r1_rule GEN000460 CCI-000044 MEDIUM The system must disable accounts after three consecutive unsuccessful login attempts. Disabling accounts after a limited number of unsuccessful login attempts improves protection against password guessing attacks.System AdministratorECLO-1, ECLO-2
SV-37259r1_rule GEN000560 CCI-000366 HIGH The system must not have accounts configured with blank or null passwords. If an account is configured for password authentication but does not have an assigned password, it may be possible to log into the account without authentication. If the root user is configured without a password, the entire system may be compromised. For user accounts not using password authentication, the account must be configured with a password lock value instead of a blank or null value. System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
SV-37347r1_rule GEN000880 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The root account must be the only account having a UID of 0. If an account has a UID of 0, it has root authority. Multiple accounts with a UID of 0 afford more opportunity for potential intruders to guess a password for a privileged account. System AdministratorECLP-1, IAIA-1, IAIA-2
SV-37349r1_rule GEN000900 CCI-000366 LOW The root user's home directory must not be the root directory (/). Changing the root home directory to something other than / and assigning it a 0700 protection makes it more difficult for intruders to manipulate the system by reading the files root places in its default directory. It also gives root the same discretionary access control for root's home directory as for the other user home directories.System AdministratorECCD-2, ECCD-1
SV-37355r1_rule GEN000920 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The root account's home directory (other than /) must have mode 0700. Permissions greater than 0700 could allow unauthorized users access to the root home directory.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
SV-37360r2_rule GEN000940 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The root account's executable search path must be the vendor default and must contain only absolute paths. The executable search path (typically the PATH environment variable) contains a list of directories for the shell to search to find executables. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, executables in these directories may be executed instead of system commands. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon or two consecutive colons, this is interpreted as the current working directory. Entries starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.System AdministratorECSC-1, ECCD-1, ECCD-2
SV-37372r1_rule GEN000960 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The root account must not have world-writable directories in its executable search path. If the root search path contains a world-writable directory, malicious software could be placed in the path by intruders and/or malicious users and inadvertently run by root with all of root's privileges. System AdministratorECCD-2, ECCD-1
SV-37374r1_rule GEN000980 CCI-000770 MEDIUM The system must prevent the root account from directly logging in except from the system console. Limiting the root account direct logins to only system consoles protects the root account from direct unauthorized access from a non-console device.System AdministratorECPA-1, ECSD-2
SV-27072r1_rule GEN000380 CCI-000366 LOW All GIDs referenced in the /etc/passwd file must be defined in the /etc/group file. If a user is assigned the GID of a group not existing on the system, and a group with the GID is subsequently created, the user may have unintended rights to the group. System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37228r3_rule GEN001260 CCI-001314 MEDIUM System log files must have mode 0640 or less permissive. If the system log files are not protected, unauthorized users could change the logged data, eliminating its forensic value.System AdministratorECTP-1
SV-37292r1_rule GEN001800 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All skeleton files (typically those in /etc/skel) must have mode 0644 or less permissive. If the skeleton files are not protected, unauthorized personnel could change user startup parameters and possibly jeopardize user files. System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37267r1_rule GEN001320 CCI-000225 MEDIUM NIS/NIS+/yp files must be owned by root, sys, or bin. NIS/NIS+/yp files are part of the system's identification and authentication processes and are critical to system security. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37272r1_rule GEN001360 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The NIS/NIS+/yp command files must have mode 0755 or less permissive. NIS/NIS+/yp files are part of the system's identification and authentication processes and are critical to system security. Unauthorized modification of these files could compromise these processes and the system.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37241r1_rule GEN001300 CCI-001499 MEDIUM Library files must have mode 0755 or less permissive. Unauthorized access could destroy the integrity of the library files.System AdministratorDCSL-1
SV-37205r2_rule GEN001200 CCI-001499 MEDIUM All system command files must have mode 0755 or less permissive. Restricting permissions will protect system command files from unauthorized modification. System command files include files present in directories used by the operating system for storing default system executables and files present in directories included in the system's default executable search paths.Elevate to Severity Code I if any file listed world-writable.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37216r1_rule GEN001220 CCI-001499 MEDIUM All system files, programs, and directories must be owned by a system account. Restricting permissions will protect the files from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37220r1_rule GEN001240 CCI-001499 MEDIUM System files, programs, and directories must be group-owned by a system group. Restricting permissions will protect the files from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37361r1_rule GEN001400 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/shadow (or equivalent) file must be owned by root. The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37344r1_rule GEN001380 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/passwd file must have mode 0644 or less permissive. If the passwd file is writable by a group-owner or the world, the risk of passwd file compromise is increased. The passwd file contains the list of accounts on the system and associated information.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37368r1_rule GEN001420 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/shadow (or equivalent) file must have mode 0400. The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The file also contains password hashes which must not be accessible to users other than root.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37898r2_rule GEN002560 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The system and user default umask must be 077. The umask controls the default access mode assigned to newly created files. An umask of 077 limits new files to mode 700 or less permissive. Although umask can be represented as a 4-digit number, the first digit representing special access modes is typically ignored or required to be 0. This requirement applies to the globally configured system defaults and the user defaults for each account on the system.trueIf the default umask is 000 or does not restrict the world-writable permission, this becomes a CAT I finding.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
SV-27270r1_rule GEN002660 CCI-000169 MEDIUM Auditing must be implemented. Without auditing, individual system accesses cannot be tracked and malicious activity cannot be detected and traced back to an individual account.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-1, ECAR-3
SV-37912r1_rule GEN002680 CCI-000162 MEDIUM System audit logs must be owned by root. Failure to give ownership of system audit log files to root provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information.System AdministratorECTP-1
SV-37916r1_rule GEN002700 CCI-000163 MEDIUM System audit logs must have mode 0640 or less permissive. If a user can write to the audit logs, audit trails can be modified or destroyed and system intrusion may not be detected. System audit logs are those files generated from the audit system and do not include activity, error, or other log files created by application software.System AdministratorECTP-1
SV-38645r1_rule GEN002720 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit failed attempts to access files and programs. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-3, ECAR-1, ECAR-2
SV-42185r2_rule GEN002740 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit files and programs deleted by the user. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-1, ECAR-3
SV-37944r1_rule GEN002800 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit login, logout, and session initiation. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-3, ECAR-2, ECAR-1
SV-48488r1_rule GEN002820 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise. System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-1, ECAR-3
SV-37406r1_rule GEN003720 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The inetd.conf file, xinetd.conf file, and the xinetd.d directory must be owned by root or bin. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration possibly weakening the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37408r2_rule GEN003740 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The xinetd configuration files must have mode 0640 or less permissive. The Internet service daemon configuration files must be protected as malicious modification could cause Denial of Service or increase the attack surface of the system.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37424r1_rule GEN003760 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The services file must be owned by root or bin. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration possibly weakening the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37426r1_rule GEN003780 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The services file must have mode 0644 or less permissive. The services file is critical to the proper operation of network services and must be protected from unauthorized modification. Unauthorized modification could result in the failure of network services.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37289r1_rule GEN001780 CCI-000366 LOW Global initialization files must contain the "mesg -n" or "mesg n" commands. If the "mesg -n" or "mesg n" command is not placed into the system profile, messaging can be used to cause a Denial of Service attack.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37448r1_rule GEN003920 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The hosts.lpd (or equivalent) file must be owned by root, bin, sys, or lp. Failure to give ownership of the hosts.lpd file to root, bin, sys, or lp provides the designated owner, and possible unauthorized users, with the potential to modify the hosts.lpd file. Unauthorized modifications could disrupt access to local printers from authorized remote hosts or permit unauthorized remote access to local printers.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37461r1_rule GEN003940 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The hosts.lpd (or equivalent) must have mode 0644 or less permissive. Excessive permissions on the hosts.lpd (or equivalent) file may permit unauthorized modification. Unauthorized modifications could disrupt access to local printers from authorized remote hosts or permit unauthorized remote access to local printers.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37472r2_rule GEN004360 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The alias file must be owned by root. If the alias file is not owned by root, an unauthorized user may modify the file adding aliases to run malicious code or redirect e-mail.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37475r3_rule GEN004380 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The alias file must have mode 0644 or less permissive. Excessive permissions on the aliases file may permit unauthorized modification. If the alias file is modified by an unauthorized user, they may modify the file to run malicious code or redirect e-mail.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37494r2_rule GEN004420 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Files executed through a mail aliases file must have mode 0755 or less permissive. If a file executed through a mail aliases file has permissions greater than 0755, it can be modified by an unauthorized user and may contain malicious code or instructions potentially compromising the system.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37497r2_rule GEN004440 CCI-000366 LOW Sendmail logging must not be set to less than nine in the sendmail.cf file. If Sendmail is not configured to log at level 9, system logs may not contain the information necessary for tracking unauthorized use of the sendmail service.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
SV-37501r3_rule GEN004480 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The SMTP service log file must be owned by root. If the SMTP service log file is not owned by root, then unauthorized personnel may modify or delete the file to hide a system compromise.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37502r3_rule GEN004500 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The SMTP service log file must have mode 0644 or less permissive. If the SMTP service log file is more permissive than 0644, unauthorized users may be allowed to change the log file.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-51983r1_rule GEN004880 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The ftpusers file must exist. The ftpusers file contains a list of accounts not allowed to use FTP to transfer files. If this file does not exist, then unauthorized accounts can utilize FTP.System AdministratorECCD-2, ECCD-1
SV-37537r1_rule GEN004920 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The ftpusers file must be owned by root. If the file ftpusers is not owned by root, an unauthorized user may modify the file to allow unauthorized accounts to use FTP.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37542r1_rule GEN004940 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The ftpusers file must have mode 0640 or less permissive. Excessive permissions on the ftpusers file could permit unauthorized modification. Unauthorized modification could result in Denial of Service to authorized FTP users or permit unauthorized users to access the FTP service.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37560r1_rule GEN005080 CCI-000366 HIGH The TFTP daemon must operate in "secure mode" which provides access only to a single directory on the host file system. Secure mode limits TFTP requests to a specific directory. If TFTP is not running in secure mode, it may be able to write to any file or directory and may seriously impair system integrity, confidentiality, and availability.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37564r1_rule GEN005100 CCI-000225 HIGH The TFTP daemon must have mode 0755 or less permissive. If TFTP runs with the setuid or setgid bit set, it may be able to write to any file or directory and may seriously impair system integrity, confidentiality, and availability.System AdministratorECPA-1
SV-37742r1_rule GEN006400 CCI-001435 MEDIUM The Network Information System (NIS) protocol must not be used. Due to numerous security vulnerabilities existing within NIS, it must not be used. Possible alternative directory services are NIS+ and LDAP.System AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerECSC-1
SV-37375r1_rule GEN001440 CCI-000225 LOW All interactive users must be assigned a home directory in the /etc/passwd file. If users do not have a valid home directory, there is no place for the storage and control of files they own.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37379r1_rule GEN001460 CCI-000225 LOW All interactive user home directories defined in the /etc/passwd file must exist. If a user has a home directory defined that does not exist, the user may be given the / directory, by default, as the current working directory upon logon. This could create a Denial of Service because the user would not be able to perform useful tasks in this location.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37154r1_rule GEN001480 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All user home directories must have mode 0750 or less permissive. Excessive permissions on home directories allow unauthorized access to user files.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37192r1_rule GEN001580 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All run control scripts must have mode 0755 or less permissive. If the startup files are writable by other users, they could modify the startup files to insert malicious commands into the startup files.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37436r1_rule GEN002000 CCI-000196 MEDIUM There must be no .netrc files on the system. Unencrypted passwords for remote FTP servers may be stored in .netrc files. Policy requires passwords be encrypted in storage and not used in access scripts.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2, ECCD-1, ECCD-2
SV-37390r1_rule GEN002120 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The /etc/shells (or equivalent) file must exist. The shells file (or equivalent) lists approved default shells. It helps provide layered defense to the security approach by ensuring users cannot change their default shell to an unauthorized unsecure shell.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37396r1_rule GEN002200 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All shell files must be owned by root or bin. If shell files are owned by users other than root or bin, they could be modified by intruders or malicious users to perform unauthorized actions.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37403r1_rule GEN002220 CCI-000225 HIGH All shell files must have mode 0755 or less permissive. Shells with world/group write permissions give the ability to maliciously modify the shell to obtain unauthorized access.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37553r3_rule GEN002280 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Device files and directories must only be writable by users with a system account or as configured by the vendor. System device files in writable directories could be modified, removed, or used by an unprivileged user to control system hardware.System AdministratorECLP-1, ECCD-2, ECCD-1
SV-37936r1_rule GEN005740 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The Network File System (NFS) export configuration file must be owned by root. Failure to give ownership of the NFS export configuration file to root provides the designated owner and possible unauthorized users with the potential to change system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37943r1_rule GEN005760 CCI-000225 LOW The Network File System (NFS) export configuration file must have mode 0644 or less permissive. Excessive permissions on the NFS export configuration file could allow unauthorized modification of the file, which could result in Denial of Service to authorized NFS exports and the creation of additional unauthorized exports.System AdministratorECCD-2, ECCD-1, ECLP-1
SV-37849r1_rule GEN005800 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All Network File System (NFS) exported system files and system directories must be owned by root. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or directories to root provides the designated owner and possible unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37854r1_rule GEN005820 CCI-000062 MEDIUM The Network File System (NFS) anonymous UID and GID must be configured to values without permissions. When an NFS server is configured to deny remote root access, a selected UID and GID are used to handle requests from the remote root user. The UID and GID should be chosen from the system to provide the appropriate level of non-privileged access.System AdministratorECSC-1, IAIA-1, IAIA-2
SV-37857r1_rule GEN005840 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The Network File System (NFS) server must be configured to restrict file system access to local hosts. The NFS access option limits user access to the specified level. This assists in protecting exported file systems. If access is not restricted, unauthorized hosts may be able to access the system's NFS exports.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37859r1_rule GEN005880 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The Network File System (NFS) server must not allow remote root access. If the NFS server allows root access to local file systems from remote hosts, this access could be used to compromise the system.Information Assurance ManagerInformation Assurance OfficerSystem AdministratorEBRP-1
SV-37860r1_rule GEN005900 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The "nosuid" option must be enabled on all Network File System (NFS) client mounts. Enabling the nosuid mount option prevents the system from granting owner or group-owner privileges to programs with the suid or sgid bit set. If the system does not restrict this access, users with unprivileged access to the local system may be able to acquire privileged access by executing suid or sgid files located on the mounted NFS file system.Information Assurance OfficerSystem AdministratorInformation Assurance ManagerECPA-1
SV-37756r1_rule GEN006580 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The system must use an access control program. Access control programs (such as TCP_WRAPPERS) provide the ability to enhance system security posture.System AdministratorEBRU-1
SV-37757r2_rule GEN006600 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The system's access control program must log each system access attempt. If access attempts are not logged, then multiple attempts to log on to the system by an unauthorized user may go undetected.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
SV-27320r2_rule GEN002960 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Access to the cron utility must be controlled using the cron.allow and/or cron.deny file(s). The cron facility allows users to execute recurring jobs on a regular and unattended basis. The cron.allow file designates accounts allowed to enter and execute jobs using the cron facility. If the cron.allow file is not present, users listed in the cron.deny file are not allowed to use the cron facility. Improper configuration of cron may open the facility up for abuse by system intruders and malicious users.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-27326r1_rule GEN002980 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The cron.allow file must have mode 0600 or less permissive. A readable and/or writable cron.allow file by users other than root could allow potential intruders and malicious users to use the file contents to help discern information, such as who is allowed to execute cron programs, which could be harmful to overall system and network security.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37466r1_rule GEN003080 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Crontab files must have mode 0600 or less permissive, and files in cron script directories must have mode 0700 or less permissive. To protect the integrity of scheduled system jobs and prevent malicious modification to these jobs, crontab files must be secured.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37470r1_rule GEN003100 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Cron and crontab directories must have mode 0755 or less permissive. To protect the integrity of scheduled system jobs and to prevent malicious modification to these jobs, crontab files must be secured.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37474r1_rule GEN003120 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Cron and crontab directories must be owned by root or bin. Incorrect ownership of the cron or crontab directories could permit unauthorized users the ability to alter cron jobs and run automated jobs as privileged users. Failure to give ownership of cron or crontab directories to root or to bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37476r1_rule GEN003140 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Cron and crontab directories must be group-owned by root, sys, bin or cron. To protect the integrity of scheduled system jobs and to prevent malicious modification to these jobs, crontab files must be secured. Failure to give group-ownership of cron or crontab directories to a system group provides the designated group and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-27352r2_rule GEN003160 CCI-000126 MEDIUM Cron logging must be implemented. Cron logging can be used to trace the successful or unsuccessful execution of cron jobs. It can also be used to spot intrusions into the use of the cron facility by unauthorized and malicious users. System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-3, ECAR-1
SV-27357r2_rule GEN003180 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The cronlog file must have mode 0600 or less permissive. Cron logs contain reports of scheduled system activities and must be protected from unauthorized access or manipulation. System AdministratorECTP-1, ECLP-1
SV-37512r2_rule GEN003280 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Access to the "at" utility must be controlled via the at.allow and/or at.deny file(s). The "at" facility selectively allows users to execute jobs at deferred times. It is usually used for one-time jobs. The at.allow file selectively allows access to the "at" facility. If there is no at.allow file, there is no ready documentation of who is allowed to submit "at" jobs.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37516r1_rule GEN003300 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The at.deny file must not be empty if it exists. On some systems, if there is no at.allow file and there is an empty at.deny file, then the system assumes everyone has permission to use the "at" facility. This could create an insecure setting in the case of malicious users or system intruders.trueInformation Assurance OfficerSystem AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37517r1_rule GEN003320 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Default system accounts (with the exception of root) must not be listed in the at.allow file or must be included in the at.deny file if the at.allow file does not exist. Default accounts, such as bin, sys, adm, uucp, daemon, and others, should never have access to the "at" facility. This would create a possible vulnerability open to intruders or malicious users.System AdministratorECPA-1
SV-37518r1_rule GEN003340 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The at.allow file must have mode 0600 or less permissive. Permissions more permissive than 0600 (read, write and execute for the owner) may allow unauthorized or malicious access to the at.allow and/or at.deny files.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37696r1_rule GEN005320 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The snmpd.conf file must have mode 0600 or less permissive. The snmpd.conf file contains authenticators and must be protected from unauthorized access and modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37698r1_rule GEN005340 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Management Information Base (MIB) files must have mode 0640 or less permissive. The ability to read the MIB file could impart special knowledge to an intruder or malicious user about the ability to extract compromising information about the system or network.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37439r1_rule GEN003800 CCI-000134 LOW Inetd or xinetd logging/tracing must be enabled. Inetd or xinetd logging and tracing allows the system administrators to observe the IP addresses connecting to their machines and what network services are being sought. This provides valuable information when trying to find the source of malicious users and potential malicious users.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-1, ECAR-3, ECSC-1
SV-37207r1_rule GEN000000-LNX00360 CCI-000032 MEDIUM The X server must have the correct options enabled. Without the correct options enabled, the Xwindows system would be less secure and there would be no screen timeout.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37217r2_rule GEN000000-LNX00380 CCI-000366 MEDIUM An X server must have none of the following options enabled: -ac, -core (except for debugging purposes), or -nolock. These options will detract from the security of the Xwindows system.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37899r1_rule GEN006240 CCI-000381 MEDIUM The system must not run an Internet Network News (INN) server. INN servers access Usenet newsfeeds and store newsgroup articles. INN servers use the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) to transfer information from the Usenet to the server and from the server to authorized remote hosts. If this function is necessary to support a valid mission requirement, its use must be authorized and approved in the system accreditation package.System AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerECSC-1
SV-37224r1_rule GEN000000-LNX00400 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/access.conf file must be owned by root. The /etc/access.conf file contains entries restricting access from the system console by authorized System Administrators. If the file is owned by a user other than root, it could compromise the system.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37871r1_rule GEN006100 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/smb.conf file must be owned by root. The /etc/smb.conf file allows access to other machines on the network and grants permissions to certain users. If it is owned by another user, the file may be maliciously modified and the Samba configuration could be compromised.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37875r1_rule GEN006140 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/smb.conf file must have mode 0644 or less permissive. If the "smb.conf" file has excessive permissions, the file may be maliciously modified and the Samba configuration could be compromised.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37879r1_rule GEN006160 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/smbpasswd file must be owned by root. If the "smbpasswd" file is not owned by root, it may be maliciously accessed or modified, potentially resulting in the compromise of Samba accounts.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37239r1_rule GEN000540 CCI-000198 MEDIUM Users must not be able to change passwords more than once every 24 hours. The ability to change passwords frequently facilitates users reusing the same password. This can result in users effectively never changing their passwords. This would be accomplished by users changing their passwords when required and then immediately changing it to the original value. System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37156r1_rule GEN001120 CCI-000770 MEDIUM The system must not permit root logins using remote access programs such as ssh. Even though communications are encrypted, an additional layer of security may be gained by extending the policy of not logging directly on as root. In addition, logging in with a user-specific account preserves the audit trail.System AdministratorECPA-1
SV-37566r1_rule GEN002320 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Audio devices must have mode 0660 or less permissive. Audio and video devices that are globally accessible have proven to be another security hazard. There is software that can activate system microphones and video devices connected to user workstations and/or X terminals. Once the microphone has been activated, it is possible to eavesdrop on otherwise private conversations without the victim being aware of it. This action effectively changes the user's microphone into a bugging device.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37575r1_rule GEN002340 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Audio devices must be owned by root. Audio and video devices globally accessible have proven to be another security hazard. There is software that can activate system microphones and video devices connected to user workstations and/or X terminals. Once the microphone has been activated, it is possible to eavesdrop on otherwise private conversations without the victim being aware of it. This action effectively changes the user's microphone into a bugging device.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37227r1_rule GEN000000-LNX00420 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/access.conf file must have a privileged group owner. Depending on the access restrictions of the /etc/access.conf file, if the group owner were not a privileged group, it could endanger system security.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37243r2_rule GEN000000-LNX00440 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/security/access.conf file must have mode 0640 or less permissive. If the access permissions are more permissive than 0640, system security could be compromised.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37873r1_rule GEN006120 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/smb.conf file must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. If the group owner of the "smb.conf" file is not root or a system group, the file may be maliciously modified and the Samba configuration could be compromised.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-41574r1_rule GEN006180 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The smbpasswd file must be group-owned by root. If the smbpasswd file is not group-owned by root, the smbpasswd file may be maliciously accessed or modified, potentially resulting in the compromise of Samba accounts.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-41575r1_rule GEN006200 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The smbpasswd file must have mode 0600 or less permissive. If the smbpasswd file has a mode more permissive than 0600, the smbpasswd file may be maliciously accessed or modified, potentially resulting in the compromise of Samba accounts.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37577r2_rule GEN002360 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Audio devices must be group-owned by root, sys, bin, or system. Without privileged group owners, audio devices will be vulnerable to being used as eaves-dropping devices by malicious users or intruders to possibly listen to conversations containing sensitive information.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37380r1_rule GEN001080 CCI-000366 LOW The root shell must be located in the / file system. To ensure the root shell is available in repair and administrative modes, the root shell must be located in the / file system.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-48455r1_rule GEN000500 CCI-000057 MEDIUM Graphical desktop environments provided by the system must automatically lock after 15 minutes of inactivity and the system must require users to re-authenticate to unlock the environment. Applications requiring continuous, real-time screen display (i.e., network management products) require the following and need to be documented with the IAO. -The logon session does not have administrator rights. -The display station (i.e., keyboard, monitor, etc.) is located in a controlled access area. If graphical desktop sessions do not lock the session after 15 minutes of inactivity, requiring re-authentication to resume operations, the system or individual data could be compromised by an alert intruder who could exploit the oversight. This requirement applies to graphical desktop environments provided by the system to locally attached displays and input devices as well as to graphical desktop environments provided to remote systems, including thin clients.System AdministratorPESL-1
SV-37323r3_rule GEN000800 CCI-000200 MEDIUM The system must prohibit the reuse of passwords within five iterations. If a user, or root, used the same password continuously or was allowed to change it back shortly after being forced to change it to something else, it would provide a potential intruder with the opportunity to keep guessing at one user's password until it was guessed correctly.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
SV-37264r1_rule GEN001660 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All system start-up files must be owned by root. System start-up files not owned by root could lead to system compromise by allowing malicious users or applications to modify them for unauthorized purposes. This could lead to system and network compromise.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37269r1_rule GEN001680 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All system start-up files must be group-owned by root, sys, bin, other, or system. If system start-up files do not have a group owner of root or a system group, the files may be modified by malicious users or intruders.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-42186r1_rule GEN008660 CCI-000366 HIGH For systems capable of using GRUB, the system must be configured with GRUB as the default boot loader unless another boot loader has been authorized, justified, and documented using site-defined procedures. GRUB is a versatile boot loader used by several platforms that can provide authentication for access to the system or boot loader.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-3, ECAR-2
SV-37933r1_rule GEN008700 CCI-000213 HIGH The system boot loader must require authentication. If the system's boot loader does not require authentication, users with console access to the system may be able to alter the system boot configuration or boot the system into single user or maintenance mode, which could result in Denial of Service or unauthorized privileged access to the system.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
SV-37942r1_rule GEN008720 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The system's boot loader configuration file(s) must have mode 0600 or less permissive. File permissions greater than 0600 on boot loader configuration files could allow an unauthorized user to view or modify sensitive information pertaining to system boot instructions.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37181r1_rule GEN000000-LNX00320 CCI-000225 HIGH The system must not have special privilege accounts, such as shutdown and halt. If special privilege accounts are compromised, the accounts could provide privileges to execute malicious commands on a system.System AdministratorIAAC-1
SV-37714r1_rule GEN006300 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/news/readers.conf (or equivalent) must have mode 0600 or less permissive. Excessive permissions on the readers.conf file may allow unauthorized modification which could lead to Denial of Service to authorized users or provide access to unauthorized users.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37731r1_rule GEN006320 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/news/passwd.nntp file (or equivalent) must have mode 0600 or less permissive. File permissions more permissive than 0600 for "/etc/news/passwd.nntp" may allow access to privileged information by system intruders or malicious users.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37737r1_rule GEN006360 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The files in /etc/news must be group-owned by root or news. If critical system files do not have a privileged group-owner, system integrity could be compromised.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37818r2_rule GEN005500 CCI-001436 HIGH The SSH daemon must be configured to only use the SSHv2 protocol. SSHv1 is not a DoD-approved protocol and has many well-known vulnerability exploits. Exploits of the SSH daemon could provide immediate root access to the system.System AdministratorDCPP-1, ECSC-1
SV-37867r1_rule GEN006060 CCI-001436 MEDIUM The system must not run Samba unless needed. Samba is a tool used for the sharing of files and printers between Windows and UNIX operating systems. It provides access to sensitive files and, therefore, poses a security risk if compromised.System AdministratorDCPD-1, ECSC-1
SV-37253r1_rule GEN000000-LNX00480 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/sysctl.conf file must be owned by root. The sysctl.conf file specifies the values for kernel parameters to be set on boot. These settings can affect the system's security.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37257r1_rule GEN000000-LNX00500 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/sysctl.conf file must be group-owned by root. The sysctl.conf file specifies the values for kernel parameters to be set on boot. These settings can affect the system's security.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37258r1_rule GEN000000-LNX00520 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/sysctl.conf file must have mode 0600 or less permissive. The sysctl.conf file specifies the values for kernel parameters to be set on boot. These settings can affect the system's security.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37327r1_rule GEN000000-LNX00580 CCI-000366 HIGH The x86 CTRL-ALT-DELETE key sequence must be disabled. Undesirable reboots can occur if the CTRL-ALT-DELETE key sequence is not disabled. Such reboots may cause a loss of data or loss of access to critical information.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-27362r1_rule GEN003200 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The cron.deny file must have mode 0600 or less permissive. If file permissions for cron.deny are more permissive than 0600, sensitive information could be viewed or edited by unauthorized users. System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-27369r1_rule GEN003240 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The cron.allow file must be owned by root, bin, or sys. If the owner of the cron.allow file is not set to root, bin, or sys, the possibility exists for an unauthorized user to view or to edit sensitive information.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37521r1_rule GEN003400 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The "at" directory must have mode 0755 or less permissive. If the "at" directory has a mode more permissive than 0755, unauthorized users could be allowed to view or to edit files containing sensitive information within the "at" directory. Unauthorized modifications could result in Denial of Service to authorized "at" jobs.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37533r1_rule GEN003460 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The at.allow file must be owned by root, bin, or sys. If the owner of the at.allow file is not set to root, bin, or sys, unauthorized users could be allowed to view or edit sensitive information contained within the file.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37535r1_rule GEN003480 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The at.deny file must be owned by root, bin, or sys. If the owner of the at.deny file is not set to root, bin, or sys, unauthorized users could be allowed to view or edit sensitive information contained within the file.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37463r1_rule GEN003960 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The traceroute command owner must be root. If the traceroute command owner has not been set to root, an unauthorized user could use this command to obtain knowledge of the network topology inside the firewall. This information may allow an attacker to determine trusted routers and other network information potentially leading to system and network compromise.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37464r1_rule GEN003980 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The traceroute command must be group-owned by sys, bin, root, or system. If the group owner of the traceroute command has not been set to a system group, unauthorized users could have access to the command and use it to gain information regarding a network's topology inside of the firewall. This information may allow an attacker to determine trusted routers and other network information potentially leading to system and network compromise.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37465r1_rule GEN004000 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The traceroute file must have mode 0700 or less permissive. If the mode of the traceroute executable is more permissive than 0700, malicious code could be inserted by an attacker and triggered whenever the traceroute command is executed by authorized users. Additionally, if an unauthorized user is granted executable permissions to the traceroute command, it could be used to gain information about the network topology behind the firewall. This information may allow an attacker to determine trusted routers and other network information potentially leading to system and network compromise.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37505r2_rule GEN004560 CCI-000366 LOW The SMTP service's SMTP greeting must not provide version information. The version of the SMTP service can be used by attackers to plan an attack based on vulnerabilities present in the specific version.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37506r2_rule GEN004580 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The system must not use .forward files. The .forward file allows users to automatically forward mail to another system. Use of .forward files could allow the unauthorized forwarding of mail and could potentially create mail loops which could degrade system performance.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37549r1_rule GEN005000 CCI-000225 HIGH Anonymous FTP accounts must not have a functional shell. If an anonymous FTP account has been configured to use a functional shell, attackers could gain access to the shell if the account is compromised.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
SV-37707r2_rule GEN005400 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/syslog.conf file must be owned by root. If the /etc/syslog.conf file is not owned by root, unauthorized users could be allowed to view, edit, or delete important system messages handled by the syslog facility.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37711r2_rule GEN005420 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/syslog.conf file must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. If the group owner of /etc/syslog.conf is not root, bin, or sys, unauthorized users could be permitted to view, edit, or delete important system messages handled by the syslog facility.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37385r1_rule GEN002060 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All .rhosts, .shosts, .netrc, or hosts.equiv files must be accessible by only root or the owner. If these files are accessible by users other than root or the owner, they could be used by a malicious user to set up a system compromise.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-27374r1_rule GEN003260 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The cron.deny file must be owned by root, bin, or sys. Cron daemon control files restrict the scheduling of automated tasks and must be protected. System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37441r1_rule GEN003820 CCI-000068 HIGH The rsh daemon must not be running. The rshd process provides a typically unencrypted, host-authenticated remote access service. SSH should be used in place of this service.Information Assurance OfficerSystem AdministratorEBRU-1
SV-37443r1_rule GEN003840 CCI-001435 HIGH The rexec daemon must not be running. The rexecd process provides a typically unencrypted, host-authenticated remote access service. SSH should be used in place of this service.trueSystem AdministratorInformation Assurance OfficerEBRP-1, ECSC-1
SV-37507r2_rule GEN004600 CCI-001230 HIGH The SMTP service must be an up-to-date version. The SMTP service version on the system must be current to avoid exposing vulnerabilities present in unpatched versions.System AdministratorVIVM-1
SV-37510r1_rule GEN004660 CCI-000366 LOW The SMTP service must not have the EXPN feature active. The SMTP EXPN function allows an attacker to determine if an account exists on a system, providing significant assistance to a brute force attack on user accounts. EXPN may also provide additional information concerning users on the system, such as the full names of account owners.False positives may occur with the SMTP EXPN check. According to RFC821, it is acceptable for a server to respond with a 250 (success) or 550 (failure) when the server supports the EXPN command. For example, some servers return "550 EXPN command not available," meaning the command is not supported and the machine is not vulnerable. However, a result of "550 that is a mailing list, not a user" would be a failure code, but not an indication of an error, and the machine would be vulnerable. If a false positive is suspected, check the log file for the response from the server.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37511r1_rule GEN004680 CCI-000366 LOW The SMTP service must not have the Verify (VRFY) feature active. The VRFY command allows an attacker to determine if an account exists on a system, providing significant assistance to a brute force attack on user accounts. VRFY may provide additional information about users on the system, such as the full names of account owners.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37688r1_rule GEN005280 CCI-001436 MEDIUM The system must not have the UUCP service active. The UUCP utility is designed to assist in transferring files, executing remote commands, and sending e-mail between UNIX systems over phone lines and direct connections between systems. The UUCP utility is a primitive and arcane system with many security issues. There are alternate data transfer utilities/products that can be configured to more securely transfer data by providing for authentication as well as encryption.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-27049r2_rule GEN000100 CCI-001230 HIGH The operating system must be a supported release. An operating system release is considered "supported" if the vendor continues to provide security patches for the product. With an unsupported release, it will not be possible to resolve security issues discovered in the system software.If an extended support agreement provides security patches for the unsupported product is procured from the vendor, this finding may be downgraded to a CAT III.System AdministratorVIVM-1
SV-37260r2_rule GEN000580 CCI-000205 MEDIUM The system must require passwords contain a minimum of 15 characters. The use of longer passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques by increasing the password search space.System AdministratorIAIA-2, IAIA-1
SV-41826r1_rule GEN000600 CCI-000192 MEDIUM The system must require passwords contain at least one uppercase alphabetic character. To enforce the use of complex passwords, minimum numbers of characters of different classes are mandated. The use of complex passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques. Complexity requirements increase the password search space by requiring users to construct passwords from a larger character set than they may otherwise use.System AdministratorIAIA-2, IAIA-1
SV-37281r1_rule GEN000620 CCI-000194 MEDIUM The system must require passwords contain at least one numeric character. To enforce the use of complex passwords, minimum numbers of characters of different classes are mandated. The use of complex passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques. Complexity requirements increase the password search space by requiring users to construct passwords from a larger character set than they may otherwise use.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
SV-37287r1_rule GEN000640 CCI-001619 MEDIUM The system must require passwords contain at least one special character. To enforce the use of complex passwords, minimum numbers of characters of different classes are mandated. The use of complex passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques. Complexity requirements increase the password search space by requiring users to construct passwords from a larger character set than they may otherwise use.System AdministratorIAIA-2, IAIA-1
SV-37294r1_rule GEN000680 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The system must require passwords contain no more than three consecutive repeating characters. To enforce the use of complex passwords, the number of consecutive repeating characters is limited. Passwords with excessive repeated characters may be more vulnerable to password-guessing attacks.System AdministratorIAIA-2, IAIA-1
SV-37298r1_rule GEN000700 CCI-000180 MEDIUM User passwords must be changed at least every 60 days. Limiting the lifespan of authenticators limits the period of time an unauthorized user has access to the system while using compromised credentials and reduces the period of time available for password-guessing attacks to run against a single password.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
SV-37275r1_rule GEN001720 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All global initialization files must have mode 0644 or less permissive. Global initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37283r1_rule GEN001740 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All global initialization files must be owned by root. Global initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.ECLP-1
SV-37285r1_rule GEN001760 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All global initialization files must be group-owned by root, sys, bin, other, system, or the system default. Global initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon login. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37300r1_rule GEN001820 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All skeleton files and directories (typically in /etc/skel) must be owned by root or bin. If the skeleton files are not protected, unauthorized personnel could change user startup parameters and possibly jeopardize user files. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to root or bin provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37420r1_rule GEN001840 CCI-000366 MEDIUM All global initialization files' executable search paths must contain only absolute paths. The executable search path (typically the PATH environment variable) contains a list of directories for the shell to search to find executables. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, executables in these directories may be executed instead of system commands. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon, or two consecutive colons, this is interpreted as the current working directory. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.System AdministratorECCD-2, ECCD-1
SV-37432r2_rule GEN001900 CCI-000366 MEDIUM All local initialization files' executable search paths must contain only absolute paths. The executable search path (typically the PATH environment variable) contains a list of directories for the shell to search to find executables. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, executables in these directories may be executed instead of system commands. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon, or two consecutive colons, this is interpreted as the current working directory. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
SV-37370r1_rule GEN002040 CCI-000366 HIGH There must be no .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, or shosts.equiv files on the system. The .rhosts, .shosts, hosts.equiv, and shosts.equiv files are used to configure host-based authentication for individual users or the system. Host-based authentication is not sufficient for preventing unauthorized access to the system.Information Assurance OfficerSystem AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
SV-37389r1_rule GEN002100 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The .rhosts file must not be supported in PAM. .rhosts files are used to specify a list of hosts permitted remote access to a particular account without authenticating. The use of such a mechanism defeats strong identification and authentication requirements.Information Assurance OfficerSystem AdministratorECCD-2, ECCD-1
SV-27338r1_rule GEN003060 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Default system accounts (with the exception of root) must not be listed in the cron.allow file or must be included in the cron.deny file, if cron.allow does not exist. To centralize the management of privileged account crontabs, of the default system accounts, only root may have a crontab.System AdministratorECPA-1
SV-37546r2_rule GEN003500 CCI-000366 LOW Process core dumps must be disabled unless needed. Process core dumps contain the memory in use by the process when it crashed. Process core dump files can be of significant size and their use can result in file systems filling to capacity, which may result in Denial of Service. Process core dumps can be useful for software debugging. System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
SV-37570r1_rule GEN003520 CCI-000225 LOW The kernel core dump data directory must be owned by root. Kernel core dumps may contain the full contents of system memory at the time of the crash. As the system memory may contain sensitive information, it must be protected accordingly. If the kernel core dump data directory is not owned by root, the core dumps contained in the directory may be subject to unauthorized access.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-27414r1_rule GEN003540 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The system must implement non-executable program stacks. A common type of exploit is the stack buffer overflow. An application receives, from an attacker, more data than it is prepared for and stores this information on its stack, writing beyond the space reserved for it. This can be designed to cause execution of the data written on the stack. One mechanism to mitigate this vulnerability is for the system to not allow the execution of instructions in sections of memory identified as part of the stack.System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2, ECSC-1
SV-29795r1_rule GEN003600 CCI-001551 MEDIUM The system must not forward IPv4 source-routed packets. Source-routed packets allow the source of the packet to suggest routers forward the packet along a different path than configured on the router, which can be used to bypass network security measures. This requirement applies only to the forwarding of source-routed traffic, such as when IPv4 forwarding is enabled and the system is functioning as a router.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37640r1_rule GEN003620 CCI-001208 LOW A separate file system must be used for user home directories (such as /home or an equivalent). The use of separate file systems for different paths can protect the system from failures resulting from a file system becoming full or failing.trueSystem AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37404r2_rule GEN003660 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The system must log informational authentication data. Monitoring and recording successful and unsuccessful logins assists in tracking unauthorized access to the system.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-3, ECAR-1
SV-27424r1_rule GEN003700 CCI-000305 MEDIUM Inetd and xinetd must be disabled or removed if no network services utilizing them are enabled. Unnecessary services should be disabled to decrease the attack surface of the system.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37504r4_rule GEN004540 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The SMTP service HELP command must not be enabled. The HELP command should be disabled to mask version information. The version of the SMTP service software could be used by attackers to target vulnerabilities present in specific software versions.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37555r1_rule GEN005040 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All FTP users must have a default umask of 077. The umask controls the default access mode assigned to newly created files. An umask of 077 limits new files to mode 700 or less permissive. Although umask is stored as a 4-digit number, the first digit representing special access modes is typically ignored or required to be zero (0).System AdministratorECCD-1, ECCD-2
SV-37703r1_rule GEN005360 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The snmpd.conf file must be owned by root. The snmpd.conf file contains authenticators and must be protected from unauthorized access and modification. If the file is not owned by root, it may be subject to access and modification from unauthorized users.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37929r1_rule GEN005600 CCI-000366 MEDIUM IP forwarding for IPv4 must not be enabled, unless the system is a router. If the system is configured for IP forwarding and is not a designated router, it could be used to bypass network security by providing a path for communication not filtered by network devices.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37758r1_rule GEN006620 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The system's access control program must be configured to grant or deny system access to specific hosts. If the system's access control program is not configured with appropriate rules for allowing and denying access to system network resources, services may be accessible to unauthorized hosts.System AdministratorECSC-1, ECCD-2, ECCD-1
SV-37341r1_rule GEN000000-LNX00640 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/securetty file must be owned by root. The securetty file contains the list of terminals permitting direct root logins. It must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37342r3_rule GEN000000-LNX00660 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/securetty file must have mode 0600 or less permissive. The securetty file contains the list of terminals permitting direct root logins. It must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-26292r3_rule GEN000241 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The system clock must be synchronized continuously, or at least daily. A synchronized system clock is critical for the enforcement of time-based policies and the correlation of logs and audit records with other systems. Internal system clocks tend to drift and require periodic resynchronization to ensure their accuracy. Software, such as ntpd, can be used to continuously synchronize the system clock with authoritative sources. Alternatively, the system may be synchronized periodically, with a maximum of one day between synchronizations. If the system is completely isolated (i.e., it has no connections to networks or other systems), time synchronization is not required as no correlation of events or operation of time-dependent protocols between systems will be necessary. If the system is completely isolated, this requirement is not applicable.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37415r1_rule GEN000250 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The time synchronization configuration file (such as /etc/ntp.conf) must be owned by root. A synchronized system clock is critical for the enforcement of time-based policies and the correlation of logs and audit records with other systems. If an illicit time source is used for synchronization, the integrity of system logs and the security of the system could be compromised. If the configuration files controlling time synchronization are not owned by a system account, unauthorized modifications could result in the failure of time synchronization.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37417r1_rule GEN000252 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The time synchronization configuration file (such as /etc/ntp.conf) must have mode 0640 or less permissive. A synchronized system clock is critical for the enforcement of time-based policies and the correlation of logs and audit records with other systems. If an illicit time source is used for synchronization, the integrity of system logs and the security of the system could be compromised. If the configuration files controlling time synchronization are not protected, unauthorized modifications could result in the failure of time synchronization.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37182r1_rule GEN000450 CCI-000054 LOW The system must limit users to 10 simultaneous system logins, or a site-defined number, in accordance with operational requirements. Limiting simultaneous user logins can insulate the system from denial of service problems caused by excessive logins. Automated login processes operating improperly or maliciously may result in an exceptional number of simultaneous login sessions. If the defined value of 10 logins does not meet operational requirements, the site may define the permitted number of simultaneous login sessions based on operational requirements. This limit is for the number of simultaneous login sessions for EACH user account. This is NOT a limit on the total number of simultaneous login sessions on the system.trueSystem AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37261r2_rule GEN000585 CCI-000205 MEDIUM The system must enforce compliance of the entire password during authentification. Some common password hashing schemes only process the first eight characters of a user's password, which reduces the effective strength of the password.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
SV-26313r2_rule GEN000590 CCI-000803 MEDIUM The system must use a FIPS 140-2 approved cryptographic hashing algorithm for generating account password hashes. Systems must employ cryptographic hashes for passwords using the SHA-2 family of algorithms or FIPS 140-2 approved successors. The use of unapproved algorithms may result in weak password hashes more vulnerable to compromise.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2, DCNR-1
SV-26316r2_rule GEN000595 CCI-000196 MEDIUM The password hashes stored on the system must have been generated using a FIPS 140-2 approved cryptographic hashing algorithm. Systems must employ cryptographic hashes for passwords using the SHA-2 family of algorithms or FIPS 140-2 approved successors. The use of unapproved algorithms may result in weak password hashes more vulnerable to compromise.System AdministratorDCNR-1, IAIA-1, IAIA-2
SV-26321r1_rule GEN000610 CCI-000193 MEDIUM The system must require passwords contain at least one lowercase alphabetic character. To enforce the use of complex passwords, minimum numbers of characters of different classes are mandated. The use of complex passwords reduces the ability of attackers to successfully obtain valid passwords using guessing or exhaustive search techniques. Complexity requirements increase the password search space by requiring users to construct passwords from a larger character set than they may otherwise use.System AdministratorIAIA-2, IAIA-1
SV-37304r2_rule GEN000750 CCI-000195 MEDIUM The system must require at least eight characters be changed between the old and new passwords during a password change. To ensure password changes are effective in their goals, the system must ensure that old and new passwords have significant differences. Without significant changes, new passwords may be easily guessed based on the value of a previously compromised password.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
SV-37318r1_rule GEN000790 CCI-000189 MEDIUM The system must prevent the use of dictionary words for passwords. An easily guessable password provides an open door to any external or internal malicious intruder. Many computer compromises occur as the result of account name and password guessing. This is generally done by someone with an automated script that uses repeated logon attempts until the correct account and password pair is guessed. Utilities, such as cracklib, can be used to validate passwords are not dictionary words and meet other criteria during password changes.System AdministratorIAIA-2, IAIA-1
SV-37345r1_rule GEN000850 CCI-000009 LOW The system must restrict the ability to switch to the root user to members of a defined group. Configuring a supplemental group for users permitted to switch to the root user prevents unauthorized users from accessing the root account, even with knowledge of the root credentials.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37363r1_rule GEN000945 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The root account's library search path must be the system default and must contain only absolute paths. The library search path environment variable(s) contain a list of directories for the dynamic linker to search to find libraries. If this path includes the current working directory or other relative paths, libraries in these directories may be loaded instead of system libraries. This variable is formatted as a colon-separated list of directories. If there is an empty entry, such as a leading or trailing colon or two consecutive colons, this is interpreted as the current working directory. Entries starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37364r1_rule GEN000950 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The root account's list of preloaded libraries must be empty. The library preload list environment variable contains a list of libraries for the dynamic linker to load before loading the libraries required by the binary. If this list contains paths to libraries relative to the current working directory, unintended libraries may be preloaded. This variable is formatted as a space-separated list of libraries. Paths starting with (/) are absolute paths.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37280r1_rule GEN001362 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/resolv.conf file must be owned by root. The resolv.conf (or equivalent) file configures the system's DNS resolver. DNS is used to resolve host names to IP addresses. If DNS configuration is modified maliciously, host name resolution may fail or return incorrect information. DNS may be used by a variety of system security functions such as time synchronization, centralized authentication, and remote system logging. System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37291r1_rule GEN001364 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/resolv.conf file must have mode 0644 or less permissive. The resolv.conf (or equivalent) file configures the system's DNS resolver. DNS is used to resolve host names to IP addresses. If DNS configuration is modified maliciously, host name resolution may fail or return incorrect information. DNS may be used by a variety of system security functions such as time synchronization, centralized authentication, and remote system logging.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37309r1_rule GEN001366 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/hosts file must be owned by root. The /etc/hosts file (or equivalent) configures local host name to IP address mappings that typically take precedence over DNS resolution. If this file is maliciously modified, it could cause the failure or compromise of security functions requiring name resolution, which may include time synchronization, centralized authentication, and remote system logging.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37321r1_rule GEN001368 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/hosts file must have mode 0644 or less permissive. The /etc/hosts file (or equivalent) configures local host name to IP address mappings that typically take precedence over DNS resolution. If this file is maliciously modified, it could cause the failure or compromise of security functions requiring name resolution, which may include time synchronization, centralized authentication, and remote system logging.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37326r1_rule GEN001371 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/nsswitch.conf file must be owned by root. The nsswitch.conf file (or equivalent) configures the source of a variety of system security information including account, group, and host lookups. Malicious changes could prevent the system from functioning or compromise system security.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37330r1_rule GEN001372 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/nsswitch.conf file must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys. The nsswitch.conf file (or equivalent) configures the source of a variety of system security information including account, group, and host lookups. Malicious changes could prevent the system from functioning or compromise system security.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37332r1_rule GEN001373 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/nsswitch.conf file must have mode 0644 or less permissive. The nsswitch.conf file (or equivalent) configures the source of a variety of system security information including account, group, and host lookups. Malicious changes could prevent the system from functioning or compromise system security.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37336r1_rule GEN001378 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/passwd file must be owned by root. The /etc/passwd file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37337r1_rule GEN001379 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/passwd file must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys. The /etc/passwd file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37351r1_rule GEN001391 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/group file must be owned by root. The /etc/group file is critical to system security and must be owned by a privileged user. The group file contains a list of system groups and associated information.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37352r1_rule GEN001392 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/group file must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys. The /etc/group file is critical to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The group file contains a list of system groups and associated information.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37354r1_rule GEN001393 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/group file must have mode 0644 or less permissive. The /etc/group file is critical to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The group file contains a list of system groups and associated information.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37365r1_rule GEN001410 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/shadow file (or equivalent) must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys. The /etc/shadow file contains the list of local system accounts. It is vital to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The file also contains password hashes which must not be accessible to users other than root.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37143r1_rule GEN000000-LNX001431 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/gshadow file must be owned by root. The /etc/gshadow file is critical to system security and must be owned by a privileged user. The /etc/gshadow file contains a list of system groups and hashes for group passwords.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37164r1_rule GEN000000-LNX001432 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/gshadow file must be group-owned by root. The /etc/gshadow file is critical to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The /etc/gshadow file contains a list of system groups and hashes for group passwords.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37170r1_rule GEN000000-LNX001433 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/gshadow file must have mode 0400. The /etc/gshadow file is critical to system security and must be protected from unauthorized modification. The /etc/gshadow file contains a list of system groups and hashes for group passwords.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37381r2_rule GEN001470 CCI-000201 MEDIUM The /etc/passwd file must not contain password hashes. If password hashes are readable by non-administrators, the passwords are subject to attack through lookup tables or cryptographic weaknesses in the hashes.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37383r1_rule GEN001475 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/group file must not contain any group password hashes. Group passwords are typically shared and should not be used. Additionally, if password hashes are readable by non-administrators, the passwords are subject to attack through lookup tables or cryptographic weaknesses in the hashes.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37386r1_rule GEN000000-LNX001476 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The /etc/gshadow file must not contain any group password hashes. Group passwords are typically shared and should not be used.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37215r1_rule GEN001610 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Run control scripts' lists of preloaded libraries must contain only absolute paths. The library preload list environment variable contains a list of libraries for the dynamic linker to load before loading the libraries required by the binary. If this list contains paths to libraries relative to the current working directory, unintended libraries may be preloaded. This variable is formatted as a space-separated list of libraries. Paths starting with a slash (/) are absolute paths.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37237r1_rule GEN001830 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All skeleton files (typically in /etc/skel) must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, system, or other. If the skeleton files are not protected, unauthorized personnel could change user startup parameters and possibly jeopardize user files.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37399r1_rule GEN002210 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All shell files must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. If shell files are group-owned by users other than root or a system group, they could be modified by intruders or malicious users to perform unauthorized actions.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-26504r1_rule GEN002715 CCI-001493 LOW System audit tool executables must be owned by root. To prevent unauthorized access or manipulation of system audit logs, the tools for manipulating those logs must be protected.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-26507r1_rule GEN002716 CCI-001493 LOW System audit tool executables must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. To prevent unauthorized access or manipulation of system audit logs, the tools for manipulating those logs must be protected.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-26510r1_rule GEN002717 CCI-001493 LOW System audit tool executables must have mode 0750 or less permissive. To prevent unauthorized access or manipulation of system audit logs, the tools for manipulating those logs must be protected.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-68095r2_rule GEN002719 CCI-000139 LOW The audit system must alert the SA in the event of an audit processing failure. An accurate and current audit trail is essential for maintaining a record of system activity. If the system fails, the SA must be notified and must take prompt action to correct the problem. Minimally, the system must log this event, and the SA will receive this notification during the daily system log review. If feasible, active alerting (such as e-mail or paging) should be employed consistent with the site's established operations management systems and procedures.System AdministratorECAT-1
SV-26518r2_rule GEN002730 CCI-000143 MEDIUM The audit system must alert the SA when the audit storage volume approaches its capacity. An accurate and current audit trail is essential for maintaining a record of system activity. If the system fails, the SA must be notified and must take prompt action to correct the problem. Minimally, the system must log this event, and the SA will receive this notification during the daily system log review. If feasible, active alerting (such as e-mail or paging) should be employed consistent with the site's established operations management systems and procedures.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-26519r1_rule GEN002750 CCI-000018 LOW The audit system must be configured to audit account creation. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises, and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAT-1
SV-26520r1_rule GEN002751 CCI-001403 LOW The audit system must be configured to audit account modification. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAT-1
SV-26521r1_rule GEN002752 CCI-001404 LOW The audit system must be configured to audit account disabling. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAT-1
SV-26522r1_rule GEN002753 CCI-001405 LOW The audit system must be configured to audit account termination. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAT-1
SV-38652r1_rule GEN002825 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit the loading and unloading of dynamic kernel modules. Actions concerning dynamic kernel modules must be recorded as they are substantial events. Dynamic kernel modules can increase the attack surface of a system. A malicious kernel module can be used to substantially alter the functioning of a system, often with the purpose of hiding a compromise from the SA.System AdministratorECAR-1
SV-37400r1_rule GEN003050 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Crontab files must be group-owned by root, cron, or the crontab creator's primary group. To protect the integrity of scheduled system jobs and prevent malicious modification to these jobs, crontab files must be secured.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37499r1_rule GEN003250 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The cron.allow file must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or cron. If the group of the cron.allow is not set to root, bin, sys, or cron, the possibility exists for an unauthorized user to view or edit the list of users permitted to use cron. Unauthorized modification of this file could cause Denial of Service to authorized cron users or provide unauthorized users with the ability to run cron jobs.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-26555r1_rule GEN003252 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The at.deny file must have mode 0600 or less permissive. The "at" daemon control files restrict access to scheduled job manipulation and must be protected. Unauthorized modification of the at.deny file could result in Denial of Service to authorized "at" users or provide unauthorized users with the ability to run "at" jobs.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-26562r2_rule GEN003270 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The cron.deny file must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys. Cron daemon control files restrict the scheduling of automated tasks and must be protected. Unauthorized modification of the cron.deny file could result in Denial of Service to authorized cron users or could provide unauthorized users with the ability to run cron jobs.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37529r1_rule GEN003430 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The "at" directory must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or cron. If the group of the "at" directory is not root, bin, sys, or cron, unauthorized users could be allowed to view or edit files containing sensitive information within the directory.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-26569r1_rule GEN003470 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The at.allow file must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or cron. If the group owner of the at.allow file is not set to root, bin, sys, or cron, unauthorized users could be allowed to view or edit the list of users permitted to run "at" jobs. Unauthorized modification could result in Denial of Service to authorized "at" users or provide unauthorized users with the ability to run "at" jobs.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-26572r1_rule GEN003490 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The at.deny file must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or cron. If the group owner of the at.deny file is not set to root, bin, sys, or cron, unauthorized users could be allowed to view or edit sensitive information contained within the file. Unauthorized modification could result in Denial of Service to authorized "at" users or provide unauthorized users with the ability to run "at" jobs.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-26604r1_rule GEN003510 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Kernel core dumps must be disabled unless needed. Kernel core dumps may contain the full contents of system memory at the time of the crash. Kernel core dumps may consume a considerable amount of disk space and may result in Denial of Service by exhausting the available space on the target file system. The kernel core dump process may increase the amount of time a system is unavailable due to a crash. Kernel core dumps can be useful for kernel debugging.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-26608r1_rule GEN003521 CCI-000225 LOW The kernel core dump data directory must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. Kernel core dumps may contain the full contents of system memory at the time of the crash. As the system memory may contain sensitive information, it must be protected accordingly. If the kernel core dump data directory is not group-owned by a system group, the core dumps contained in the directory may be subject to unauthorized access.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-26612r1_rule GEN003522 CCI-000225 LOW The kernel core dump data directory must have mode 0700 or less permissive. Kernel core dumps may contain the full contents of system memory at the time of the crash. As the system memory may contain sensitive information, it must be protected accordingly. If the mode of the kernel core dump data directory is more permissive than 0700, unauthorized users may be able to view or to modify kernel core dump data files.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-26620r1_rule GEN003581 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Network interfaces must not be configured to allow user control. Configuration of network interfaces should be limited to privileged users. Manipulation of network interfaces may result in a Denial of Service or bypass of network security mechanisms.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37608r1_rule GEN003603 CCI-001551 MEDIUM The system must not respond to Internet Control Message Protocol v4 (ICMPv4) echoes sent to a broadcast address. Responding to broadcast (ICMP) echoes facilitates network mapping and provides a vector for amplification attacks.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-29288r1_rule GEN003604 CCI-001551 MEDIUM The system must not respond to Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) timestamp requests sent to a broadcast address. The processing of (ICMP) timestamp requests increases the attack surface of the system. Responding to broadcast ICMP timestamp requests facilitates network mapping and provides a vector for amplification attacks.GEN000000-FWThe system's firewall default-deny policy mitigates the risk from this vulnerability.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37622r1_rule GEN003607 CCI-001551 MEDIUM The system must not accept source-routed IPv4 packets. Source-routed packets allow the source of the packet to suggest routers forward the packet along a different path than configured on the router, which can be used to bypass network security measures. This requirement applies only to the handling of source-routed traffic destined to the system itself, not to traffic forwarded by the system to another system, such as when IPv4 forwarding is enabled and the system is functioning as a router.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37624r1_rule GEN003608 CCI-001551 MEDIUM Proxy Address Resolution Protocol (Proxy ARP) must not be enabled on the system. Proxy ARP allows a system to respond to ARP requests on one interface on behalf of hosts connected to another interface. If this function is enabled when not required, addressing information may be leaked between the attached network segments.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37626r1_rule GEN003609 CCI-001503 MEDIUM The system must ignore IPv4 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) redirect messages. ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages modify the host's route table and are unauthenticated. An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37629r1_rule GEN003610 CCI-001551 MEDIUM The system must not send IPv4 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) redirects. ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages contain information from the system's route table possibly revealing portions of the network topology.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37630r1_rule GEN003611 CCI-000126 LOW The system must log martian packets. Martian packets are packets containing addresses known by the system to be invalid. Logging these messages allows the SA to identify misconfigurations or attacks in progress.System AdministratorECAT-1
SV-37633r1_rule GEN003612 CCI-001092 MEDIUM The system must be configured to use TCP syncookies when experiencing a TCP SYN flood. A TCP SYN flood attack can cause Denial of Service by filling a system's TCP connection table with connections in the SYN_RCVD state. Syncookies are a mechanism used to only track a connection when a subsequent ACK is received, verifying the initiator is attempting a valid connection and is not a flood source. This technique does not operate in a fully standards-compliant manner, but is only activated when a flood condition is detected, and allows defense of the system while continuing to service valid requests.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37639r1_rule GEN003619 CCI-001551 MEDIUM The system must not be configured for network bridging. Some systems have the ability to bridge or switch frames (link-layer forwarding) between multiple interfaces. This can be useful in a variety of situations but, if enabled when not needed, has the potential to bypass network partitioning and security.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37401r1_rule GEN003650 CCI-000553 LOW All local file systems must employ journaling or another mechanism ensuring file system consistency. File system journaling, or logging, can allow reconstruction of file system data after a system crash preserving the integrity of data that may have otherwise been lost. Journaling file systems typically do not require consistency checks upon booting after a crash, which can improve system availability. Some file systems employ other mechanisms to ensure consistency also satisfying this requirement.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37407r1_rule GEN003730 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The inetd.conf file, xinetd.conf file, and the xinetd.d directory must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. Failure to give ownership of sensitive files or utilities to system groups may provide unauthorized users with the potential to access sensitive information or change the system configuration possibly weakening the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37410r1_rule GEN003750 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The xinetd.d directory must have mode 0755 or less permissive. The Internet service daemon configuration files must be protected as malicious modification could cause Denial of Service or increase the attack surface of the system.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37425r1_rule GEN003770 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The services file must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. Failure to give ownership of system configuration files to root or a system group provides the designated owner and unauthorized users with the potential to change the system configuration possibly weakening the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-26662r1_rule GEN003810 CCI-001436 MEDIUM The portmap or rpcbind service must not be running unless needed. The portmap and rpcbind services increase the attack surface of the system and should only be used when needed. The portmap or rpcbind services are used by a variety of services using Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs).System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-26666r1_rule GEN003815 CCI-000305 MEDIUM The portmap or rpcbind service must not be installed unless needed. The portmap and rpcbind services increase the attack surface of the system and should only be used when needed. The portmap or rpcbind services are used by a variety of services using Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs).System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-26667r1_rule GEN003825 CCI-000305 MEDIUM The rshd service must not be installed. The rshd process provides a typically unencrypted, host-authenticated remote access service. SSH should be used in place of this service.System AdministratorDCPP-1
SV-26671r1_rule GEN003830 CCI-000068 MEDIUM The rlogind service must not be running. The rlogind process provides a typically unencrypted, host-authenticated remote access service. SSH should be used in place of this service.System AdministratorDCPP-1
SV-26669r1_rule GEN003835 CCI-000305 MEDIUM The rlogind service must not be installed. The rlogind process provides a typically unencrypted, host-authenticated remote access service. SSH should be used in place of this service.System AdministratorDCPP-1
SV-26673r1_rule GEN003845 CCI-000305 MEDIUM The rexecd service must not be installed. The rexecd process provides a typically unencrypted, host-authenticated remote access service. SSH should be used in place of this service.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37449r2_rule GEN003930 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The hosts.lpd (or equivalent) file must be group-owned by lp. Failure to give group-ownership of the hosts.lpd file to root, bin, sys, or system provides the members of the owning group and possible unauthorized users, with the potential to modify the hosts.lpd file. Unauthorized modifications could disrupt access to local printers from authorized remote hosts or permit unauthorized remote access to local printers.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37473r2_rule GEN004370 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The aliases file must be group-owned by root, sys, bin, or system. If the alias file is not group-owned by root or a system group, an unauthorized user may modify the file adding aliases to run malicious code or redirect e-mail.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37538r1_rule GEN004930 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The ftpusers file must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. If the ftpusers file is not group-owned by root or a system group, an unauthorized user may modify the file to allow unauthorized accounts to use FTP.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37692r1_rule GEN005305 CCI-001435 MEDIUM The SNMP service must use only SNMPv3 or its successors. SNMP Versions 1 and 2 are not considered secure. Without the strong authentication and privacy provided by the SNMP Version 3 User-based Security Model (USM), an attacker or other unauthorized users may gain access to detailed system management information and use the information to launch attacks against the system.System AdministratorDCPP-1
SV-37704r1_rule GEN005365 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The snmpd.conf file must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. The snmpd.conf file contains authenticators and must be protected from unauthorized access and modification. If the file is not group-owned by a system group, it may be subject to access and modification from unauthorized users.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37709r2_rule GEN005390 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The /etc/syslog.conf file must have mode 0640 or less permissive. Unauthorized users must not be allowed to access or modify the /etc/syslog.conf file.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37811r2_rule GEN005450 CCI-000136 MEDIUM The system must use a remote syslog server (loghost). A syslog server (loghost) receives syslog messages from one or more systems. This data can be used as an authoritative log source in the event a system is compromised and its local logs are suspect.System AdministratorECAT-1
SV-37820r1_rule GEN005501 CCI-001436 MEDIUM The SSH client must be configured to only use the SSHv2 protocol. SSHv1 is not a DoD-approved protocol and has many well-known vulnerability exploits. Exploits of the SSH client could provide access to the system with the privileges of the user running the client.System AdministratorDCPP-1
SV-37824r3_rule GEN005505 CCI-000068 MEDIUM The SSH daemon must be configured to only use FIPS 140-2 approved ciphers. DoD information systems are required to use FIPS 140-2 approved ciphers. SSHv2 ciphers meeting this requirement are 3DES and AES.System AdministratorDCNR-1
SV-37826r2_rule GEN005507 CCI-001453 MEDIUM The SSH daemon must be configured to only use Message Authentication Codes (MACs) employing FIPS 140-2 approved cryptographic hash algorithms. DoD information systems are required to use FIPS 140-2 approved cryptographic hash functions.System AdministratorDCNR-1
SV-37828r1_rule GEN005510 CCI-000068 MEDIUM The SSH client must be configured to only use FIPS 140-2 approved ciphers. DoD information systems are required to use FIPS 140-2 approved ciphers. SSHv2 ciphers meeting this requirement are 3DES and AES.System AdministratorDCNR-1
SV-37830r1_rule GEN005511 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The SSH client must be configured to not use Cipher-Block Chaining (CBC)-based ciphers. The (CBC) mode of encryption as implemented in the SSHv2 protocol is vulnerable to chosen-plaintext attacks and must not be used. System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37836r1_rule GEN005512 CCI-001453 MEDIUM The SSH client must be configured to only use Message Authentication Codes (MACs) employing FIPS 140-2 approved cryptographic hash algorithms. DoD information systems are required to use FIPS 140-2 approved cryptographic hash functions.System AdministratorDCNR-1
SV-37843r2_rule GEN005521 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The SSH daemon must restrict login ability to specific users and/or groups. Restricting SSH logins to a limited group of users, such as system administrators, prevents password-guessing and other SSH attacks from reaching system accounts and other accounts not authorized for SSH access.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37844r1_rule GEN005522 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The SSH public host key files must have mode 0644 or less permissive. If a public host key file is modified by an unauthorized user, the SSH service may be compromised.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37863r1_rule GEN005523 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The SSH private host key files must have mode 0600 or less permissive. If an unauthorized user obtains the private SSH host key file, the host could be impersonated.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37866r3_rule GEN005524 CCI-000366 LOW The SSH daemon must not permit GSSAPI authentication unless needed. GSSAPI authentication is used to provide additional authentication mechanisms to applications. Allowing GSSAPI authentication through SSH exposes the system's GSSAPI to remote hosts, increasing the attack surface of the system. GSSAPI authentication must be disabled unless needed.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37868r2_rule GEN005525 CCI-000366 LOW The SSH client must not permit GSSAPI authentication unless needed. GSSAPI authentication is used to provide additional authentication mechanisms to applications. Allowing GSSAPI authentication through SSH exposes the system's GSSAPI to remote hosts, increasing the attack surface of the system. GSSAPI authentication must be disabled unless needed.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37872r2_rule GEN005526 CCI-000366 LOW The SSH daemon must not permit Kerberos authentication unless needed. Kerberos authentication for SSH is often implemented using GSSAPI. If Kerberos is enabled through SSH, the SSH daemon provides a means of access to the system's Kerberos implementation. Vulnerabilities in the system's Kerberos implementation may then be subject to exploitation. To reduce the attack surface of the system, the Kerberos authentication mechanism within SSH must be disabled for systems not using this capability. System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37900r2_rule GEN005536 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The SSH daemon must perform strict mode checking of home directory configuration files. If other users have access to modify user-specific SSH configuration files, they may be able to log into the system as another user.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37904r2_rule GEN005537 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The SSH daemon must use privilege separation. SSH daemon privilege separation causes the SSH process to drop root privileges when not needed, which would decrease the impact of software vulnerabilities in the unprivileged section.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37905r2_rule GEN005538 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The SSH daemon must not allow rhosts RSA authentication. If SSH permits rhosts RSA authentication, a user may be able to log in based on the keys of the host originating the request and not any user-specific authentication.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37908r2_rule GEN005539 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The SSH daemon must not allow compression or must only allow compression after successful authentication. If compression is allowed in an SSH connection prior to authentication, vulnerabilities in the compression software could result in compromise of the system from an unauthenticated connection, potentially with root privileges.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37915r3_rule GEN005550 CCI-000048 MEDIUM The SSH daemon must be configured with the Department of Defense (DoD) logon banner. Failure to display the DoD logon banner prior to a logon attempt will negate legal proceedings resulting from unauthorized access to system resources. The SSH service must be configured to display the DoD logon warning banner either through the SSH configuration or a wrapper program such as TCP_WRAPPERS. The SSH daemon may also be used to provide SFTP service. The warning banner configuration for SSH will apply to SFTP.System AdministratorECWM-1
SV-37930r2_rule GEN005610 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The system must not have IP forwarding for IPv6 enabled, unless the system is an IPv6 router. If the system is configured for IP forwarding and is not a designated router, it could be used to bypass network security by providing a path for communication not filtered by network devices.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37940r1_rule GEN005750 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The Network File System (NFS) export configuration file must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. Failure to give group-ownership of the NFS export configuration file to root or a system group provides the designated group-owner and possible unauthorized users with the potential to change system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37851r1_rule GEN005810 CCI-000225 MEDIUM All Network File System (NFS) exported system files and system directories must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. Failure to give group-ownership of sensitive files or directories to root provides the members of the owning group with the potential to access sensitive information or change system configuration which could weaken the system's security posture.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37891r1_rule GEN006225 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Samba must be configured to use an authentication mechanism other than "share." Samba share authentication does not provide for individual user identification and must not be used.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37894r2_rule GEN006230 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Samba must be configured to use encrypted passwords. Samba must be configured to protect authenticators. If Samba passwords are not encrypted for storage, plain-text user passwords may be read by those with access to the Samba password file.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
SV-37896r1_rule GEN006235 CCI-000366 MEDIUM Samba must be configured to not allow guest access to shares. Guest access to shares permits anonymous access and is not permitted.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37761r1_rule GEN007020 CCI-000382 MEDIUM The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) must be disabled unless required. The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)-standardized transport layer protocol. This protocol is not yet widely used. Binding this protocol to the network stack increases the attack surface of the host. Unprivileged local processes may be able to cause the system to dynamically load a protocol handler by opening a socket using the protocol.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37763r1_rule GEN007080 CCI-000382 MEDIUM The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) must be disabled unless required. The DCCP is a proposed transport layer protocol. This protocol is not yet widely used. Binding this protocol to the network stack increases the attack surface of the host. Unprivileged local processes may be able to cause the system to dynamically load a protocol handler by opening a socket using the protocol.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-26887r1_rule GEN007260 CCI-000382 MEDIUM The AppleTalk protocol must be disabled or not installed. The AppleTalk suite of protocols is no longer in common use. Binding this protocol to the network stack increases the attack surface of the host. Unprivileged local processes may be able to cause the system to dynamically load a protocol handler by opening a socket using the protocol.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37603r1_rule GEN007480 CCI-000382 MEDIUM The Reliable Datagram Sockets (RDS) protocol must be disabled or not installed unless required. The RDS protocol is a relatively new protocol developed by Oracle for communication between the nodes of a cluster. Binding this protocol to the network stack increases the attack surface of the host. Unprivileged local processes may be able to cause the system to dynamically load a protocol handler by opening a socket using the protocol.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37604r1_rule GEN007540 CCI-000382 MEDIUM The Transparent Inter-Process Communication (TIPC) protocol must be disabled or uninstalled. The TIPC protocol is a relatively new cluster communications protocol developed by Ericsson. Binding this protocol to the network stack increases the attack surface of the host. Unprivileged local processes may be able to cause the system to dynamically load a protocol handler by opening a socket using the protocol.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37605r1_rule GEN007660 CCI-001551 MEDIUM The Bluetooth protocol handler must be disabled or not installed. Bluetooth is a Personal Area Network (PAN) technology. Binding this protocol to the network stack increases the attack surface of the host. Unprivileged local processes may be able to cause the kernel to dynamically load a protocol handler by opening a socket using the protocol.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37606r1_rule GEN007700 CCI-001551 MEDIUM The IPv6 protocol handler must not be bound to the network stack unless needed. IPv6 is the next version of the Internet protocol. Binding this protocol to the network stack increases the attack surface of the host.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37609r1_rule GEN007720 CCI-001551 MEDIUM The IPv6 protocol handler must be prevented from dynamic loading unless needed. IPv6 is the next generation of the Internet protocol. Binding this protocol to the network stack increases the attack surface of the host. Unprivileged local processes may be able to cause the system to dynamically load a protocol handler by opening a socket using the protocol.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37611r1_rule GEN007800 CCI-001551 MEDIUM The system must not have Teredo enabled. Teredo is an IPv6 transition mechanism involving tunneling IPv6 packets encapsulated in IPv4 packets. Unauthorized tunneling may circumvent network security.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-26933r2_rule GEN007850 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The DHCP client must not send dynamic DNS updates. Dynamic DNS updates transmit unencrypted information about a system including its name and address and should not be used unless needed.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37616r2_rule GEN007860 CCI-001551 MEDIUM The system must ignore IPv6 ICMP redirect messages. ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to inform hosts that a more direct route exists for a particular destination. These messages modify the host's route table and are unauthenticated. An illicit ICMP redirect message could result in a man-in-the-middle attack.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37632r1_rule GEN008020 CCI-000185 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information, the LDAP TLS connection must require the server provide a certificate with a valid trust path to a trusted CA. The NSS LDAP service provides user mappings which are a vital component of system security. Communication between an LDAP server and a host using LDAP for NSS require authentication.System AdministratorDCNR-1
SV-37634r1_rule GEN008040 CCI-000185 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information, the system must verify the LDAP server's certificate has not been revoked. LDAP can be used to provide user authentication and account information, which are vital to system security. Communication between an LDAP server and a host using LDAP requires authentication.System AdministratorDCNR-1
SV-37951r1_rule GEN008060 CCI-000225 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information the /etc/ldap.conf (or equivalent) file must have mode 0644 or less permissive. LDAP can be used to provide user authentication and account information, which are vital to system security. The LDAP client configuration must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37953r1_rule GEN008080 CCI-000225 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information, the /etc/ldap.conf (or equivalent) file must be owned by root. LDAP can be used to provide user authentication and account information, which are vital to system security. The LDAP client configuration must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37955r1_rule GEN008100 CCI-000225 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information, the /etc/ldap.conf (or equivalent) file must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. LDAP can be used to provide user authentication and account information, which are vital to system security. The LDAP client configuration must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37959r3_rule GEN008140 CCI-000225 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information, the TLS certificate authority file and/or directory (as appropriate) must be owned by root. LDAP can be used to provide user authentication and account information, which are vital to system security. The LDAP client configuration must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37961r1_rule GEN008160 CCI-000225 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information, the TLS certificate authority file and/or directory (as appropriate) must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. LDAP can be used to provide user authentication and account information, which are vital to system security. The LDAP client configuration must be protected from unauthorized modificationSystem AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37962r1_rule GEN008180 CCI-000225 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information, the TLS certificate authority file and/or directory (as appropriate) must have mode 0644 (0755 for directories) or less permissive. LDAP can be used to provide user authentication and account information, which are vital to system security. The LDAP client configuration must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37965r1_rule GEN008220 CCI-000225 MEDIUM For systems using NSS LDAP, the TLS certificate file must be owned by root. The NSS LDAP service provides user mappings which are a vital component of system security. Its configuration must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37967r1_rule GEN008240 CCI-000225 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information, the LDAP TLS certificate file must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. LDAP can be used to provide user authentication and account information, which are vital to system security. The LDAP client configuration must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37966r1_rule GEN008260 CCI-000225 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information, the LDAP TLS certificate file must have mode 0644 or less permissive. LDAP can be used to provide user authentication and account information, which are vital to system security. The LDAP client configuration must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37969r1_rule GEN008300 CCI-000225 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information, the LDAP TLS key file must be owned by root. LDAP can be used to provide user authentication and account information, which are vital to system security. The LDAP client configuration must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37971r1_rule GEN008320 CCI-000225 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information, the LDAP TLS key file must be group-owned by root, bin, or sys. LDAP can be used to provide user authentication and account information, which are vital to system security. The LDAP client configuration must be protected from unauthorized modification.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37973r1_rule GEN008340 CCI-000225 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information, the LDAP TLS key file must have mode 0600 or less permissive. LDAP can be used to provide user authentication and account information, which are vital to system security. The LDAP client configuration must be protected from unauthorized modification. Note: Depending on the particular implementation, group and other read permission may be necessary for unprivileged users to successfully resolve account information using LDAP. This will still be a finding, as these permissions provide users with access to system authenticators.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-37979r1_rule GEN008420 CCI-000366 LOW The system must use available memory address randomization techniques. Successful exploitation of buffer overflow vulnerabilities relies in some measure to having a predictable address structure of the executing program. Address randomization techniques reduce the probability of a successful exploit.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37980r2_rule GEN008440 CCI-000366 LOW Automated file system mounting tools must not be enabled unless needed. Automated file system mounting tools may provide unprivileged users with the ability to access local media and network shares. If this access is not necessary for the system's operation, it must be disabled to reduce the risk of unauthorized access to these resources.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37982r1_rule GEN008480 CCI-000366 LOW The system must have USB Mass Storage disabled unless needed. USB is a common computer peripheral interface. USB devices may include storage devices with the potential to install malicious software on a system or exfiltrate datatrueSystem AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37983r1_rule GEN008500 CCI-000366 LOW The system must have IEEE 1394 (Firewire) disabled unless needed. Firewire is a common computer peripheral interface. Firewire devices may include storage devices with the potential to install malicious software on a system or exfiltrate data.trueSystem AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37984r1_rule GEN008520 CCI-001118 MEDIUM The system must employ a local firewall. A local firewall protects the system from exposing unnecessary or undocumented network services to the local enclave. If a system within the enclave is compromised, firewall protection on an individual system continues to protect it from attack.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-26978r1_rule GEN000000-LNX00800 CCI-000032 LOW The system must use a Linux Security Module configured to limit the privileges of system services. Linux Security Modules such as SELinux and AppArmor can be used to provide protection from software exploits by explicitly defining the privileges permitted to each software package.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-26986r1_rule GEN008760 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The system's boot loader configuration files must be owned by root. The system's boot loader configuration files are critical to the integrity of the system and must be protected. Unauthorized modification of these files resulting from improper ownership could compromise the system's boot loader configuration.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-26988r1_rule GEN008780 CCI-000225 MEDIUM The system's boot loader configuration file(s) must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. The system's boot loader configuration files are critical to the integrity of the system and must be protected. Unauthorized modifications resulting from improper group ownership may compromise the boot loader configuration.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-27001r1_rule GEN000000-LNX00720 CCI-000032 LOW Auditing must be enabled at boot by setting a kernel parameter. If auditing is enabled late in the boot process, the actions of startup scripts may not be audited. Some audit systems also maintain state information only available if auditing is enabled before a given process is created.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37926r1_rule GEN005590 CCI-000366 MEDIUM The system must not be running any routing protocol daemons, unless the system is a router. Routing protocol daemons are typically used on routers to exchange network topology information with other routers. If this software is used when not required, system network information may be unnecessarily transmitted across the network.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37914r1_rule GEN002690 CCI-000162 MEDIUM System audit logs must be group-owned by root, bin, sys, or system. Sensitive system and user information could provide a malicious user with enough information to penetrate further into the system.System AdministratorECLP-1, ECTP-1
SV-37641r1_rule GEN003621 CCI-001208 LOW The system must use a separate file system for /var. The use of separate file systems for different paths can protect the system from failures resulting from a file system becoming full or failing.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37642r1_rule GEN003623 CCI-001208 LOW The system must use a separate file system for the system audit data path. The use of separate file systems for different paths can protect the system from failures resulting from a file system becoming full or failing.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37395r1_rule GEN003624 CCI-001208 LOW The system must use a separate file system for /tmp (or equivalent). The use of separate file systems for different paths can protect the system from failures resulting from a file system becoming full or failing.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37594r1_rule GEN003601 CCI-000366 MEDIUM TCP backlog queue sizes must be set appropriately. To provide some mitigation to TCP Denial of Service attacks, the TCP backlog queue sizes must be set to at least 1280 or in accordance with product-specific guidelines.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37514r2_rule GEN004710 CCI-001305 MEDIUM Mail relaying must be restricted. If unrestricted mail relaying is permitted, unauthorized senders could use this host as a mail relay for the purpose of sending SPAM or other unauthorized activity.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37621r2_rule GEN007960 CCI-000305 MEDIUM The 'ldd' command must be disabled unless it protects against the execution of untrusted files. The 'ldd' command provides a list of dependent libraries needed by a given binary, which is useful for troubleshooting software. Instead of parsing the binary file, some 'ldd' implementations invoke the program with a special environment variable set, which causes the system dynamic linker to display the list of libraries. Specially crafted binaries can specify an alternate dynamic linker which may cause a program to be executed instead of examined. If the program is from an untrusted source, such as in a user home directory, or a file suspected of involvement in a system compromise, unauthorized software may be executed with the rights of the user running 'ldd'. Some 'ldd' implementations include protections that prevent the execution of untrusted files. Recent RHEL 5 glibc RPMs also protect against the execution of untrusted files. If such protections exist, this requirement is not applicable. An acceptable method of disabling 'ldd' is changing its mode to 0000. The SA may conduct troubleshooting by temporarily changing the mode to allow execution and running the 'ldd' command as an unprivileged user upon trusted system binaries.System AdministratorECSC-1
SV-37948r4_rule GEN002870 CCI-000136 LOW The system must be configured to send audit/system records to a remote audit server. System/Audit records contain evidence that can be used in the investigation of compromised systems. To prevent this evidence from compromise, it must be sent to a separate system continuously. Methods for sending audit records include, but are not limited to, system audit tools used to send logs directly to another host or through the system's syslog service to another host.System AdministratorECTB-1
SV-37643r3_rule GEN008050 CCI-000196 MEDIUM If the system is using LDAP for authentication or account information, the /etc/ldap.conf file (or equivalent) must not contain passwords. The authentication of automated LDAP connections between systems must not use passwords since more secure methods are available, such as PKI and Kerberos. Additionally, the storage of unencrypted passwords on the system is not permitted.System AdministratorIAIA-2, IAIA-1
SV-37938r1_rule GEN008710 CCI-000213 MEDIUM The system boot loader must protect passwords using an MD5 or stronger cryptographic hash. If system boot loader passwords are compromised, users with console access to the system may be able to alter the system boot configuration or boot the system into single user or maintenance mode, which could result in Denial of Service or unauthorized privileged access to the system.System AdministratorIAIA-1, IAIA-2
SV-34574r1_rule GEN000290-2 CCI-000012 MEDIUM The system must not have the unnecessary "news" account. Accounts that provide no operational purpose provide additional opportunities for system compromise. Unnecessary accounts include user accounts for individuals not requiring access to the system and application accounts for applications not installed on the system.System AdministratorIAAC-1
SV-34575r1_rule GEN000290-3 CCI-000012 MEDIUM The system must not have the unnecessary "gopher" account. Accounts that provide no operational purpose provide additional opportunities for system compromise. Unnecessary accounts include user accounts for individuals not requiring access to the system and application accounts for applications not installed on the system.System AdministratorIAAC-1
SV-34578r1_rule GEN000290-4 CCI-000012 MEDIUM The system must not have the unnecessary "ftp" account. Accounts that provide no operational purpose provide additional opportunities for system compromise. Unnecessary accounts include user accounts for individuals not requiring access to the system and application accounts for applications not installed on the system.System AdministratorIAAC-1
SV-48550r1_rule GEN000500-2 CCI-000057 MEDIUM The graphical desktop environment must set the idle timeout to no more than 15 minutes. If graphical desktop sessions do not lock the session after 15 minutes of inactivity, requiring re-authentication to resume operations, the system or individual data could be compromised by an alert intruder who could exploit the oversight. This requirement applies to graphical desktop environments provided by the system to locally attached displays and input devices as well as to graphical desktop environments provided to remote systems, including thin clients.System AdministratorPESL-1
SV-48551r1_rule GEN000500-3 CCI-000057 MEDIUM Graphical desktop environments provided by the system must have automatic lock enabled. If graphical desktop sessions do not lock the session after 15 minutes of inactivity, requiring re-authentication to resume operations, the system or individual data could be compromised by an alert intruder who could exploit the oversight. This requirement applies to graphical desktop environments provided by the system to locally attached displays and input devices as well as to graphical desktop environments provided to remote systems, including thin clients.System AdministratorPESL-1
SV-37612r2_rule GEN002720-2 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit failed attempts to access files and programs. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-3, ECAR-2, ECAR-1
SV-37614r2_rule GEN002720-3 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit failed attempts to access files and programs. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-3, ECAR-1, ECAR-2
SV-37654r2_rule GEN002720-4 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit failed attempts to access files and programs. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-3, ECAR-2
SV-37655r2_rule GEN002720-5 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit failed attempts to access files and programs. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-3, ECAR-2
SV-37656r1_rule GEN002740-2 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit file deletions. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-3, ECAR-1
SV-48474r1_rule GEN002760-2 CCI-000347 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all administrative, privileged, and security actions. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-3, ECAR-1
SV-37658r2_rule GEN002760-3 CCI-000347 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all administrative, privileged, and security actions. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-3, ECAR-2
SV-37659r1_rule GEN002760-4 CCI-000347 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all administrative, privileged, and security actions. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-3, ECAR-2, ECAR-1
SV-37660r3_rule GEN002760-5 CCI-000347 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all administrative, privileged, and security actions. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-3, ECAR-2, ECAR-1
SV-37661r1_rule GEN002760-6 CCI-000347 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all administrative, privileged, and security actions. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-3, ECAR-1
SV-37662r1_rule GEN002760-7 CCI-000347 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all administrative, privileged, and security actions. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-3, ECAR-1, ECAR-2
SV-37663r1_rule GEN002760-8 CCI-000347 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all administrative, privileged, and security actions. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
SV-37664r1_rule GEN002760-9 CCI-000347 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all administrative, privileged, and security actions. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
SV-37665r1_rule GEN002760-10 CCI-000347 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all administrative, privileged, and security actions. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-3, ECAR-1, ECAR-2
SV-37666r1_rule GEN002820-2 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-3, ECAR-1
SV-37667r1_rule GEN002820-3 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-3, ECAR-1, ECAR-2
SV-37668r1_rule GEN002820-4 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
SV-37669r1_rule GEN002820-5 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-3, ECAR-2
SV-37671r1_rule GEN002820-6 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-1, ECAR-3
SV-37673r1_rule GEN002820-7 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-3, ECAR-1
SV-37677r1_rule GEN002820-8 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-1, ECAR-3
SV-37681r1_rule GEN002820-9 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-3, ECAR-2
SV-37716r1_rule GEN002820-10 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-1, ECAR-2, ECAR-3
SV-37718r1_rule GEN002820-11 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-1, ECAR-3
SV-37719r1_rule GEN002820-12 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-1, ECAR-3
SV-37726r1_rule GEN002820-13 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit all discretionary access control permission modifications. If the system is not configured to audit certain activities and write them to an audit log, it is more difficult to detect and track system compromises and damages incurred during a system compromise.System AdministratorECAR-3, ECAR-2, ECAR-1
SV-37728r1_rule GEN002825-2 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit the loading and unloading of dynamic kernel modules - delete_module. Actions concerning dynamic kernel modules must be recorded as they are substantial events. Dynamic kernel modules can increase the attack surface of a system. A malicious kernel module can be used to substantially alter the functioning of a system, often with the purpose of hiding a compromise from the SA.System AdministratorECAR-3, ECAR-2, ECAR-1
SV-37734r2_rule GEN002825-3 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit the loading and unloading of dynamic kernel modules - /sbin/insmod. Actions concerning dynamic kernel modules must be recorded as they are substantial events. Dynamic kernel modules can increase the attack surface of a system. A malicious kernel module can be used to substantially alter the functioning of a system, often with the purpose of hiding a compromise from the SA.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-1, ECAR-3
SV-37738r2_rule GEN002825-4 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit the loading and unloading of dynamic kernel modules -/sbin/modprobe. Actions concerning dynamic kernel modules must be recorded as they are substantial events. Dynamic kernel modules can increase the attack surface of a system. A malicious kernel module can be used to substantially alter the functioning of a system, often with the purpose of hiding a compromise from the SA.System AdministratorECAR-3, ECAR-2, ECAR-1
SV-37741r2_rule GEN002825-5 CCI-000126 MEDIUM The audit system must be configured to audit the loading and unloading of dynamic kernel modules - /sbin/rmmod Actions concerning dynamic kernel modules must be recorded as they are substantial events. Dynamic kernel modules can increase the attack surface of a system. A malicious kernel module can be used to substantially alter the functioning of a system, often with the purpose of hiding a compromise from the SA.System AdministratorECAR-2, ECAR-1, ECAR-3
SV-37745r1_rule GEN003080-2 CCI-000225 MEDIUM Files in cron script directories must have mode 0700 or less permissive. To protect the integrity of scheduled system jobs and prevent malicious modification to these jobs, crontab files must be secured.System AdministratorECLP-1
SV-72967r1_rule GEN005527 CCI-000766 MEDIUM The SSH daemon must not allow host-based authentication. SSH trust relationships mean a compromise on one host can allow an attacker to move trivially to other hosts.